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Effects of Cutting Management during Summer Season on Growth and Reserve Carbohydrates of Orchardgrass (고온기 예취방법이 Orchardgrass의 생장 및 탄수화물 축적에 미치는 영향)

  • 김정철;최기춘;김광현;김우복
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.257-267
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    • 1993
  • Optimum pasture management during the summer season is an important factor to maintain good regrowth and persistence of pasture. The field experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of cutting management on growth and reserve carbohydrates in stubble. and on dry matter yield of orchardgrass dominated pasture during the mid-summer season. Three different cutting times(July 15, 25 and August 5) as a main plot and three cutting heights(3, 6 and 10cm) as a sub plot were disigned with three replications. The experiment was done at pasture of Changsung Agricultural High School in 1988. The results obtained were summarized as follows: 1. Temperature of soil surface and underground in the cutting of July 15 and July 25 was not showed significantly different, because of low intensity of radiation with a run of wet weather, and that of August 5 cutting tends to be lowed in high cutting height during the mid-summer season. 2. Amount of soil moisture against cutting height showed that high cutting had a low content. 3. Growth rate against regrowth of plant height, lear length and leaf area showed to be fast in high cutting. 4. Rapid recovery period of carbohydrate content after cutting and large amount of carbohydrate accumulation were showed in the cutting of July 15 and 25 compared with August 5 cutting in the reserve carbohydrate content against cutting of time and height during the mid-summer season. 5. Dry matter yield of the 4th and 5th cutting showed to be remarkable in July 15 cutting compared to those of July 25 and August 5. From the above results, it is suggested that the 10cm cutting height during the mid-summer season is the most effective for good regrowth, reserve carbohydrates and dry matter yield of orchardgrass.

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Tegumental ultrastructure of juvenile and adult Echinostoma cinetorchis (이전고환극구흡충 유약충 및 성충의 표피 미세구조)

  • 이순형;전호승
    • The Korean Journal of Parasitology
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.65-74
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    • 1992
  • The tegumental ultrastructure of juvenile and adult Echinostoma cinetorchis (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae) was observed by scanning electron microscopy. Three-day (juvenile) and 16-day (adult) worms were harvested from rats (Sprague-Dawley) experimentally fed the metacercariae from the laboratory-infected fresh water snail, Hippeutis cantori. The worms were fifed with 2.5% glutaraldehyde, processed routinely, and observed by an ISI Korea DS-130 scanning electron microscope. The 3-day old juvenile worms were elongated and ventrally curved, with their ventral sucker near the anterior two-fifths of the body. The head crown was bearing 37∼38 collar spines arranged in a zigzag pattern. The lips of the oral and ventral suckers had 8 and 5 type II sensory papillae respectively, and bewteen the spines, a few type III papillae were observed. Tongue or spade-shape spines were distributed anteriorly to the ventral sucker, whereas peg-like spines were distributed posteriorly and became sparse toward the posterior body. The spines of the dorsal surface were similar to those of the ventral surface. The 16-day old adults were leaf-like, and their oral and ventral suckers were located very closely. Aspinous head crown, oral and ventral suckers had type II and type III sensory papillae, and numerous type I papillae were distributed on the tegument anterior to the ventral sucker. Scale-like spines, with broad base and round tip, were distributed densely on the tegument anterior to the ventral sucker but they became sparse posteriorly. At the dorsal surface, spines were observed at times only at the anterior body. The results showed that the tegument of E. cinetorchis is similar to that of other echinostomes, but differs in the number and arrangement of collar spines, shape and distribution of tegumenal spines, and type and distribution of sensory papillae.

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Usefulness of $^{99m}Tc$-MDP Bone Scintigraphy for Assessing Vascular Ingrowth on Hydroxyapatite Ocular Implant ($^{99m}Tc$-MDP 골신티그라피를 이용한 Hydroxyapatite 안구 보충물의 혈관 신생 평가 및 임상적 유용성)

