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Immunogenicity and Safety of Inactivated Influenza Vaccine in Healthy Korean Children and Adolescent (한국의 건강한 소아청소년을 대상으로 한 인플루엔자 사백신의 면역원성과 안전성 연구)

  • Ri, Soohyun;Kim, Mi Jeong;Kim, Yun-Kyung
    • Pediatric Infection and Vaccine
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.35-44
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    • 2018
  • Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of a trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV) among healthy Korean children and adolescents. Methods: From October to December 2008, 65 healthy patients aged 6 months to 18 years who visited Korea University Ansan Hospital for influenza vaccination were enrolled in this study. We measured the hemagglutinin inhibition antibody titers at baseline and 30 days after vaccinating enrollees with split influenza vaccine and calculated the seroprotection rates, geometric mean titers, and seroconversion rates. Local and systemic adverse events were assessed after vaccination. Results: The seroprotection rates against all three viral strains (A/H1N1, A/H3N2, B) were 87.7%, 89.2%, and 89.2% (${\geq}70%$), respectively; seroconversion rates were 44.6%, 73.8%, and 63.1% (${\geq}40%$), respectively; and seroconversion factors were 4.5, 8.4, and 10.5 (>2.5), respectively. The TIV immunogenicity was acceptable according to the CPMP (Committee for Proprietary Medicinal Products) criteria. Although 48 patients (73.8%) reported one or more adverse events, no severe adverse events such as anaphylaxis and convulsion were observed. Forty-two patients (64.6%) reported a local skin reaction, including redness (29.2%), pain (43.1%), or swelling (41.5%) of the injected site, and 26 (40.0%) reported a systemic reaction: fatigue (23.1%), myalgia (20.0%), headache (10.8%), arthralgia (10.8%), chills (9.2%), or fever (7.7%). Conclusions: This study shows that the immunogenicity of the TIV vaccine is acceptable. As there were no serious adverse events aside from local reactions and mild systemic reactions, this vaccine can be safely used among healthy Korean children and adolescents.

Clinical Significance of the Bacille Calmette-Guérin Site Reaction in Kawasaki Disease Patients Aged Less than 18 Months

  • Park, Sung Hyeon;Yu, Jeong Jin;You, Jihye;Kim, Mi Jin;Shin, Eun Jung;Jun, Hyun Ok;Baek, Jae Suk;Kim, Young-Hwue;Ko, Jae-Kon
    • Pediatric Infection and Vaccine
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.148-155
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    • 2018
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical significance of Bacille Calmette-$Gu{\acute{e}}rin$ (BCG) site reaction in terms of diagnosis and outcome prediction in young children with Kawasaki disease (KD). Methods: The incidence of BCG site reaction in the respective age ranges was investigated in 1,058 patients who were admitted at Asan Medical Center between January 2006 and February 2017. The 416 patients under 18 months of age were enrolled as subjects for the analysis of the association between BCG site reaction and other laboratory and clinical findings. The analysis was performed separately in complete and incomplete KD groups. Results: The incidence rate of BCG site reaction was peaked at 6-12 months (83%) and decreased with increasing age after 12 months in 1,058 patients (P<0.001). The incidence rate was above 70% in KD aged less than 18 months and more frequent than those of cervical lymphadenopathy. The logistic regression analyses showed that the principal clinical findings including conjunctivitis (P=0.781), red lips/oral mucosa (P=0.963), rash (P=0.510), cervical lymphadenopathy (P=0.363), changes in extremities (P=0.283) and the coronary artery aneurysm (P=0.776) were not associated with the BCG site reaction. Conclusions: The BCG site reaction could be a useful diagnostic tool independent to principal clinical findings in KD developing in children aged <18 months, who underwent BCG vaccination. Outcome of KD patients was not different between groups with or without the BCG site reaction in both complete KD and incomplete KD.

