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The Incidence Rate of Lymphadenitis after Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) Vaccination (Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) 백신 접종 후 림프절염의 발생 빈도)

  • Kim, Jaehong;Lee, Kyujin;Kim, Jong-Hyun;Kim, Seong Joon;Lee, Soo Young;Lee, Hye Jin;Cho, Kyung Soon;Kwon, Young Joo;Lee, Byoung Chan;Jo, Sang Min;Ha, Jeong Hun;Lee, Yoon Kyung;Seung, So Jin
    • Pediatric Infection and Vaccine
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.54-61
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    • 2016
  • Purpose: Bacille Calmette-$Gu{\acute{e}}rin$ (BCG) lymphadenitis is a relatively frequent local adverse reactions after BCG vaccination. Its incidence rate is usually <1%. However, this rate may be different according to BCG strain, vaccination method or skill, etc. In the Republic of Korea, two BCG strains are used: intradermal Danish-1331 or percutaneous Tokyo-172. We surveyed the incidence rates of BCG lymphadenitis. Methods: This survey was performed in total 25 centers (5 general hospitals, 20 private pediatric clinics). Immunized type of BCG strain in study subjects was verified by directly observing the scar. The occurrence of BCG lymphadenitis was asked to their parent. In cases of BCG lymphadenitis, location, diameter size, progression of suppuration, and treatment method were investigated, as well. Results: The total number of study subjects was 3,342. Among these, the subjects suitable for enrollment criteria (total 3,222; Tokyo strain 2,501, Danish strain 721) were analyzed. BCG lymphadenitis regardless of its size developed in each five of subjects per strains, therefore, its incidence rate was 0.20% in Tokyo and 0.69% in Danish strain, respectively (P=0.086). However, when applying the WHO criteria - the development of lymph node swelling with diameter 1.5 cm or more, the incidence rate of BCG lymphadenitis was 0.16% (4 cases) in Tokyo and 0.42% (3 cases) in Danish strain, respectively. Conclusions: The incidence rate of lymphadenitis in two BCG types, percutaneous Tokyo and intradermal Danish strain BCG, is 0.20% and 0.69%, respectively. Both rates are acceptable.

Clinical Characteristics, Prognostic Factors and Influence of Prophylaxis in Children with Pneumocystis jirovecii Pneumonia (소아 주폐포자충 폐렴의 임상양상, 위험인자 및 예방요법의 효과 연구)

  • Kim, Seohee;Yoo, Reenar;Sung, Hungseop;Lee, Jina
    • Pediatric Infection and Vaccine
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.31-39
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    • 2016
  • Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic factors for Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) and to evaluate the influence of PCP prophylaxis in pediatric patients. Methods: From January 2002 to April 2015, patients aged <18 years with a diagnosis of confirmed PCP at our institute were reviewed retrospectively. Clinical characteristics and outcomes were compared according to the groups with or without PCP prophylaxis. Risk factors associated with PCP-related death were analyzed by logistic regression analysis. Results: During study period, a total of 24 patients were diagnosed with PCP by immunofluorescence assay and/or PCR. The median age of the patients was 5 years (range, 3 months-18 years) and 23 (96%) had immunocompromised conditions including hematologic disorders with or without hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (n=15), solid organ transplantation (n=4), and primary immune deficiency (n=4). Most common presenting symptoms were tachypnea and cough (92%, each). At the time of diagnosis, 79% (19/24) and 25% (6/24) suffered from respiratory failure and multi-organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS), respectively. Mechanical ventilation was required in 8 (33%) patients and 5 (21%) patients died of PCP. Multivariate analysis showed that MODS at initial presentation was an indicator of poor prognosis (OR, 17.1 [95% CI 1.13-257.67]; P=0.04). Compared to the patients without PCP prophylaxis, the frequency of MODS at diagnosis, need for mechanical ventilation and length of hospital days were significantly less common in the children who received PCP prophylaxis. Conclusions: MODS at presentation was a significant predictor for poor outcome and PCP prophylaxis could alleviate the clinical courses of pediatric PCP. Prospective study will be mandatory to determine the risk factors for development and deterioration of PCP in children.

