• Title/Summary/Keyword: PCE

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The Characteristics of Tetrachloroethylene (PCE) Degradation by Pseudomonas putida BJ10 (Pseudomonas putida BJ10의 Tetrachloroethylene (PCE) 분해 특성)

  • Choi, Myung-Hoon;Kim, Jai-Soo;Lee, Sang-Seob
    • Korean Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.44 no.4
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    • pp.311-316
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    • 2008
  • In this study, biological PCE degradation by using a BTEX degrading bacterium, named BJ10, under aerobic conditions in the presence of toluene was examined. According to morphological, physiological characteristics, 16S rDNA sequencing and fatty acid analysis, BJ10 was classified as Pseudomonas putida. As a result of biological PCE degradation at low PCE concentrations (5 mg/L), PCE removal efficiency by P. putida BJ10 was 52.8% for 10 days, and PCE removal rate was 5.9 nmol/hr (toluene concentration 50 mg/L, initial cell density 1.0 g (wet weight)/L, temperature 30, pH 7 and DO $3.0{\sim}4.2\;mg/L$. At high PCE concentration (100 mg/L), PCE removal efficiency by P. putida BJ10 was 20.3% for 10 days, and PCE removal rate was 46.0 nmol/hr under the same conditions. The effects of various toluene concentration (5, 25, 50, 100, 200 mg/L) on PCE degradation were examined under the same incubation conditions. The highest PCE removal efficiency of PCE was 57.0% in the initial PCE concentration of 10 mg/L in the presence of 200 mg/L toluene for 10 days. Furthermore, the additional injection of 5.5 mg/L PCE (total 7.6 mg/L) made 63.0% degradation for 8 days in the presence of 50 mg/L toluene under the same conditions. Its removal rate was 13.5 nmol/hr, which was better than the initial removal rate (8.1 nmol/hr).

Measurement of Gas-Accessible PCE Saturation in Unsaturated Soil using Gas Tracers during the Removal of PCE (토양 내 PCE 제거과정에서 가스 분배추적자기법을 이용한 공기노출 PCE의 잔류량 검출)

  • Kim, Heon-Ki;Kwon, Han-Joon;Song, Young-Soo
    • Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment
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    • v.16 no.5
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    • pp.42-52
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    • 2011
  • In this laboratory study, the changes in gas-exposed perchloroethene (PCE) saturation in sand during a PCE removal process were measured using gaseous tracers. The flux of fresh air through a glass column packed with PCEcontaminated, partially water-saturated sand drove the removal of PCE from the column. During the removal of PCE, methane, n-pentane, difluoromethane and chloroform were used as the non-reactive, PCE-partitioning, water-partitioning, and PCE and water-partitioning tracers, respectively. N-pentane was used to detect the PCE fraction exposed to the mobile gas. At water saturation of 0.11, only 65% of the PCE was found to be exposed to the mobile gas prior to the removal of PCE, as calculated from the n-pentane retardation factor. More PCE than that detected by n-pentane was depleted from the column due to volatilization through the aqueous phase. However, the ratio of gas-exposed to total PCE decreased on the removal of PCE, implying gas-exposed PCE was preferentially removed by vaporization. These results suggest that the water-insoluble, PCE-partitioning tracer (n-pentane in this study), along with other tracers, can be used to investigate the changes in fluid (including nonaqueous phase liquid) saturation and the removal mechanism during the remediation process.

Anaerobic Reductive Dechlorination of Tetrachloroethylene (PCE) in Two-in-series Semi-continuous Soil Columns (반연속 흐름 2단 토양 컬럼에서의 사염화 에틸렌(PCE)의 혐기성 환원탈염소화)