  • Kang, Bong-Joo;Sohn, Hyung-Sun
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine
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    • v.33 no.6
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    • pp.484-492
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    • 1999
  • Purpose: This study was to evaluate the clinical usefulness of $^{99m}Tc$-MDP bone scintigraphy for assessing vascular ingrowth into the ocular implants after enucleation or evisceration. Materials and Methods: Twenty-four patients (M:F=7:17, mean age: 36 years), who buried a coralline hydroxyapatite after uncomplicated enucleation or evisceration surgery were studied. Dynamic and static scintigraphy on the orbit fossa were obtained after injection of 740 MBq $^{99m}Tc$-MDP to evaluate the status of vascularization. The study was performed from the 3 to 33 weeks after surgery. According to the visual analysis, activity greater than nasal bridge was graded as 4, equal to the nasal bridge as 3, less than nasal bridge but greater than normal orbit as 2, greater than normal orbit but less than grade 2 as 1. Uptake ratio was also calculated by measuring the implants activity (H) and contralateral orbit activity (N). Grading score and uptake ratio were compared with clinical outcome of vascularization. Additionally, we also analyzed the vascularization status as time lapse between primary surgery and scintigraphic study and surgical methods. Results: Twenty-one patients who had bone scintigraphy at 11 weeks after surgery showed increased uptake above grade 2 and greater H/N ratio than 1.16. Of these, 19 patients who had drilling surgery for permanent peg application showed adequate bleeding during the procedure. The activity grade and uptake ratio were inversely correlated with vascular ingrowth. Higher than grade 2 or greater than 1.56 in H/N ratio seemed to be an indicator for better prognosis. Accomplishment of vascularization was not affected by the surgical way such as enucleation or evisceration. Conclusion: $^{99m}Tc$-MDP bone scintigraphy can be a useful method to evaluate the vascularized status of implants. Adequate time for $^{99m}Tc$-MDP bone scintigraphy may be 11-20 weeks after enucleation or evisceration.

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Assessment of Vascularization within Hydroxyapatite Ocular Implant by Bone Scintigraphy: Comparative Analysis of Planar and SPECT Imaging (Hydroxyapatite 안구보충물삽입술 후 골신티그라피를 이용한 섬유혈관증식 평가: 평면영상과 SPECT 영상에서의 비교)

  • Lim, Seok-Tae;Sohn, Myung-Hee;Park, Soon-Ah
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine
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    • v.33 no.6
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    • pp.475-483
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    • 1999
  • Purpose: Complete fibrovascular ingrowth within the hydroxyapatite ocular implant is necessary for peg drilling which is performed to Prevent infection and to provide motility to the ocular prosthesis. We compared planar bone scintigraphy and SPECT for the evaluation of the vascularization within hydroxyapatite ocular implants. Materials and Methods: Seventeen patients (M:F: 12:5, mean age; $50.4{\pm}17.5$ years) who had received a coralline hydroxyapatite ocular implant after enucleation surgery were enrolled. Patients underwent Tc-99m MDP planar bone and SPECT imaging by dual head gamma camera after their implant surgery (interval: $197{\pm}81$ days). Uptake on planar and SPECT images was graded visually as less than (grade 1), equal to (grade 2), and greater than (grade 3) nasal bridge activity. Quantitative ratio of implanted to non-implanted intraorbital activity was also measured. Vascularization within hydroxyapatite implants was confirmed by slit lamp examination and ocular movement. Results: All but three patients were considered to be vascularized within hydroxyapatite implants. In visual analysis of planar image and SPECT, grade 1 was noted in 9/18 (50%) and 6/18 (33%), respectively. Grade 2 pattern was 7/18 (39%) and 4/18 (22%), and grade 3 pattern was 2/18 (11%) and 8/18 (44%) respectively. When grade 2 or 3 was considered to be positive for vascularization, the sensitivity of planar and SPECT imaging were 60% (9/15) and 80% (12/15), respectively. In 3 patients with incomplete vascularization, both planar and SPECT showed grade 1 uptake The orbital activity ratios on planar imaging were not significantly different between complete and incomplete vascularization ($1.96{\pm}0.87$ vs $1.17{\pm}0.08$, p>0.05), however, it was significantly higher on SPECT in patients with complete vascularization ($8.44{\pm}5.45$ vs $2.20{\pm}0.87$, p<0.05). Conclusion: In the assessment of fibrovascular ingrowth within ocular implants by Tc-99m MDP bone scintigraphy, SPECT image appears to be more effective than planar scintigraphy.