C-reactive Protein and Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate Discrepancies and Variations after Intravenous Immunoglobulin Therapy in Kawasaki Disease (가와사끼병에서 C-반응 단백질과 적혈구 침강속도의 불일치 및 정맥내 면역글로불린 치료 후의 변화)

  • Lee, Yoon Suk;Lee, Jihyen;Hong, Young Mi;Sohn, Sejung
    • Pediatric Infection and Vaccine
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.25-30
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    • 2016
  • Purpose: We undertook this study to investigate discrepancies in C-reactive protein (CRP) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) values, and variations following intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) therapy in Kawasaki disease (KD). Methods: A total of 123 KD patients were retrospectively enrolled. Patients were treated with IVIG 2 g/kg at 2 to 9 days after disease onset. We obtained white blood cell (WBC) count, percentage of neutrophils (% neutrophils), CRP, ESR, and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) values before and 48 to 72 hours after IVIG treatment. Discrepancy was defined as $CRP{\geq}10mg/dL$ and ESR <50 mm/hr (Group 1), or CRP <10 mg/dL and $ESR{\geq}50mm/hr$ (Group 2). Results: Thirty-six of 123 subjects (29.2%) had a discrepancy: 25 (20.3%) in Group 1 and 11 (8.9%) in Group 2. In Group 1, 15 patients (60%) had fever for <5 days (early presenter) and 10 (40%) had fever for ${\geq}5days$ (late presenter). There were six early presenters (55%) and five late presenters (45%) in Group 2. Late presenters had higher ESR than early presenters ($34.3{\pm}21.0mm/hr$ vs. $26.3{\pm}19.3mm/hr$, P=0.029). After IVIG treatment, elevated WBC count, % neutrophils, CRP, and NT-proBNP levels normalized. In contrast, ESR increased from $37.4{\pm}21.9mm/hr$ to $48.0{\pm}22.7mm/hr$ (n=36, P=0.051). Conclusions: A discrepancy may be related to the duration of fever. Due to discrepancies in CRP and ESR values in acute KD, both should be measured to assess the degree of inflammatory activity before IVIG treatment. After IVIG treatment, the ESR should not be used as a marker of response to therapy in KD.

Severe Skin Lesions or Arthritis May be Associated with Coronary Artery Lesions in Kawasaki Disease (가와사끼병에서 피부 병변과 관절염의 중증도와 관상동맥질환의 연관성)

  • Youn, Song Ee;Ju, Hee Young;Lee, Kyung Suk;Cha, Sung Ho;Han, Mi Young;Yoon, Kyung Lim
    • Pediatric Infection and Vaccine
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.102-108
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    • 2016
  • Purpose: Kawasaki disease (KD) shows a variety of clinical signs of multi-system involvement, including clinical diagnostic criteria. It is unknown that the severity of the clinical signs is associated with the risk of coronary artery lesions (CALs). We wanted to evaluate clinical characteristics and the risk of CALs in the patient groups who had severe skin lesions or those with arthritis. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 220 KD patients who were treated with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG). We compared clinical and laboratory data between the group with severe skin lesions (n=52) and those with mild or no skin lesions (n=168), and between the group with arthritis (n=6) and those without arthritis (n=214). Results: The mean age of total patients was $2.23{\pm}1.87years$ of age, and the male-to-female ratio was 1.5:1 (138/82). Among 220 patients, 52 patients had CALs (23.6%), and 29 patients (13.2%) showed incomplete KD. The patients with CALs had a higher mean age, longer total fever duration, and higher rate of IVIG non-responsiveness. The patient group with severe skin lesions showed a higher mean age (P<0.001), more prolonged fever duration (P=0.041), higher frequency of CALs (P=0.033), higher WBC, neutrophil, and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio levels, compared to the patient group without severe skin lesions. The patients with arthritis had a tendency of further treatment with methylprednisolone or infliximab. Conclusions: The frequency of CALs was higher in patient group with severe skin lesions. Our results suggest that the intensity of clinical signs of KD such as skin rash, cervical lymphadenopathy and possibly arthritis may be associated the risk of CALs.

Clinical Characteristics of Fever without Localizing Sign in Infants Younger than 100 Days of Age in a Single Center (단일기관에서 시행한 생후 100일 미만 영아에서 발생한 국소 증상 없는 발열에 대한 임상적인 특징에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Hyun Suk;Lee, Kye Hyang
    • Pediatric Infection and Vaccine
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.128-136
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    • 2016
  • Purpose: This study was done to define clinical characteristics of fever without localizing signs (FWLS) in infants younger than 100 days of age with a goal of providing baseline data to establish a new diagnostic paradigm in the future. Methods: We reviewed medical records of 183 patients who admitted to Daegu Catholic University Medical Center for FWLS younger than 100 days of age from January 2013 to September 2015 retrospectively. Demographic, clinical features and laboratory findings were analyzed. Patients were divided into serious bacterial infection (SBI) and non-SBI groups, and then were compared between two groups to find risk factors for SBI. Results: Among 183 patients, lumbar puncture was performed in 98.9% and CSF pleocytosis was present in 35.9%. Sterile CSF pleocytosis was found in 43% of urinary tract infection (UTI) patients. None had concomitant bacterial meningitis in patients with UTI. As final diagnosis, febrile syndrome without source (25.7%) was most common. Among SBI, UTI was most common (99%). Birth weight, ESR, and CRP were significantly higher in SBI group compared to non-SBI group. Male sex (OR 4.93, 95% CI 1.60-15.24) and pyuria (OR 18.88, 95% CI 6.76-52.76) were identified as risk factors for SBI. Presence of sibling (OR 0.30, 95% CI 0.11-0.83) was significantly lower in SBI group. Conclusions: Our results showed UTI was the most common SBI in young infants with FWLS. Though aseptic meningitis can be coexisting with UTI, lumbar puncture may not be necessary in all patients having UTI.