  • Ahn, Young-Ho;Choi, Jeong-Dong;Kim, Young;Kwon, Soo-Youl;Park, Hoo-Won
    • Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.68-76
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    • 2006
  • Anaerobic reductive dechlorination of tetrachloroethylene (PCE) to ethylene was investigated by performing laboratory experiments using semi-continuous flow two-in-series soil columns. The columns were packed with soils obtained from TCE-contaminated site in Korea. Site ground water containing lactate (as electron donor and/or carbon source) and PCE was pumped into the soil columns. During the first operation with a period of 50 days, injected mass ratio of lactate and PCE was 620:1 and incomplete reductive dechlorination of PCE to cis-DCE was observed in the columns. However, complete dechlorination of PCE to ethylene was observed when the mass ratio increased to 5,050:1 in the second operation, suggesting that the electron donor might be limited during the first operation period. Dechlorination rate of PCE to cis-DCE was $0.62{\sim}1.94\;{\mu}mol$ PCE/L pore volume/d and $2.76\;{\mu}mol$ cis-DCE/ L pore volume/d for that for cis-DCE to ethylene, resulting that net dechlorination rate in the system was 1.43 umol PCE/L pore volume/d. During the degradation of cis-DCE to ethylene, the concentration of hydrogen in column groundwater was $22{\sim}29\;mM$ and $10{\sim}64\;mM$ for the degradation of PCE to cis-DCE. These positive results indicate that the TCE-contaminated groundwater investigated in this study could be remediated through in-situ biological anaerobic reductive dechlorination processes.

Effect of PCE superplasticizers on rheological and strength properties of high strength self-consolidating concrete

  • Bauchkar, S.D.;Chore, H.S.
    • Advances in concrete construction
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    • v.6 no.6
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    • pp.561-583
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    • 2018
  • A variety of polycarboxylate ether (PCE)-based superplasticizers are commercially available. Their influence on the rheological retention and slump loss in respect of concrete differ considerably. Fluidity and slump loss are the cardinal features responsible for the quality of concrete. These are related to the dispersion of cement particles and the hydration process which are greatly influenced by type of polycarboxylate ether (PCE)-based superplasticizers. On the backdrop of relatively less studies in the context of rheological retention of high strength self-consolidating concrete (HS-SCC), the experimental investigations were carried out aiming at quantifying the effect of the six different PCE polymers (PCE 1-6) on the rheological retention of HS-SCC mixes containing two types of Ordinary Portland Cements (OPC) and unwashed crushed sand as the fine aggregate. The tests that were carried out included $T_{500}$, V-Funnel, yield stress and viscosity retention tests. The supplementary cementitious materials such as fly ash (FA) and micro-silica (MS) were also used in ternary blend keeping the mix paste volume and flow of concrete constant. Low water to binder ratio was used. The results reveal that not only the PCEs of different polymer groups behave differently, but even the PCEs of same polymer groups also behave differently. The study also indicates that the HS-SCC mixes containing PCE 6 and PCE 5 performed better as compared to the mixes containing PCE 1, PCE 2, PCE 3 and PCE 4 in respect of all the rheological tests. The PCE 6 is a new class of chemical admixtures known as Polyaryl Ether (PAE) developed by BASF to provide better rheological properties in even in HS-SCC mixes at low water to binder mix. In the present study, the PCE 6, is found to help not only in reduction in the plastic viscosity and yield stress, but also provide good rheological retention over the period of 180 minutes. Further, the early compressive strength properties (one day compressive strength) highly depend on the type of PCE polymer. The side chain length of PCE polymer and the fineness of the cement considerably affect the early strength gain.

A Study on Persulfate Oxidation to Remove Chlorinated Solvents (TCE/PCE) (과황산(persulfate) 산화반응을 이용한 염소계 화합물(TCE, PCE) 분해에 관한 연구)

  • Song, Kyoung-Ho;Do, Si-Hyun;Lee, Hong-Kyun;Jo, Young-Hoon;Kong, Sung-Ho
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.31 no.7
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    • pp.549-556
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    • 2009
  • In situ chemical oxidations (ISCO) are technologies for destruction of many contaminants in soil and groundwater, and persulfate has been recently studied as an alternative ISCO oxidant. Trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene (PCE) were chosen for target organic compounds. The objective of this study is to demonstrate the influence of initial pH (3, 6, 9, 12), oxidant concentrations (0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 0.3, 0.5 M), and contaminants concentrations (10, 30, 50, 70, 100 mg/L) on TCE/PCE degradation by persulfate oxidation. The maximum TCE/PCE degradation occurred at pH 3, and the removal efficiencies with this pH condition were 93.2 and 89.3%, respectively. The minimum TCE/PCE degradation occurred at pH 12, and the removal efficiencies were 55.0 and 31.2%, respectively. This indicated that degradation of TCE/PCE decreased with increasing the initial pH of solution. Degradation of TCE/PCE increased with increasing the concentration of persulfate and with decreasing the concentration of contaminants (TCE/PCE). The optimum conditions for TCE/PCE degradation were pH 3, 0.5 M of persulfate solution, and 10 mg/L of contaminant concentration. At these conditions, the first-order rate constants ($k_{obs}$) for TCE and PCE were 1.04 and 1.31 $h^{-1}$, respectively.