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Effects of Hydrogen Peroxide on Germination and Early Growth of Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) (과산화수소 처리가 수수의 발아 및 초기 생장에 미치는 효과)

  • Shim, Doobo;Song, Ki Eun;Park, Chan Young;Jeon, Seung Ho;Hwang, Jung Gyu;Kang, Eun-ju;Kim, Jong Cheol;Shim, Sangin
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.63 no.2
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    • pp.140-148
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    • 2018
  • As the global warming causing desertification increase, there is growing concern about damage of crops. It was to investigate how the treatment with hydrogen peroxide before leaf development affects the growth and yield of sorghum for minimizing a damage of crops to drought. The germination experiment was conducted at alternating temperature of $25^{\circ}C/20^{\circ}C$(12 hr/12 hr) under water stress condition of 0 ~ -0.20 MPa adjusted with PEG solution containing 0 and 10 mM $H_2O_2$. In order to know the effect of foliar application of hydrogen peroxide on the growth of sorghum, 10 mM hydrogen peroxide was treated to leaves at 3-leaf stage of sorghum growing in greenhouse conditions. Seed germination rate was increased by 20% in hydrogen peroxide treatment as compared to the Control. under water stress conditions (-0.15 ~ -0.20 MPa). The length of seedlings was also on the rise by the hydrogen peroxide treatment. In the greenhouse pot experiment, the morphological characteristics (plant height, stem diameter, leaf length, and leaf number) and physiological characteristics (chlorophyll content, chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm), stomatal conductance) were higher in the plants treated with hydrogen peroxide under the drought stress condition than those of plants of $H_2O$ treatment. Experiment conducted with the soil moisture gradient system showed that the foliar application of hydrogen peroxide increased photosynthetic ability of sorghum plant with respect to SPAD value and stomatal conductance and rooting capacity (root weight and root length) under drought condition. Generally, hydrogen peroxide treatment in sorghum increased the tolerance to drought stress and maintained better growth due to ameliorating oxidative stress.

Potentiating Effect of Prostagliandin $E_1$ on the Action of Sympathomimetics in the Isolated Vas Deferens of Guinea-Pig (적출(摘出) 기니아-픽 정관(精管)에 있어서 교감신경효능제(交感神經效能劑)의 作用(작용)에 대(對)한 Prostaglindin $E_1$의 강화작용(强化作用))

  • Hong, Ki-Whan;Kang, Young-Soo
    • The Korean Journal of Pharmacology
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.31-40
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    • 1974
  • 1. The authors investigated the effects of $PGE_1$ on the action of sympathomimetics in the vas deferens of guinea-pig, comparing with those in the rat vas deferens, and also the action of $PGE_1$ on the motility of nerve-free smooth muscle of chick amnion. 2. In the isolated guinea-pig vas deferens, the actions of phenylephrine and norepinephrine were much potentiated by pretreatment with $PGE_1$. Futher, in the isolated hypogastric nerve-vas deferens preparation of guinea-pig, effects of phenylephrine, norepinephrine and tyramine on the contractile response of vas to the hypogastric nerve stimulation and to the transmural stimulation were also augumented especially in tension by $PGE_1$-pretreatment. 3. In the isolated hypogastric nerve-vas preparation of rat, both contractile responses to hypogastric nerve and transmural stimulation were slowly reduced by treatment with $PGE_1$ and the potentiated effect of phenylephrine or norepinephrine was not observed in spite of pretreatment with $PGE_1$. 4. The actions of phenylephrine and norepinephrine on the denervated vas deferens of guinea-pig were also enhanced by $PGE_1$ as it were in the intact vas deferens, but there was no significant effect by $PGE_1$ on the action of norepinephrine in the denervated rat vas deferens. 5. $PGE_1$ in low concentration $(10^{-8}g/ml)$ did not affect the spontaneous motility of nerve-free smooth muscle of chick amnion ($9{\sim}11$ th day incubated chick), but in large concentration $(5{\times}10^{-8}g/ml)$ it caused irregular and slightly inhibitory movement. Pretreatment with $PGE_1$ on chick amnion did not exert any change on the action of phenylephrine applied. However, the stimulatory action of physostigmine on the chick amnion was a little antagonized by the low concentration of $PGE_1$. 6. It might be summarized that there is species difference between the actions of $PGE_1$ on the vas deferens of guinea-pig and that of rat, and the action of $PGE_1$ on the guinea-pig vas deferens might be mediated by the other mechanism rather than by direct action on the vas musculature.