Changes in Cytomegalovirus Seroprevalence in Korea for 21 Years: a Single Center Study

  • Choi, Sae Rom;Kim, Kyung-Ran;Kim, Dong Sub;Kang, Ji-Man;Kim, Sun Ja;Kim, Jong Min;Oh, Soo-young;Kang, Choel-In;Chung, Doo Ryeon;Peck, Kyong Ran;Kang, Eun-Suk;Kim, Yae-Jean
    • Pediatric Infection and Vaccine
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.123-131
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    • 2018
  • Purpose: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is mostly asymptomatic but can be detrimental to certain hosts. We investigated changes of CMV seroprevalence in Koreans before and after the year 2000. Methods: We reviewed laboratory values of patients who were tested for CMV immunoglobulin G (IgG) at Samsung Medical Center, Seoul, Korea, from January 1995 to December 2015. Changes in seroprevalence were analyzed by gender, age, region, and tested year period (period 1, 1995-2005 vs. period 2, 2006-2015). Results: Overall CMV seropositivity was 94.1% (10,900/11,584). There was no significant difference for CMV seropositivity among the two periods (94.2% vs. 94.1%) (P=0.862). CMV seropositivity in the 11 to 20-year age group in period 2 (78.8%) was significantly lower than that of period 1 (89.9%) (P=0.001). The seropositivity of individuals aged 31-40 years (97.4%) was significantly higher than that of younger age groups (P<0.001) and lower than that of older age groups (P<0.001). Of 2,441 females of reproductive age (from 15 to 49), CMV seropositivity was 97% (2,467/2,441). The seropositivity in women aged 20-24-years was higher than that of men in the same age group (97.6% vs. 85.6%, P=0.003). No significant difference was observed among different regions. Conclusions: Overall CMV seropositivity of Koreans was estimated to be 94% and the average seropositivity of reproductive women was 97%. Monitoring of the changes in seroprevalence including the reproductive age group is needed in the future.

Serotype Distribution of Invasive Group B Streptococcal Diseases in Infants at Two University Hospitals in Korea (영아에서의 침습 B군 사슬알균 감염증 및 혈청형 분석: 2개 대학병원 연구)

  • Cho, Hye-Kyung;Nam, Hye Na;Cho, Hye Jung;Son, Dong Woo;Cho, Yong Kyun;Seo, Yiel-Hea;Kim, Yae-Jean;Eun, Byung Wook
    • Pediatric Infection and Vaccine
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.79-86
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    • 2017
  • Purpose: This study was aimed at analyzing the serotypes of group B streptococcus (GBS) isolated from Korean infants with invasive disease and evaluating their association with disease manifestation. Methods: Data were retrospectively collected from invasive GBS infections at Gachon University Gil Medical Center from January 2006 to June 2012 and at Samsung Medical Center from April 2010 to November 2012. Serotypes were determined by slide agglutination test. Results: A total of 37 cases were identified, which included 22 full-term infants and 15 preterm infants. Fifteen cases (40.5%) were early-onset, 19 (51.4%) was late-onset, and three (8.1%) was very late-onset. Early-onset diseases among preterm infants were higher than those among full-term infants (60.0% [9/15] vs. 27.3% [6/22], P=0.17). The most common manifestation was bacteremia (70.3%), followed by meningitis and septic arthritis. Among 24 isolates retrievable for serotyping, serotype III (41.7%) was most common, followed by V (16.7%), Ia, Ib, and II (12.5%, respectively), and non-typeable (4.2%). Serotype III was more common in isolates from full-term infants (10/22) than from preterm infants (0/15), whereas serotype V was more common in isolates from preterm infants (4/15) than from full-term infants (0/22) (P=0.002). No penicillin-resistant strain was detected, and resistance to erythromycin and clindamycin were both 64.9%. Conclusions: GBS is an important pathogen in both preterm and full-term infants, and serotype distribution of GBS causing invasive diseases can differ between preterm and full-term infants. It is necessary to monitor the nationwide epidemiology of GBS diseases, including in preterm infants, in order to prepare preventive measures without underestimating early-onset diseases.

Etiology and Clinical Features of Acute Bacterial Gastroenteritis in Children Mananged at a Secondary Hospital (일개 이차 병원에서 치료한 소아 급성 세균성 위장염 원인 및 특징)

