• Title, Summary, Keyword: PCDD/DFs

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Content characteristics of persistent organic pollutants waste from paint, iron making and steel making process (국내 도료 및 제철·제강산업 발생 폐기물 중 잔류성 유기오염물질류의 함량 특성 -PCDD/DFs, PAHs, PCBs-)

  • Kim, Dong-Un;Kim, Woo-Il;Kang, Young-Yeul;Lee, Dong-Jin;Jeong, Seong-Kyeong;Cho, Yoon-A;Yeon, Jin-Mo;Shin, Sun-Kyoung;Oh, Gil-Jong
    • Analytical Science and Technology
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    • v.24 no.5
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    • pp.395-400
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    • 2011
  • This study has been carried out in order to effectively manage three groups of unregulated hazardous organic substances (PCDD/DFs, PAHs, PCBs) in South Korea. The investigated substances have been analyzed according to the test methods for hazardous substances in specified wastes provided by the National Institute of Environmental Research, Korea. Total contents of the organic compounds have been determined for hazardous wastes from three major industrial categories (paint, iron removal, steelmaking), such as waste organic solvent, waste paint or dust. By investigating the waste samples for 7 PAHs using GC/MSD, Naphthalene has been detected (N.D~1631.33 mg/kg). The highest Naphthalene concentration, which exceeded the korean marine dumping waste standard, was found in waste organic solvents and waste paints. Although a content analysis of 7 PCB isomers has been conducted, none of these compounds was detected. The analysis of PCDD/DFs has revealed that all samples meet the criterion for low POP content defined in the technical guidelines developed under the Basel Convention. The PCDD/DFs content in dust samples deriving from 10 manufacturing processes (billet, bloom) was determined to be in the range of N.D~5.66 ng I-TEQ/g waste.

Exposure Assessment of PCDD/Fs and Monitoring of Health Effects on Workers and Resident near the Waste Incinerators in Korea (국내 일부 소각장 근로자와 주변지역주민들의 PCDDs/Fs 노출과 건강 영향 평가)

  • Hong, Yun-Chul;Lee, Kwan-Hee;Kwon, Ho-Jang;Jang, Jae-Yeon;Leem, Jong-Han
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.36 no.4
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    • pp.314-322
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    • 2003
  • Objectives : In this study, the exposure status of the hazardous substances from incinerators, such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), were studied , and the relationship between the exposure of these hazardous substances and their heath effects on the workers and residents near municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerators and an industrial incinerator investigated. Methods : Between July 2001 and Jure 2002, 13 workers at two MSW incinerators, 16 residents from the area around the two MSW incinerators, 6 residents from the control area, and further 10 residents near an industrial incinerator, estimated to emit higher levels of hazardous substances, were interviewed. Information, including sociodemographic information, personal habits, and work history, detailed gynecologic and other medical history were collected through interviews. Blood samples were also collected from 45 subjects, and analyzed for PCDD/DFs, by high resolution gas chromatography -high resolution mass spectrometry, using the US EPA 1613 method. In addition to the questionnaire survey, urinary concentrations of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured as oxidative injury biomarkers. The urinary concentrations of 8-OH-dG were determined by in vitro ELISA, and the MDA by HPLC, using u adduct with thiobarbituric acid. Results : The PCDD/DFs concentrations in the residents near the industrial incinerator were higher than those in the controls, workers and residents near the MSW incinerators. The average TEQ (Toxic Equivalencies) concentrations of the PCDD/DFs in residents near the industrial incinerator were 53.4pg I-TEQs/g lipid. The estimated daily intakes were within the tolerable daily intake range (1-4 pg I-TEQ/Kg bw/day) suggested by WHO (1997) in only 30% to the people near the industrial incinerator. Animal studies have already shown that even a low body border of PCDD/DFs, such as 10 ng TEQ/kg bw, can cause oxidative damage in laboratory animals. Our study also showed that the same body burden of PCDD/DFs can cause oxidative damage to humans. Conclusions : The exposures to PCDD/DFs and the oxidative stress of residents near the industrial incinerator, were higher than those in the controls, workers and residents near the MSW incinerators. Proper protection strategies against these hazardous chemicals are needed. Because a lower body burden of PCDD/Fs, such as 10ng TEQ/kg bw, can cause oxidative damage, the tolerable daily intake range should be restrictedly limited to 1pg I-TEQ/kg bw/day.

