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Survey of Secondary Infections within the Households of Newly Diagnosed Tuberculosis Patients (새로 진단된 결핵 환자의 가족 내 2차 감염 양상 조사)

  • Lee, Min Hyun;Sung, Jae Jin;Eun, Byung Wook;Cho, Hye-Kyung
    • Pediatric Infection and Vaccine
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.7-15
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    • 2015
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate secondary infections within the households of newly diagnosed tuberculosis patients. Methods: We collected data on household infections of tuberculosis patients by retrospective review of medical records and telephone surveys. Results: Out of 321 newly diagnosed tuberculosis cases, a total of 253 patients who received telephone surveys were enrolled in this study. Less than 50% of the patients had household contacts screened for tuberculosis infection, and most of the patients were not aware of the necessity of testing. Out of 562 household contacts, there were 8 cases of secondary tuberculosis (1.4%, 8/562) in 7 households. There were 15 cases of latent infection (2.7%, 15/562) in 13 households. Out of 110 child and adolescent household contacts, there were no cases of secondary tuberculosis, and there were 8 cases of latent infection (7.3%) in 7 households, which was 20.5% among child and adolescent contacts screened for tuberculosis infection. In 3 of the cases (13.0%) that had secondary tuberculosis or latent infection in their households, the source of infection was extrapulmonary tuberculosis. There was no correlation between the frequency of household infections and the presence of pulmonary cavities, sputum AFB smear results, and microbiologically confirmed results. Conclusions: For effective investigation of tuberculosis contacts, it is necessary to raise general awareness on the necessity of investigating household contacts, and there should also be a continued assessment on tuberculosis contact investigation since government-supported programs.

Evaluation of Timeliness of Palivizumab Immunoprophylaxis Based on the Epidemic Period of Respiratory Syncytial Virus: 22 Year Experience in a Single Center (Respiratory Syncytial Virus 유행 시기에 따른 Palivizumab 예방요법시기의 적정성 평가: 22년간 단일기관 연구)

  • Kim, Seung Yun;Lee, Ko Eun;Kang, Su Young;Choi, Eun Hwa;Lee, Hoan Jong
    • Pediatric Infection and Vaccine
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.172-177
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    • 2015
  • Purpose: This study aimed to analyze the epidemic period of RSV infection and evaluate the appropriate time of palivizumab immunoprophylaxis. Methods: From January 1991 to July 2012, nasopharyngeal (NP) aspirates were obtained from patients who visited Seoul National University Children's Hospital for respiratory symptoms. NP samples were used to detect respiratory viruses. Among them, we analyzed the positive number and detection rate of RSV infection in two-week interval. The beginning of RSV season was defined when RSV positive number was more than 4 and RSV detection rate was over 10%. From January 2007 to March 2014, we analyzed the starting time of palivizumab immunoprophylaxis for the infants at high risk. Results: The RSV detection rate was 2,013/21,698 (9.69%) over 22 years. The median RSV season was from $2^{nd}-3^{rd}$ week of October to $1^{st}-2^{nd}$ week of February. The earliest starting week was the 3rd week of July in year 2001, and the latest end week was the 3rd week of May in year 1990. Palivizumab immunoprophylaxis was initiated most frequently at the 3rd week of October (18.7%). However, the percentage of starting palivizumab on the 1st week of September has increased from 3.8% in the year 2007 to 14.1% in 2013. Conclusions: The year to year variability of RSV season exists. The starting time of palivizumab immunoprophylaxis should be adjusted based on the season of RSV epidemic.

Clinical Presentations and Causative Organisms in Children and Adolescents with Osteoarticular Infections: A Retrospective Study (소아청소년기에 발생한 골관절염의 임상 양상 및 원인균에 대한 고찰)

  • Lee, Soyoung;Kim, Han Wool;Cho, Hye-Kyung;Yun, Yoe Hon;Ryu, Kyung Ha;Kim, Kyung-Hyo
    • Pediatric Infection and Vaccine
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.154-163
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    • 2015
  • Purpose: Osteoarticular infections in children and adolescents are important because it can cause functional compromise if appropriate treatment is delayed. Therefore, this study was designed to describe the clinical presentations and causative organisms of osteoarticular infections in children and adolescents in order to propose early diagnosis method and an appropriate empiric antimicrobial therapy. Methods: Forty-two medical records were reviewed retrospectively, which were confirmed as osteomyelitis (OM) or septic arthritis (SA) at Department of Pediatrics or Orthopedic Surgery in patients under 18 years old of Ewha Womans University Mokdong Hospital from March 2008 to March 2015. Results: We identified 21 cases of OM, 13 cases of SA and 8 cases of OM with SA. There were 31 males and 11 females and mean age was 7.1 years old. The most common symptoms were pain and tenderness of involved site. Major involved bones were femur (10 cases, 34.5%), tibia (7 cases, 24.1%) and major involved joints were hip (9 cases, 42.9%), and knee (5 cases, 23.8%). Increased serum C-reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate were observed in 37 cases (88.1%) respectively. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed in 40 cases among 42 cases and was used to demonstrate osteoarticular infections and other adjacent infections. Nine cases (23.7%) among 38 cases and 20 cases (50.0%) among 40 cases were positive in blood culture and infected site culture respectively. The most common causative organism was Staphylococcus aureus, which was represented in 22 cases (75.9%), of which nine cases (40.9%) were resistant to methicillin. Conclusions: S. aureus was the most common causative organism of osteoarticular infections in children and adolescents and the proportion of MRSA was high in this study. Therefore, we recommend vancomycin as the first empiric antimicrobial therapy and suggest that further study is necessary to elucidate an appropriate guideline for treatment which takes into account MRSA proportion.