  • Kim, Sung Yoon;Kim, Hyun-Jung;Shin, Eun Hye;Eun, Byung Wook;Ahn, Young Min;Song, Mi Ok
    • Pediatric Infection and Vaccine
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.95-101
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    • 2017
  • Purpose: Acute bacterial gastroenteritis (ABG) can cause more severe symptoms than acute viral gastroenteritis in children. This study was aimed at determining the etiologic trends and to examine the clinical characteristics of ABG in children. Methods: We sent stool samples from the children with acute gastroenteritis who were treated at a secondary hospital located in Seoul, Korea between January 2011 and December 2014 to Seoul Metropolitan Government Research Institute of Public Health and Environment to find the causative organisms. Clinical characteristics of patient were analyzed through a medical records review. Results: Out of 664 stool samples, 183 (27.6%) yielded bacterial pathogens. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common bacterial pathogen, found in 72 cases (39.3%), even though it was only tested for since 2012. The monthly isolation rate was the highest (24.6%) in August. The isolation rate of Campylobacter spp. by patient's age group was high (16.7%) in the 12- to 18-year-age group (P=0.04). In patients with bloody stool, Campylobacter spp. was the most commonly isolated (31.0%, P=0.04). When comparing C-reactive protein, the Salmonella spp.- or Campylobacter spp.-isolated group showed higher values than the S. aureus- or pathogenic Escherichia coli-isolated group ($5.7{\pm}0.6mg/dL$ vs. $2.1{\pm}0.3mg/dL$, P<0.01). Conclusions: S. aureus, Salmonella spp., pathogenic E. coli, and Campylobacter spp. were important pathogens of ABG among children. Considering the differences in pathogens found according to age, a clinical symptom and inflammation index might be helpful in assuming the causative organism.

Etiology of Bacteremia in Children with Hemato-oncologic Diseases from a Single Center from 2011 to 2015 (단일 기관에서의 소아 혈액종양 환자에서 발생한 균혈증의 원인균 및 임상 양상: 2011-2015년)

  • Park, Ji Young;Yun, Ki Wook;Kang, Hyoung Jin;Park, Kyung Duk;Shin, Hee Young;Lee, Hoan Jong;Choi, Eun Hwa
    • Pediatric Infection and Vaccine
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.71-78
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    • 2017
  • Purpose: The aim of this study was to identify the pathogens of blood stream infection (BSI) in children with hemato-oncologic disorders, to analyze susceptibility patterns of microorganisms to guide empirical antimicrobial therapy, and to compare temporal trends of the pathogen and antimicrobial susceptibility with those of previous studies. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the medical records of children with hemato-oncologic disorders whose blood culture grew pathogens at the Seoul National University Children's Hospital between 2011 and 2015. Results: A total of 167 patients developed 221 episodes of bacteremia. Among 229 pathogens, gram-negative bacteria (GNB) accounted for 69.0% (64.0% in 2002 to 2005, 63.4% in 2006 to 2010); gram-positive bacteria (GPB) accounted for 28.8% (31.3% in 2002 to 2005, 34.6% in 2006 to 2010); and fungus accounted for 2.2%. Among GNB, Klebsiella species (53.2%, 84/158) and Escherichia coli (19.6%, 31/158) were common. Staphylococcus aureus (48.5%, 32/66) and viridans streptococci (21.2%, 14/66) were frequently isolated among GPB. The susceptibilities of oxacillin and vancomycin in GPB were 54.8% and 96.9% (51.5% and 95.5% in 2002 to 2005; 34.1% and 90.5% in 2006 to 2010), respectively, whereas in GNB, the susceptibilities of cefotaxime, piperacillin/tazobactam, and imipenem were 73.2%, 77.2%, and 92.6% (75.9%, 82.8%, and 93.4% in 2002 to 2005; 62.8%, 82.9%, 93.8% and in 2006 to 2010), respectively. There were no significant differences in the proportion of etiologic agents or the antimicrobial susceptibilities between the current study and that of the previous two studies from 2002 to 2010. Overall fatality rate was 13.1%. Conclusions: GNB predominated in BSI among children with hemato-oncologic disorders. The etiology of bacteremia and antimicrobial susceptibility were comparable to those of the previous studies. Thus, piperacillin/tazobactam can be used as the initial empirical antimicrobial agent in febrile neutropenia.

