• Title, Summary, Keyword: PID controller

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Control of an Artificial Arm using Flex Sensor Signal (굽힘 센서신호를 이용한 인공의수의 제어)

  • Yoo, Jae-Myung;Kim, Young-Tark
    • Journal of Korean Institute of Intelligent Systems
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    • v.17 no.6
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    • pp.738-743
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    • 2007
  • In this paper, a muscle motion sensing system and an artificial arm control system are studied. The artificial arm is for the people who lost one's forearm. The muscle motion sensing system detect the intention of motion from the upper arm's muscle. In sensing system we use flex sensors which is electrical resistance type sensor. The sensor is attached on the biceps brachii muscle and coracobrachialis muscle of the upper arm. We propose an algorithm to classify the one's intention of motions from the sensor signal. Using this algorithm, we extract the 4 motions which are flexion and extension of the forearm, pronation and supination of the arm. To verify the validity of the proposed algorithms we made experiments with two d.o.f. artificial arm. To reduce the control errors of the artificial arm we also proposed a fuzzy PID control algorithm which based on the errors and error rate.

Modeling of the Optimal Operation Pattern for Energy Saving of The Trains (전동열차의 운행에너지 절감을 위한 최적 운행 패턴 모델링)

  • Kim, Jung-Hyun;Lee, Se-Hoon;Jun, Sang-Pyo
    • Journal of the Korea Society of Computer and Information
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    • v.19 no.12
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    • pp.187-196
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    • 2014
  • In this paper, Minimize driving energy for operation within a defined distance yeokgan fixed time-resolved and determine the nature of the train is traveling, and to model mathematically. Urban rail car cruise in general by the PID controller is used instead of automatically tracking a target value while traveling in energy consumption to be minimized by using optimal control model railroad charyangreul was designed under real operating conditions the same. The actual track conditions apply to the minimum value or a separate listing of cars around the track facility without a driving energy of the automatic operation and to reduce the driving energy. Therefore, actual route chosen straight line 8 / gradient segment / curve for the measured data analysis, such as sections within the city-minute drive each section and presented how the trains to save energy, depending on the pattern of the train station in the region.

A Mobile Robot Estimating the Real-time Moving Sound Sources by using the Curvature Trajectory (곡률궤적을 이용한 실시간 이동하는 음원을 추종하는 모바일 로봇)

  • Han, Jong-Ho;Park, Sook-Hee;Lee, Dong-Hyuk;Noh, Kyung-Wook;Lee, Jang-Myung
    • Journal of Institute of Control, Robotics and Systems
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.48-57
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    • 2014
  • It is suggested that the curvature trajectory be used to estimate the real-time moving sound sources and efficiently the robot estimating the sound sources. Since the target points of the real-time moving sound sources change, the mobile robot continuously estimates the changed target points. In such a case, the robot experiences a slip phenomenon due to the abnormal velocity and the changes of the navigating state. By selecting an appropriate curvature and navigating the robot gradually by using it, it is possible to enable the robot to reach the target points without having much trouble. In order to recognize the sound sources in real time, three microphones need to be organized in a straight form. Also, by applying the cross-correlation algorithm to the TDOA base, the signals can be analyzed. By using the analyzed data, the locations of the sound sources can be recognized. Based on such findings, the sound sources can be estimated. Even if the mobile robot is navigated by selecting the gradual curvature based on the changed target points, there could be errors caused by the inertia and the centrifugal force related to the velocity. As a result, it is possible to control the velocity of both wheels of the robot through the velocity PID controller in order to compensate for the slip phenomenon and minimize the estimated errors. In order to examine whether the suggested curvature trajectory is appropriate for estimating the sound sources, two mobile robots are arranged to carry out an actual experiment. The first robot is moved by discharging the sound sources, while the second robot recognizes and estimates the locations of the discharged sound sources in real time.