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Improvement of L-Lysine Productivity by Using Cell Fusion and Immobilized System (세포융합과 고정화 시스템을 이용한 L-Lysine의 생산성 향상)

  • Ryu, Beung-Ho;Kim, Hye-Sung;Roh, Myung-Hoon;Park, Bob-Gyu;Chung, Jong-Soon;Bai, Ki-Chul
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.154-163
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    • 1989
  • This studies were designed to improve the productivity of L-lysine by protoplast fusion and immobilized system of fusants using strains of Brevibacterium flavum ATCC 21528, Brevibacterium lactofermentum ATCC 21086 and Corynebacterium glutamicum 820. Mutants were isolated with concentration method of $300{\mu}g/ml$ penicillin-G after treatment of $250{\mu}g/ml$ N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine. B. flavum $37-2(Hos^-,\;Kan^r,\;AEC^r)$, B. lactofermentum $6-2(Ile^-,\;Val^-,\;Str^r,\;AEC^r)$ and C. glutamicum 57-5$(Met^-,\;Thr^-,\;Rif^r,\;AEC^r)$ were isolated from mutants. Protoplasts were induced by being incubated with $500{\mu}g/ml$ lysozyme of lysis solution for 6 hr and the ratio of protoplast formation and regeneration were ranging from 97-99% and 33-37%, respectively. Fusion frequencies of fusants of BBFL 21, BCFG 37 and BCLG 59 were shown in the range from $1.25{\times}10^{-6}\;to\;5.83{\times}10^{-7}$ under the optimum conditions. The fusant BBFL 21 showed the highest productivity of $411.1\;ng/ml{\cdot}hr$ L-lysine in the lysine productivity broth at $30^{\circ}C$ for 72hr. In the immobilization systems, fusant BBFL 21 was employed in various polymer matrices such as sodium alginate, polyacrylamide, agar and ${\alpha}-carrageena$. The immobilization of sodium alginate showed the highest productivity of $413\;ng/ml{\cdot}hr$ L-lysine in the batch system. Continuous fermentation of immobilization system by using tube fermentor was produced the highest productivity $416.7\;ng/ml{\cdot}hr $ L-lysine under optimum condition.

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The Correlations between Renminbi Fluctuations and Financial Results of Venture Companies in the Floating Exchange Rate (변동환율제도하의 위안화 환율변동과 벤처기업의 재무성과 간 상관관계 연구)

  • Sun, Zhong Yuan;Chang, Seog-Ju;Na, Seung-Hwa
    • 한국벤처창업학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.139-160
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    • 2010
  • On July 21st in 2005, People's Bank of China (PBOC) turned the currency peg against the U.S. dollar into managed currency system based on a basket of unnamed currencies under China's exchanged rate regime. This change means that China's enterprises are not free from currency fluctuations. The purpose of this study is to analyze the relations between Renminbi fluctuations in the floating exchange rate and financial results of venture companies. The process and outcomes of this study are as follows, First, in order to measure the financial results of venture companies, I choose venture companies in Shandong Province listed on the Shanghai Stock Exchange (SSE) at random and several quarter financial sheets according to safety ratios, profitability ratios, growth ratios, activity ratios. Second, I arrange the daily Renminbi exchange rate data announced from July 21st, 2005 to December 31st, 2008 by PBOC into the quarterly data. Third, in order to confirm the relations between Renminbi fluctuations and financial results of venture companies, I carry out Pearson's correlation analysis. As a result, the revaluation of the Chinese Renminbi has weakly negative effects on debt ratio, total assets turnover ratio and equity turnover ratio in statistics. But the revaluation of the Chinese Renminbi is not related to other financial index in statistics. The result of this study is that the revaluation of the Chinese Renminbi has little influence on the export and import of Chinese venture companies and certifies the fact that Chinese venture companies have much foreign currency assets. In addition to avoid the currency exposure risk, this study shows the effective method about currency exposure risk which adjusts proportion of Renminbi to foreign currency.

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A Comparative Study of Initial Healing Process in White Rats after Gingivectomy using $CO_2$ Laser of different watts (($CO_2$)레이저를 이용한 백서의 치은절제술시 출력에 따른 초기 치유과정의 비교)