Differences in Clinical Manifestations and Treatment Responses in Influenza Type A and B in a Single Hospital during 2013 to 2015 (단일 병원에서 2013-2015년에 유행한 인플루엔자 A형과 B형의 임상 양상 및 치료반응의 차이)

  • Lee, Sang Min;Park, Sang Kyu;Kim, Ji Hyun;Lee, Jung Ha;Na, So Young;Kim, Do Hyun;Kang, Eun Kyeong;Cho, Sung Min;Kim, Hee Sub
    • Pediatric Infection and Vaccine
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.16-22
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    • 2017
  • Purpose: We suspect there is a difference in the clinical manifestations and treatment response to antiviral drugs for influenza A and B. This study was conducted to investigate this difference. Methods: We collected information on pediatric patients, infected with the influenza virus, admitted to Dongguk University Ilsan Hospital from October 2013 to May 2015. We investigated the clinical manifestations of influenza and differences in treatment response to oseltamivir treatment for the two types of influenza. Results: A total of 138 patients were included. The mean age was $3.5{\pm}4.0$ years. When comparing the diseases associated with influenza A and B, croup (19.2% vs. 1.7%, P=0.001) was more common with influenza A infection. Myositis (0% vs. 6.7%, P=0.021) and gastroenteritis (29.5% vs. 46.7%, P=0.038) were more common with influenza B infection. When comparing the total fever duration from the start of oseltamivir administration, patients treated with oseltamivir within 2 days of fever had the shortest duration. Among the patients treated with oseltamivir, the duration of fever, after the start of oseltamivir treatment, for was shorter for influenza A infection than for influenza B infection ($16.0{\pm}19.1$ hours vs. $28.9{\pm}27.9$ hours, P=0.006). Conclusions: There appear to be differences in the accompanying diseases and antiviral medication responses between the two types of influenza. It is important to administer oseltamivir within 2 days of fever.

Clinical characteristics of acute lower respiratory tract infections due to 13 respiratory viruses detected by multiplex PCR in children (소아에서 13종 호흡기 바이러스에 의한 급성 하기도 감염의 임상 양상)

  • Lim, Jeong-Sook;Woo, Sung-Il;Baek, Yun-Hee;Kwon, Hyuk-Il;Choi, Young-Ki;Hahn, Youn-Soo
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.53 no.3
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    • pp.373-379
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    • 2010
  • Purpose : This study was performed to investigate the epidemiologic and clinical features of 13 respiratory viruses in children with acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRIs). Methods : Nasopharyngeal aspirates were prospectively obtained from 325 children aged 15 years or less from May 2008 to April 2009 and were tested for the presence of 13 respiratory viruses by multiplex real-time-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Results : Viruses were identified in 270 children (83.1%). Co-infections with ${\geq}2$ viruses were observed in 71 patients (26.3 %). Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) was the most common virus detected (33.2%), followed by human rhinovirus (hRV) (19.1%), influenza virus (Flu A) (16.9%), human metapneumovirus (hMPV) (15.4%), parainfluenza viruses (PIVs) (8.3%), human bocavirus (hBoV) (8.0%), adenovirus (ADV) (5.8%), and human coronavirus (hCoV) (2.2%). Clinical diagnoses of viral ALRIs were bronchiolitis (37.5%), pneumonia (34.5%), asthma exacerbation (20.9%), and croup (7.1%). Clinical diagnoses of viral bronchiolitis and pneumonia were frequently demonstrated in patients who tested positive for RSV, hRV, hMPV, or Flu A. Flu A and hRV were most commonly identified in children older than 3 years and were the 2 leading causes of asthma exacerbation. hRV C was detected in 14 (4.3%) children, who were significantly older than those infected with hRV A ($mean{\pm}SD$, $4.1{\pm}3.5$ years vs. $1.7{\pm}2.3$ years; P =0.009). hBoV was usually detected in young children ($2.3{\pm}3.4$ years) with bronchiolitis and pneumonia. Conclusion : This study described the features of ALRI associated with 13 respiratory viruses in Korean children. Additional investigations are required to define the roles of newly identified viruses in children with ALRIs.

Chlamydia trachomatis respiratory infection in Korean young infants (국내 영유아에서의 Chlamydia trachomatis 호흡기 감염)