Design of Small Optical Tracker for Use in the Proving Ground (시험장 환경에 적합한 소형 광학추적기 설계)

  • Park, Sanghyun
    • The Journal of Advanced Navigation Technology
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.224-231
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    • 2020
  • An optical tracking plays an important role for measurement operation, as it is responsible for low altitude measurements that are difficult to obtain with radar systems. Since the existing optical tracking systems have not been developed in the proving ground itself so far, it is difficult to modify them to fit the environment of the proving ground. Also, they are designed as a vehicle-mounted type, so there is a limitation in selecting an optimal site. The in-house developed small optical tracking system is designed with a simple configuration to overcome these shortcomings and makes it possible for operators to operate the system at any place in the proving ground. In addition, there has been a need of developing small optical trackers by ourselves to be prepared for future research so that artificial intelligence (AI) can be applied to the optical tracking systems. In this paper, we described the design concept of the small optical tracker, the configuration of the components to implement the basic tracking function, and showed the results of the simulation to set the configuration of the equipment according to the characteristics of the flight targets.

Implementation of Multiple Nonlinearities Control for Stable Walking of a Humanoid Robot (휴머노이드 로봇의 안정적 보행을 위한 다중 비선형 제어기 구현)

  • Kong, Jung-Shik;Kim, Jin-Geol;Lee, Bo-Hee
    • Journal of Korean Institute of Intelligent Systems
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.215-221
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    • 2006
  • This paper is concerned with the control of multiple nonlinearities included in a humanoid robot system. A humanoid robot has some problems such as the structural instability, which leads to consider the control of multiple nonlinearities caused by driver parts as well as gear reducer. Saturation and backlash are typical examples of nonlinearities in the system. The conventional algorithms of backlash control were fuzzy algorithm, disturbance observer and neural network, etc. However, it is not easy to control the system by employing only single algorithm since the system usually includes multiple nonlinearities. In this paper, a switching Pill is considered for a control of saturation and a dual feedback algorithm is proposed for a backlash control. To implement the above algorithms, the system identification is firstly performed for the minimization of the difference between the results of simulation and experiment, and then the switching Pill gains are determined using genetic algorithm with some heuristic approach. The performance of the switching Pill controller for saturation and the dual feedback for backlash control is investigated through the simulation. Finally, it is shown that the implemented control system has good results and can be applied to the real humanoid robot system ISHURO.

Improvement of Katsuobushi smoking machine for the reduction of benzo(a)pyrene (가쓰오부시 훈연기 개선 및 벤조피렌 저감화)

  • Hong, Ju Hee;Hwang, Sang Min;Lee, Seung Ju
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.49 no.2
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    • pp.162-167
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    • 2017
  • A Katsuobushi smoking machine was developed and evaluated to determine its benzo(a)pyrene reducing effect. The machine was equipped with two heaters for smoking and chamber heating. The smoke-generating system was equipped with a cadmium sulfide (CdS) smoke sensor, an on/off controller, and a rotating feeder with a smoke inlet. Raw bonito was steamed and then smoked under three smoke levels. After smoking at $45^{\circ}C$ for 108 h, the benzo(a)pyrene concentrations were 5.87, 7.83, and $11.41{\mu}g/kg$ at the low, middle, and high smoke levels, respectively. The benzo(a)pyrene concentrations after low-level smoking at 45, 65, and $85^{\circ}C$ for 108 h were 5.87, 4.82, and $3.27{\mu}g/kg$, respectively. Accordingly, the optimal conditions for benzo(a)pyrene reduction were a lower smoke level and higher smoking temperature. These optimal smoking conditions can be implemented with the newly developed machine, but is not possible using a conventional Katsuobushi smoking machine.