Annual Variation and Gas/Particie Partitioning of PCDD/DFs of Ambient Air at Busan, Korea (부산의 대기 중 PCDD/DFs의 연간 변화와 가스/입자상 분배)

  • Ok, Gon;Park, No-Jin;Hwang, Sung-Min;Lee, Seok-Hyung;Kim, Jee-Hoon;Kim, Sung-Yong
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.447-457
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    • 2010
  • This study aims to monitor the variation of concentration of PCDD/DFs between the gaseous phase-particulate phases in the ambient air of urban area in Korea. This monitoring is evaluated by using the Junge-Pankow model and the Koa absorption model with the application of the Octanol-air partition coefficient. In this study, the ambient air samples were analyzed according to each congener group of the PCDD/DFs by HRGC/HRMS, which have been investigated for the past 5 years. In the results, the annual variation in the concentration level of $\Sigma$PCDD/DFs in TSP was increased from $1588\;fg/m^3$ in 1998 to $5123\;fg/m^3$ in 2002, and from 31 fg I-TEQ/$m^3$ to 94 fg I-TEQ/$m^3$ in the $\Sigma$I-TEQ. In the case of PUF of gaseous phase sample, their variation was increased from $1615\;fg/m^3$ in 1998 to $2237\;fg/m^3$ in 2002, and in the $\Sigma$I-TEQ from 12 fg I-TEQ/$m^3$ to 17 fg I-TEQ/$m^3$. The relative coefficient between the gas phase concentration of PCDD/DFs and the temperature was a value of 0.744; the contributive rate of the temperature to the gaseous phase concentration was 0.554. According to the results, the pattern of the coefficient of distribution based on log $p_L^0$ is similar to the ambient air of the urban areas.

PCDDs and DFs concentrations from the fly ash and bottom ash of industrial waste incinerators in Korean (산업폐기물 소각장의 바닥재와 비산재에서 PCDDs와 DFs 농도)

  • Kim, Ki-Woong;Won, Yong Lim;Ko, Kyung Sun;Choi, Yoon Jung;Lee, Sung Kwang
    • Analytical Science and Technology
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    • v.27 no.6
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    • pp.347-351
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    • 2014
  • This study determinated the polychlorinated dibenzo-${\rho}$-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs and DFs) in fly ash and bottom ash of industrial waste incinerators. Experimental results showed that average PCDDs and DFs concentrations in fly ash were 4.5063 and 13.004 ng-TEQ/g, and in bottom ash were 0.2367 and 0.0993 ng-TEQ/g, respectively. Predominant congener in TEQ of PCDDs/DFs from fly ash were 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDD, OCDD, 2,3,4,6,7,8-HxCDF, 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF and in bottom ash were 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD and 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF.

Contamination level and congener profiles of PCBs, Co-PCBs and PCDD/DFs in transformer insulation oil samples (변압기 절연유 중 PCBs, Co-PCBs 및 PCDD/PCDFs 오염수준 및 이성체 분포)

  • Kim, Kyoung-Soo;Kim, Jong-Guk;Shin, Sun-Kyoung;Kim, Kyoung-Sim;Song, Byung-Joo
    • Analytical Science and Technology
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.263-271
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    • 2006
  • The levels of total PCBs, Co-PCBs and PCDD/Fs in the transformer insulation oil samples obtained using GC/ECD and HRGC/HRMS were ranged from N.D. to 77.3 ppm, from 0.0863 to 2.49 ppm and from N.D. to 0.00241 ppm, respectively. In terms of WHO-TEQ values, Co-PCBs and PCDD/Fs were ranged from 23.3 to 600 pgTEQ/g and from N.D. to 128 pgTEQ/g, respectively (${\Sigma}Co$-PCBs+PCDD/Fs concentration was calculated 24.4~728 pgTEQ/g). Although, the contribution of PCDD/Fs was below 12% in total TEQ concentration, it is suggested contamination of PCDD/Fs in transformer insulation oils. Among 10 samples, 4 samples showed higher concentration than 2 ppm (specific waste criterion of Korea) and Aroclor 1242, 1248, 1254 and 1260 was detected in samples as a single or mixture of Aroclor. It was shown reliable relationship between concentration of Co-PCBs and those of PCDD/Fs (p<0.003), however, was not shown between production year of transformer and concentration of PCBs. The distribution pattern of Co-PCB congeners showed that the ratios of mono-ortho substituted congeners were higher than non-ortho substituted congeners. Among that, PCB-118 congener was predominant. In addition, the OCDD congener was predominated in PCDD/Fs congeners as above 53%. Moreover, the congener pattern of Co-PCBs was similar to that of Aroclor as well as ambient air, which suggested that PCBs volatilization from transformer insulation oil affected the pattern of Co-PCBs in ambient air.