Vaccine Evaluation Studies Performed in Korea from 2000 to 2014 (2000-2014년 한국에서 수행된 백신 유용성 평가 연구)

  • Cha, Jihei;Kim, Han Wool;Lee, Soyoung;Cho, Hye Kyung;Ahn, Jong Gyun;Kim, Kyung-Hyo
    • Pediatric Infection and Vaccine
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.117-127
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    • 2016
  • Purpose: Vaccine evaluation studies were initiated from 2000 by the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety to produce proper data about the safety and immunogenicity of vaccines. The purpose of this study was to review studies and reports on evaluation of vaccine such as immunogenicity, efficacy, effectiveness, safety and other related topics in order to find and analyze the data on the usefulness of each vaccine. Methods: From 2000 to 2014, the project "The vaccine evaluation" had been performed by several researchers, and studies and reports of vaccine evaluation. We reviewed the results and outcomes of studies regarding the evaluation of vaccine's usefulness and analyzed the possibilities of applying these data for establishing vaccine policies. For each vaccine, data analysis and organization were done according to evaluation fields. Results: A total of 83 studies were performed on vaccines from 2000 to 2014. For each vaccine, 8 studies were performed on BCG, 14 on DTaP/Td, 1 on poliovirus, 5 on Hib, 3 on pneumococcus, 11 on influenza, 3 on hepatitis A, 11 on MMR, 11 on varicella, and 16 on Japanese encephalitis. All studies were analyzed by the following evaluation area, such as safety, immunogenicity, seroprevalence, persistence of immunity, efficacy, effectiveness, vaccine evaluation methods, quality control product for vaccine, and others. Conclusions: Vaccine evaluation studies performed in Korea may be useful as references for establishing vaccination strategy and policy and could be used as baseline data for future studies on vaccine evaluation, vaccine policy establishment, and public/expert vaccine education in Korea.

Vitamin D and Risk of Respiratory Tract Infections in Children: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials (비타민 D와 소아 호흡기 감염의 위험성: 무작위 대조 연구에 대한 체계적 문헌고찰 및 메타분석)

  • Ahn, Jong Gyun;Lee, Dokyung;Kim, Kyung-Hyo
    • Pediatric Infection and Vaccine
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.109-116
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    • 2016
  • Purpose: Recent observational studies have found that vitamin D deficiency is associated with respiratory tract infections. However, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) regarding the efficacy of vitamin D in childhood respiratory tract infection (RTI) have yield inconsistent results. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the association between vitamin D supplementation and the risk of RTI. Methods: A comprehensive search was conducted using MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trial. Randomized controlled trials of vitamin D supplementation for prevention of RTI in children were included for the analysis. Cochrane Collaboration's tool for assessing the risk of bias was used to assess the quality of the studies. Pooled risk ratios with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were meta-analyzed using Review Manager 5.3. Results: A total of seven RCTs were included in the meta-analysis. According to a random-effects model, the risk ratio for vitamin D supplementation was 0.82 (95% CI: 0.69-0.98) and $I^2=62%$ for heterogeneity. On subgroup analysis, heterogeneity decreased in the subgroup with follow-up less than 1 year, participants ${\geq}5years$ of age, patients subgroup, and subgroup with dosing daily. Funnel plot showed that there might be publication bias in the field. Conclusions: The present meta-analysis supports a beneficial effect of vitamin D supplementation for the prevention of RTI in children. However, the result should be interpreted with caution due to limitations including a small number of available RCTs, heterogeneity among the studies, and potential publication bias.

Comparison of Split versus Subunit Seasonal Influenza Vaccine in Korean Children over 3 to under 18 Years of Age