Progress of Composite Fabrication Technologies with the Use of Machinery

  • Choi, Byung-Keun;Kim, Yun-Hae;Ha, Jin-Cheol;Lee, Jin-Woo;Park, Jun-Mu;Park, Soo-Jeong;Moon, Kyung-Man;Chung, Won-Jee;Kim, Man-Soo
    • International Journal of Ocean System Engineering
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    • v.2 no.3
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    • pp.185-194
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    • 2012
  • A Macroscopic combination of two or more distinct materials is commonly referred to as a "Composite Material", having been designed mechanically and chemically superior in function and characteristic than its individual constituent materials. Composite materials are used not only for aerospace and military, but also heavily used in boat/ship building and general composite industries which we are seeing increasingly more. Regardless of the various applications for composite materials, the industry is still limited and requires better fabrication technology and methodology in order to expand and grow. An example of this is that the majority of fabrication facilities nearby still use an antiquated wet lay-up process where fabrication still requires manual hand labor in a 3D environment impeding productivity of composite product design advancement. As an expert in the advanced composites field, I have developed fabrication skills with the use of machinery based on my past composite experience. In autumn 2011, the Korea government confirmed to fund my project. It is the development of a composite sanding machine. I began development of this semi-robotic prototype beginning in 2009. It has possibilities of replacing or augmenting the exhaustive and difficult jobs performed by human hands, such as sanding, grinding, blasting, and polishing in most often, very awkward conditions, and is also will boost productivity, improve surface quality, cut abrasive costs, eliminate vibration injuries, and protect workers from exposure to dust and airborne contamination. Ease of control and operation of the equipment in or outside of the sanding room is a key benefit to end-users. It will prove to be much more economical than normal robotics and minimize errors that commonly occur in factories. The key components and their technologies are a 360 degree rotational shoulder and a wrist that is controlled under PLC controller and joystick manual mode. Development on both of the key modules is complete and are now operational. The Korean government fund boosted my development and I expect to complete full scale development no later than 3rd quarter 2012. Even with the advantages of composite materials, there is still the need to repair or to maintain composite products with a higher level of technology. I have learned many composite repair skills on composite airframe since many composite fabrication skills including repair, requires training for non aerospace applications. The wind energy market is now requiring much larger blades in order to generate more electrical energy for wind farms. One single blade is commonly 50 meters or longer now. When a wind blade becomes damaged from external forces, on-site repair is required on the columns even under strong wind and freezing temperature conditions. In order to correctly obtain polymerization, the repair must be performed on the damaged area within a very limited time. The use of pre-impregnated glass fabric and heating silicone pad and a hot bonder acting precise heating control are surely required.

A Case Study of Different Configurations for the Performance Analysis of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells with External Reformers (외부 개질형 평판형 고체 산화물 연료전지 시스템 구성법에 따른 효율특성)

  • Lee, Kang-Hun;Woo, Hyun-Tak;Lee, Sang-Min;Lee, Young-Duk;Kang, Sang-Gyu;Ahn, Kook-Young;Yu, Sang-Seok
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers B
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    • v.36 no.3
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    • pp.343-350
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    • 2012
  • A planar solid oxide fuel cell (PSOFC) is studied in its application in a high-temperature stationary power plant. Even though PSOFCs with external reformers are designed for application from the distributed power source to the central power plant, such PSOFCs may sacrifice more system efficiency than internally reformed SOFCs. In this study, modeling of the PSOFC with an external reformer was developed to analyze the feasibility of thermal energy utilization for the external reformer. The PSOFC system model includes the stack, reformer, burner, heat exchanger, blower, pump, PID controller, 3-way valve, reactor, mixer, and steam separator. The model was developed under the Matlab/Simulink environment with Thermolib$^{(R)}$ modules. The model was used to study the system performance according to its configuration. Three configurations of the SOFC system were selected for the comparison of the system performance. The system configuration considered the cathode recirculation, thermal sources for the external reformer, heat-up of operating gases, and condensate anode off-gas for the enhancement of the fuel concentration. The simulation results show that the magnitude of the electric efficiency of the PSOFC system for Case 2 is 12.13% higher than that for Case 1 (reference case), and the thermal efficiency of the PSOFC system for Case 3 is 76.12%, which is the highest of all the cases investigated.