  • Cho, Kyoo-Sung;Hong, Sung-Jae;Choi, Seong-Ho;Chai, Jung-Kiu;Kim, Chong-Kwan
    • Journal of Periodontal and Implant Science
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    • v.27 no.3
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    • pp.603-619
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    • 1997
  • The use of laser in the treatment of soft tissue minimizes hemorrhage, provides better view of the operating field, and thereby minimizes operating time. Also, there will be far less post-operative swelling, pain and scar formation, and sterilizing effect are shown in some portions of the wound site. All these advantages of laser therapy contribute to its widespread use in the field of medicine and dentistry. Regarding such facts, we used CO2 laser of different watts in gingivectomy for white rats to compare initial healing process. For the control group, the least amount of output in performing gingivectomy(4watts) was offered, and for the experimental group, 6watts was given. Animals were sacrificed on the second, third days, 1 weeks, 2 weeks, and 3 weeks after operation, and their specimens were histologically analyzed. The following results were obtained: 1. Blood clot of small size was observed in both the control and experimental groups after two days, and no more thereafter. 2. In both the control and experimental groups, the inflammation zone size was the greatest after two days, and it decreased gradually to become almost invisble by the second week. The experimental group showed larger size of inflammation zone during second and third days: however, there was no difference after one week. 3. Granulation tissue in both the control and experimental groups showed gradual maturation with time, and by the second week, it was almost replaced by normal connective tissue. By the third week, complete healing pattern was observed. The experimental group showed larger granulation tissue than the control group until the third day, but there was no significant difference after one week. 4. In both the control and experimental groups, gingival epithelialization began on the second day. After one week, regeneration of rete peg and partial formation of junctional epithelium were observed: by the second week, keratinization of oral sulcular epithelium began, and it was completed by the third week.

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Effect of a Pulsed Nd:YAG laser irradiation on human gingival tissues (파동형 Nd:YAG 레이저조사가 인체 치은조직에 미치는 영향)

  • Kang, Kyung-Dong;Kim, Chun-Suk;Kim, Hyung-Soo;Kim, Hyun-Seop;Kim, Byung-Ock;Han, Kyung-Yoon
    • Journal of Periodontal and Implant Science
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.989-1002
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    • 1996
  • The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a pulsed Nd:YAG laser irradiation on human gingival tissues. The patients, who were planned to be treated by clinical crown lengthening procedure and gingivectomy, were selected. All the patients received oral hygiene instruction, scaling and root planing at preoperation. The crest of gingival tissue on upper and lower anterior teeth was irradiated by a pulsed Nd:YAG laser(El. EN. EN060, Italy) with a fiber optic of 300 m in contact mode for 20 seconds. Gingival tissues were divided into 4 groups according to the laser power of 1.0W(10Hz, 100mJ), 2.0W(20Hz, 100mJ), 3.0W(30Hz, 100mJ) and 4.0W(40Hz, 100mJ). Immediately after the laser irradiation, the specimens were excised, fixed 10% neutral formalin, sectioned $4-6{\mu}m$ thick, stained by Hematoxylin-Eosin and Periodic Acid Schiff stain and observed under light microscope. The removed tissue depth and the coagulated layer depth due to a laser irradiation by a laser irradiation were measured on the microphotographs. The difference of measurements according to the different laser power was statistical1y analyzed by Kruskal Wallis Test with SAS program. The results were as follows : 1. In histologic findings of irradiated gingival tissues; a. In the irradiated gingival specimen with 1.0W laser power, some vesicles were observed in limited superficial layer of gingival epithelium. b. In the irradiated gingival specimen with 2.0W and 3.0W laser power, the epithelium was almost removed except for the traces of viable basal cell remnants at ret peg, and coagulation necrosis related with the thermal effect of laser was noted. c. In the irradiated gingival specimen with 4.0W laser power, complete removal of epithelium, partial removal of underlying connective tissue, and the coagulation necrosis of subjacent gingival tissue were shown. 2. The removed tissue depth was deeper in the irradiated specimens with higher power. There was a statistical significance in the difference of removed tissue depth between 1.0W group ($44.54{\pm}6.99um$) and 3.0W group ($99.75{\pm}6.64{\mu}m$), and between 1.0W group($44.54{\pm}6.99{\mu}m$) and 4.0W group($111.36{\pm}4.50{\mu}m$), and between 2.0W group($98.01{\pm}4.53{\mu}m$) and 4.0W group($111.36{\pm}4.50{\mu}m$)(P<0.05). 3. The coagulated layer depth was deeper in the irradiated specimens with higher power. There was a statistical significance in the difference of coagulated layer depth between 1.0W group($31.82{\pm}8.99{\mu}m$) and 3.0W group($55.99{\pm}20.94{\mu}m$), and between 1.0W group($31.82{\pm}8.99{\mu}m$) and 4.0W group($83.68{\pm}10.34{\mu}m$)(P<0.05). From this study, the results demonstrated that the effects of a pulsed Nd:YAG laser irradiation on gingival tissues seemed to depend on the laser power and that the irradiation with high power could be harmful to adjacent healthy tissue.

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