Degradation of Tetrachloroethylene (PCE) by a Dechlorinating Enrichment Culture Fixed in an Anaerobic Reactor (탈염소화 미생물 부착 혐기성 고정막 반응기에 의한 테트라클로로에틸렌(PCE)의 분해)

  • Lee Tae Ho
    • Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment
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    • v.9 no.3
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    • pp.49-55
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    • 2004
  • A soil enrichment LYF-1 culture from a contaminated site, which could reductively dechlorinate 900 $\mu$M (ca. 150 mg/L) of tetrachloroethylene (PCE) stoichimetrically into cis-1,2-dichloroethylene (cis-DCE), was established and characterized. The enrichment culture can use yeast extract, peptone, formate, acetate, lactate, pyruvate, citrate, succinate, glucose, sucrose, and ethanol as electron donors for dechlorination of PCE. Addition of NO$_2$$^{[-10]}$ and NO$_3$$^{[-10]}$ as alternative electron acceptors showed complete inhibition of PCE dechlorination, but S$_2$O$_3$$^{-2}$ , SO$_3$$^{-2}$ and SO$_4$$^{-2}$ had no significant effect on PCE dechlorination. The enrichment culture was attached to ceramic media in an anaerobic fixed-bed reactor. The fixed-bed reactor showed more than 99% of PCE degradation in the range of PCE loading rate of 0.13-0.78 $\mu$moles/L/hr. The major end product of PCE dechlorination was cis-DCE.

A Study on the TCE/PCE Removal Using Biofiltration and the Microbial Communities Variation Using DGGE Method (생물 여과를 이용한 TCE/PCE제거 및 DGGE법을 이용한 관련미생물 군집변화에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Eung-In;Park, Ok-Hyun;Jung, In-Gyung
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.30 no.11
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    • pp.1161-1169
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    • 2008
  • The removals of TCE and PCE vapor with or without a supply of toluene as a primary substrate were compared in a biofiltration process, and the variations of microbial communities associated with the removal were also investigated. As a result of investigations on the removals of TCE/PCE in a biofilter B within which TCE/PCE-acclimated sludge was attached on the surface of media without a supply of primary substrate, and those in another biofilter A where toluene-acclimated sludge was attached with a supply of toluene as a primary substrate, followings were found: (i) parts of microbes responsible to the decomposition of toluene vapor participate in the removal of chlorinated VOCs such as TCE and PCE, and (ii) effective biological removals of TCE and PCE vapor do not necessarily need cometabolism. Sequencing of 16S rDNA obtained from the band profile of DGGE (Denaturating Gradient Gel Electrophoresis), it was confirmed that: (i) uncultured alpha proteobacterium, uncultured Desulfitobacterium, uncultured Rhodobacteraceae bacterium, Cupriavidus necator, and Pseudomonas putida were found to be toluene-decomposing microbes, (ii) alpha proteobacterium HTCC396 is a TCE-removing microbe, (iii) Desulfitobacterium sp. is a PCE-decomposing microbe, and (iv) particularly, uncultured Desulfitobacterium sp. is probably a microbe decomposable not only toluene but also various chlorinated VOC vapor including TCE and PCE.