  • Kang, Seah;Kim, Dong Ho;Eun, Byung Wook;Kim, Nam Hee;Kang, Eun Kyeong;Lee, Byong Sop;Kim, Yun-Kyung
    • Pediatric Infection and Vaccine
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.161-169
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    • 2019
  • Purpose: This study was conducted to compare immunogenicities and reactogenicities of the trivalent inactivated subunit influenza vaccine and split influenza vaccine in Korean children and adolescents. Methods: In total, 202 healthy children aged 36 months to <18 years were enrolled at six hospitals in Korea from October to December 2008. The subjects were vaccinated with either the split or subunit influenza vaccine. The hemagglutinin inhibition antibody titers against the H1N1, H3N2, and B virus strains were measured, and the seroconversion rates, seroprotection rates, and geometric mean titers were calculated. All subjects were observed for local and systemic reactions. Results: Both the split and subunit vaccine groups had similar seroprotection rates against all strains (95.9%, 94.9%, 96.9% vs. 96.0%, 90.9%, and 87.9%). In children aged 36 to <72 months, the seroprotection rates were similar between the two vaccine groups. In children aged 72 months to <18 years, both vaccines showed high seroprotection rates against the H1N1, H3N2, and B strain (98.4%, 98.4%, 98.4% vs. 97.0%, 95.5%, and 91.0%), but showed relatively low seroconversion rates (39.1%, 73.4%, 35.9% vs. 34.3%, 55.2%, and 38.8%). There were more local and systemic reactions in the split vaccine group than in the subunit vaccine group; however, no serious adverse reactions were observed in both groups. Conclusions: Both the split and subunit vaccines showed acceptable immunogenicity in all age groups. There were no serious adverse events with both vaccines.

Molecular Epidemiologic Study of a Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Outbreak at a Newborn Nursery and Neonatal Intensive Care Unit

  • Kang, Hyun Mi;Park, Ki Cheol;Lee, Kyung-Yil;Park, Joonhong;Park, Sun Hee;Lee, Dong-Gun;Kim, Jong-Hyun
    • Pediatric Infection and Vaccine
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.148-160
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    • 2019
  • Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the molecular epidemiology of a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) outbreak at a newborn nursery and neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Methods: During the outbreak, from August to September 2017, MRSA isolates collected from neonates and medical staff underwent genotyping and screened for virulence factors. Antibiotic susceptibilities were tested. Results: During the study period, 41 neonates were admitted at the nursery (n=27) and NICU (n=14). Of these, 7 had MRSA infections (skin infection [n=6] and sepsis [n=1]) and 4 were colonized with MRSA. Associated medical staff (n=32) were screened; three were nasal MRSA carriers. Staphylococcal chromosomal cassette mec (SCCmec) type II, sequence type (ST) 89, spa type t375 was found to be the skin infection outbreak causing strain, with multi-drug resistance including low-level mupirocin resistance. SCCmec type IVa, ST 72, and a novel spa type designated t17879, was the cause of MRSA sepsis. Many different types of MRSA were colonized on the neonates; however, SCCmec type IVa, ST 72, spa type t664 was colonized in both neonates and a NICU nurse. All MRSA isolates from colonized infants were positive for the Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) toxin gene. Conclusions: The strain causing an outbreak of skin infections had multi-drug resistance. Also, MRSA colonized in the neonates were found to carry the PVL toxin gene. Because different strains are present during an outbreak, molecular epidemiologic studies are important to identify the outbreak strain and colonized strains which aid in effective control and prevention of future MRSA outbreaks.

Clinical Manifestations of PFAPA (Periodic Fever, Aphthous Stomatitis, Pharyngitis, and Adenitis) Syndrome from a Single Center (단일기관에서 진단한 PFAPA (Periodic Fever, Aphthous Stomatitis, Pharyngitis, and Adenitis) 증후군의 임상양상)

  • Shin, Minsoo;Choi, Eun Hwa;Han, Mi Seon
    • Pediatric Infection and Vaccine
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.179-187
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    • 2019
  • Purpose: Periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and adenitis (PFAPA) syndrome is a leading cause of periodic fever in children. This study describes the clinical characteristics of PFAPA syndrome in patients from a single center. Methods: Thirteen children diagnosed with PFAPA syndrome at Seoul National University Children's Hospital were included in this study. Retrospective medical chart reviews were performed. Results: Among the 13 patients, 8 (61.5%) were male. The median follow-up duration was 3.3 years (range, 10 months-8.3 years). The median age of periodic fever onset was 3 years (range, 1-6 years). All patients had at least 5 episodes of periodic fever and pharyngitis, managed with oral antibiotics, before diagnosis. The median occurrence of fever was every 3.9 weeks and lasted for 4.2 days. All patients had pharyngitis and 12 (92.3%) had cervical lymphadenitis. Blood tests were performed for 12 patients, and no patients had neutropenia. Both the C-reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate were elevated at medians of 4.5 mg/dL (range, 0.4-13.2 mg/dL) and 29 mm/hr (range, 16-49 mm/hr), respectively. Throat swab cultures and rapid streptococcal antigen tests were negative. Nine (69.2%) patients received oral prednisolone at a median dose of 0.8 mg/kg, and in 6 (66.7%) patients, fever resolved within a few hours. Three (23.1%) patients received tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy. Conclusions: PFAPA syndrome should be considered when a child presents with periodic fever along with aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, or cervical lymphadenitis. Glucocorticoid administration is effective for fever resolution and can reduce unnecessary use of antibiotics.