  • Hong, Ki Bae;Shin, Youn Shim;Roh, Eui-Jung;Chung, Eun Hee
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.51 no.7
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    • pp.729-735
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    • 2008
  • Purpose : Chlamydia trachomatis is one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases and is also a cause of pneumonia in infants. Respiratory infections by respiratory viruses are also common for infants. The objectives of this study were to identify the clinical manifestations and to determine the prevalence of C. trachomatis respiratory infections and coinfections by respiratory viruses in infants younger than 6 months of age. Methods : For this study, we enrolled 6 months or younger infants who were admitted to the Dankook University Hospital between January 2002 and July 2007, with respiratory symptoms. Nasopharyngeal aspirates or throat swabs were collected within s d of hospitalization and C. trachomatis was detected using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Patients who tested positive underwent multiplex PCR for respiratory viruses. Results : A total of 690 patients underwent chlamydial PCR testing and 36 (5.2%) had positive results. Of the 36, 28 (78%) were male; 30 were vaginally delivered. From the 36 patients positive for C. trachomatis, 26 underwent multiplex respiratory viral PCR; 12 were coinfected with viruses. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) was the most frequent pathogen that was detected in 6 patients. Increased C-reactive protein and fever were significant in patients coinfected with respiratory viruses. Conclusion : C. trachomatis can infected in infants delivered by cesarean section as well as in 6 months old or younger infants. Infant with C. trachomatis respiratory infections can also be coinfected with respiratory infection also coinfected with respiratory viruses. Further studies are needed to better understand the prevalence rates of the this infection and its coinfection rate with respiratory viruses.

Recent Progress in Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Research - A Review of Papers Published in the Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering in 2004 and 2005 - (공기조화, 냉동 분야의 최근 연구 동향 -2004년 및 2005년 학회지 논문에 대한 종합적 고찰-)

  • Choi, Yong-Don;Kang, Yong-Tae;Kim, Nae-Hyun;Kim, Man-Hoe;Park, Kyoung-Kuhn;Park, Byung-Yoon;Park, Jin-Chul;Hong, Hi-Ki
    • Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.94-131
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    • 2007
  • A review on the papers published in the Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigerating Engineering in 2004 and 2005 has been done. Focus has been put on current status of research in the aspect of heating, cooling, air-conditioning, ventilation, sanitation and building environment. The conclusions are as follows. (1) Most of fundamental studies on fluid flow were related with heat transportation of facilities. Drop formation and rivulet flow on solid surfaces were interesting topics related with condensation augmentation. Research on micro environment considering flow, heat, humidity was also interesting for comfortable living environment. It can be extended considering biological aspects. Development of fans and blowers of high performance and low noise were continuing topics. Well developed CFD and flow visualization(PIV, PTV and LDV methods) technologies were widely applied for developing facilities and their systems. (2) The research trends of the previous two yews are surveyed as groups of natural convection, forced convection, electronic cooling, heat transfer enhancement, frosting and defrosting, thermal properties, etc. New research topics introduced include natural convection heat transfer enhancement using nanofluid, supercritical cooling performance or oil miscibility of $CO_2$, enthalpy heat exchanger for heat recovery, heat transfer enhancement in a plate heat exchanger using fluid resonance. (3) The literature for the last two years($2004{\sim}2005$) is reviewed in the areas of heat pump, ice and water storage, cycle analysis and reused energy including geothermal, solar and unused energy). The research on cycle analysis and experiments for $CO_2$ was extensively carried out to replace the Ozone depleting and global warming refrigerants such as HFC and HCFC refrigerants. From the year of 2005, the Gas Engine Heat Pump(GHP) has been paid attention from the viewpoint of the gas cooling application. The heat pipe was focused on the performance improvement by the parametric analysis and the heat recovery applications. The storage systems were studied on the performance enhancement of the storage tank and cost analysis for heating and cooling applications. In the area of unused energy, the hybrid systems were extensively introduced and the life cycle cost analysis(LCCA) for the unused energy systems was also intensively carried out. (4) Recent studies of various refrigeration and air-conditioning systems have focused on the system performance and efficiency enhancement. Heat transfer characteristics during evaporation and condensation are investigated for several tube shapes and of alternative refrigerants including carbon dioxide. Efficiency of various compressors and expansion devices are also dealt with for better modeling and, in particular, performance improvement. Thermoelectric module and cooling systems are analyzed theoretically and experimentally. (5) According to the review of recent studies on ventilation systems, an appropriate ventilation systems including machenical and natural are required to satisfied the level of IAQ. Also, an recent studies on air-conditioning and absorption refrigeration systems, it has mainly focused on distribution and dehumidification of indoor air to improve the performance were carried out. (6) Based on a review of recent studies on indoor environment and building service systems, it is noticed that research issues have mainly focused on optimal thermal comfort, improvement of indoor air Quality and many innovative systems such as air-barrier type perimeter-less system with UFAC, radiant floor heating and cooling system and etc. New approaches are highlighted for improving indoor environmental condition as well as minimizing energy consumption, various activities of building control and operation strategy and energy performance analysis for economic evaluation.