Characteristics of Contamination and Fate for PCDD/Fs in Ambient Air, Cheongju (청주지역 대기 중 PCDD/Fs 오염특성 및 거동)

  • Kim, Kyoung-Soo
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.31 no.4
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    • pp.294-299
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    • 2009
  • To investigate the pollution levels and behavior of PCDD/Fs in ambient air, gaseous and particulate phase concentrations were measured at Cheongju city in 2008. The samples were collected at 3 sites (industrial, residential/commercial and rural region) by season (winter, spring and summer). The concentrations and TEQ concentrations of PCDD/DFs ranged from 0.73 to 2.43 pg/$m^3$ and from 0.007 to 0.122 pg TEQ/$m^3$, respectively. These levels were similar or lower than that of other domestic researches (from n.d. to 2.149 pg TEQ/$m^3$). The concentration of PCDD/Fs in particulate phase (from 54% to 98% against total concentration) were higher than that of gas phase. As a results of comparison of congener patterns and statistical analysis, PCDD/Fs was mainly influenced by a combustion process in ambient air, Cheongju city.

Concentration and Characteristics of PCDDs/DFs in Soil at Cheongju City (청주시 토양 중 다이옥신 농도 및 특성)

  • Kim, Kyoung-Soo;Kim, Kyeo-Keun
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.31 no.5
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    • pp.346-351
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    • 2009
  • To investigate concentration and characteristics of dioxins in soil at Cheongju city, total 28 soil samples were collected. The total and I-TEQ concentration of 17 PCDDs/DFs ranged from 2.30 to 630.40 pg/g dry weight and from 0.002 to 9.79 pg I-TEQ/g dry weight with averages of 55.42 pg/g and 1.13 pg I-TEQ/g, respectively. These levels are very lower than those of around various incinerators in Korea (from n.d. to 153.23 with average value of 7.36 I-TEQ/g). The correlation between total concentration and TEQ concentration showed significant with 99% confidence interval (p-value < 0.001). The TEQ concentration as land use was high as follows; industrial area> green area> residential and commercial area> farm land. In terms of congener distribution, OCDD which is highly detected in general soil samples, was predominant and showed various fraction (from 23 to 100%). The ratios of PCDF concentration against to PCDD concentration varied as samples (from 0.1 to 2.4).

Residue and Risk Assessment of Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin/dibenzofurans in the Korean Population (다이옥신류에 의한 한국인의 폭로 현황 및 리스크 평가)

  • Kang, Youn-Seok;Park, Jong-Sei;Min, Byung-Yoon
    • Analytical Science and Technology
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.270-286
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    • 2002
  • The human adipose and milk samples analyzed in this study were collected at hospitals in Seoul, Masan and Jinju. The mean values of International Dioxin Toxic Equivalents (I-TEQ) of PCDDs and PCDFs in human adipose samples from the three regions were calculated as 9 pg I-TEQ/g(0.2 ~ 30 pg TEQ/g, lipid weight basis) and 8 pg I-TEQ/g (0.8 ~ 25 pg TEQ/g), respectively. The residue levels of PCDDs-TEQ and PCDFs-TEQ in human milk collected from Masan were 13 pg I-TEQ/g (lipid wt.) and 4.8 pg I-TEQ/g, respectively. On the whole, the contamination levels of these compounds in the Korean population were lower than those in the other countries. Based on the analytical data and assuming a daily intake consumption of 800 mL milk with 3% fat, the average daily intake of PCDDs/DFs via human milk for a baby weighing 5 Kg could be calculated. The daily intake of PCDDs/DFs via breast-feeding was estimated to be 39 pg/kg body weight/day for 2,3,7,8-TeCDD and 86 pg/kg/day for TEQ. These levels are far above all virtually safe dose(VSD) or tolerable daily intake(TDI) values proposed by health authorities in various countries, ranging from 0.001(US EPA) to 4 pg/kag/day (WHO).