PCE, TCE로 오염된 지하수내 미생물 특성 및 분포

  • 권수열;김진욱;박후원;이진우;김영
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Soil and Groundwater Environment Conference
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    • 2004.04a
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    • pp.158-161
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    • 2004
  • Chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs) especially perchlorethylene (PCE) and trichlooethylene (TCE) are common groundwater contaminants in Korea. PCE and TCE were often reductively dechiorinated in an aquifer. Several isolates dechlorinate PCE to TCE or cis-1,2 dichloroethylene (c-DCE) were obtained from contaminated and pristine sites in USA and Europe. However in Korea, no information on indigenous microorganism being involved in reductive dechlorination of PCE and TCE is available and different dechlorinating microorganisms might be reside in Korea, since geochemical, and hydrogeological conditions are different, compared to those in the other sites. So we evaluate that: 1) if reductive dechlorinating microorganisms are present in PCE-contaminated site in Korea, 2) if so, what kinds of microorganisms are present; 3) to what extent PCE is reductively dechlorinated. As a results in some PCE-contaminated aquifers in Korea other dechlorinating microorganisms but Dehalococcoides ethenogenes may be responsible for PCE dechlorination. More detailed molecular works are required to evaluate that different dechlorinating microorganisms would reside in Korea.

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Biochemical and molecular characterization of a tetrachloroethylene (PCE) dechlorinating Clostridium bifermentans DPH-1

  • Chang, Young-Cheol;Toyama, Tadashi;Kikuchi, Shintaro
    • Journal of environmental and Sanitary engineering
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.1-18
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    • 2008
  • The tetrachloroethylene (PCE) dehalogenase of Clostridium bifermentans DPH-1 (a halorespiring organism) was purified, cloned, and sequenced. This enzyme is a homodimer with a molecular mass of ca. 70 kDa and exhibits dehalogenation of dichloroethylene isomers along with PCE and trichloroethylene (TCE). Broad range of substrate specificity for chlorinated aliphatic compounds (PCE, TCE, cis-1,2-dichloroethylene, trans-1,2-dichloroethylene, 1,1-dichloroethylene, 1,2-dichloropropene, and 1,1,2-trichloroethane) for this enzyme was also observed. A mixture of propyl iodide and titanium citrate caused a light-reversible inhibition of enzymatic activity suggesting the involvement of a corrinoid cofactor. A partial sequence (81 bp) of the encoding gene for PCE dehalogenase was amplified and sequenced with degenerateprimers designed from the N-terminal sequence (27 amino acid residues). Southern analysis of C. bifermentans genomic DNA using the polymerase chain reaction product as a probe revealed restriction fragment bands. A 5.0 kb ClaI fragment, harboring the relevant gene (designated pceC) was cloned (pDEHAL5) and the complete nucleotide sequence of pceC was determined. The gene showed homology mainly with microbial membrane proteins and no homology with any known dehalogenase, suggesting a distinct PCE dehalogenase. So, C. bifermentans could play some important role in the initial breakdown of PCE and other chlorinated aliphatic compounds in sites contaminated with mixtures of halogenated substances.

Removal of Tetrachloroethylene using Advanced Oxidation Processes (고급산화법을 이용한 Tetrachloroethylene의 처리)

  • Shin, Hang-Sik;Lim, Jae-Lim
    • Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater
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    • v.10 no.4
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    • pp.64-72
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    • 1996
  • The effect of $O_3$, $O_3/pH$, and $O_3/H_2O_2$, $O_3/UV$, and $H_2O_2/UV$ advanced oxidation process(AOP) were investigated for the treatment of tetrachloroethylen(PCE) at various condition. The removal efficiency of 10, 20, and 30ppm PCE by ozonation were almost same, only about 60%. And pseudo first-order rate constants, ko for overall oxidation was about 0.097($min^{-1}$). In the $O_3/pH$ AOP experiment for the 20ppm PCE, the removal rate of PCE increased with the increase of pH. However, mineralization rate of PCE at pH 7 was higher than at pH 10. In the $O_3/H_2O_2$ AOP, the removal rate of PCE was the highest at peroxide-to-ozone dosage ratio of about 0.9, which PCE was removed over 99.95%. Despite 42% of PCE was directly photolyzed by the UV irradiation, the removal efficiency of PCE by $O_3/UV$ AOP was only about 70%. In $H_2O_2/UV$ AOP, the removal efficiency of PCE increased to about 98% in proportion to the $H_2O_2$ injection concentration at constant UV intensity of 5W/l.

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