Human Parechovirus as an Important Cause of Central Nervous System Infection in Childhood (소아청소년기 중추신경 감염의 주요 원인으로서 Human Parechovirus의 의의)

  • Jung, Hyun Joo;Choi, Eun Hwa;Lee, Hoan Jong
    • Pediatric Infection and Vaccine
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.165-171
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    • 2016
  • Purpose: Human parechovirus (HPeV) is an increasingly recognized pathogenic cause of central nervous system (CNS) infection in neonates. However, HPeV infections have not been studied in older children. This study determined the prevalence and clinical features of HPeV CNS infection in children in Korea. Methods: Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays were performed using HPeV-specific, 5' untranslated, region-targeted primers to detect HPeV in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from children presenting with fever or neurologic symptoms from January 1, 2013, to July 31, 2014. HPeV genotyping was performed by sequencing the viral protein 3/1 region. Clinical and laboratory data were retrospectively abstracted from medical records and compared with those of enterovirus (EV)-positive patients from the same period. Results: Of 102 CSF samples, six (5.9%) were positive for HPeV; two of 21 EV-positive samples were co-infected with HPeV. All samples were genotype HPeV3. Two HPeV-positive patients were <3 months of age and four others were over 1 year old. While HPeV-positive infants under 1 year of age presented with sepsis-like illness without definite neurologic abnormalities, HPeV-positive children over 1 year of age presented with fever and neurologic symptoms such as seizures, loss of consciousness, and gait disturbance. The CSF findings of HPeV-positive patients were mostly within the normal range, whereas most (73.7%) EV-positive patients had pleocytosis. Conclusions: Although HPeV is typically associated with disease in young infants, the results of this study suggest that HPeV is an emerging pathogen of CNS infection with neurologic symptoms in older childhood.

Post-exposure Prophylaxis against Varicella Zoster Virus in Hospitalized Children after Inadvertent Exposure (수두-대상포진 바이러스에 노출된 소아 환자의 예방 조치)

  • Yang, Song I;Lim, Ji Hee;Kim, Eun Jin;Park, Ji Young;Yun, Ki Wook;Lee, Hoan Jong;Choi, Eun Hwa
    • Pediatric Infection and Vaccine
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.180-187
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    • 2016
  • Purpose: This study described the post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) and secondary varicella infection in children inadvertently exposed to varicella zoster virus (VZV) in the hospital. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed data from patients with VZV infection who were initially not properly isolated, as well as children exposed to VZV at the Seoul National University Children's Hospital between January 2010 and December 2015. The PEP measures were determined by the presence of immunity to VZV and immunocompromising conditions. Patient clinical information was reviewed via medical records. Results: Among 147 children hospitalized between 2010 and 2015, 13 inadvertent exposures were notified due to VZV infection. Five index children had a history of VZV vaccination. Eighty-six children were exposed in multi-occupancy rooms and 62.8% (54/86) were immune to VZV. The PEP measures administered to 27 exposed patients included varicella zoster immunoglobulin and VZV vaccination. Four children developed secondary varicella, which was linked to a single index patient, including one child who did not receive PEP and three of the 27 children who received PEP. The rates of secondary varicella and prophylaxis failure were 4.7% (4/85) and 11.1% (3/27), respectively. The secondary varicella rates were 1.9% (1/54) and 9.7% (3/31) among immunocompetent and immunocompromised children, respectively. Conclusions: Delayed diagnosis of VZV infection can lead to unexpected exposure and place susceptible children and immunocompromised patients at risk for developing varicella. The appropriateness of the current PEP strategy based on VZV immunity may require re-evaluation.

Real-time Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction Using Total RNA Extracted from Nasopharyngeal Aspirates for Detection of Pneumococcal Carriage in Children (소아에서 폐렴구균 집락률 측정을 위해 비인두 흡인 물의 총 RNA를 이용한 실시간 중합효소 연쇄반응법)

  • Kim, Young Kwang;Lee, Kyoung Hoon;Yun, Ki Wook;Lee, Mi Kyung;Lim, In Seok
    • Pediatric Infection and Vaccine
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.194-201
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    • 2016
  • Purpose: Monitoring pneumococcal carriage rates is important. We developed and evaluated the accuracy of a real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) protocol for the detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Methods: In October 2014, 157 nasopharyngeal aspirates were collected from patients aged <18 years admitted to Chung-Ang University Hospital. We developed and evaluated a real-time PCR method for detecting S. pneumoniae by comparing culture findings with the results of the real-time PCR using genomic DNA (gDNA). Of 157 samples, 20 specimens were analyzed in order to compare the results of cultures, real-time PCR, and real-time RT-PCR. Results: The concordance rate between culture findings and the results of real-time PCR was 0.922 (P<0.01, Fisher exact test). The 133 culture-negative samples were confirmed to be negative for S. pneumoniae using real-time PCR. Of the remaining 24 culture-positive samples, 21 were identified as S. pneumonia -positive using real-time PCR. The results of real-time RT-PCR and real-time PCR from 20 specimens were consistent with culture findings for all S. pneumoniae -positive samples except one. Culture and real-time RT-PCR required 26.5 and 4.5 hours to perform, respectively. Conclusions: This study established a real-time RT-PCR method for the detection of pneumococcal carriage in the nasopharynx. Real-time RT-PCR is an accurate, convenient, and time-saving method; therefore, it may be useful for collecting epidemiologic data regarding pneumococcal carriage in children.

Occurrence Pattern of Intussusception according to the Introduction of Rotavirus Vaccine: An Observational Study at a University Hospital (로타바이러스 백신 도입에 따른 장겹침증 발생 경향: 한 대학병원 관찰 연구)

  • Nam, Hye Na;Lim, Kyung In;Tchah, Hann;Ryoo, Eell;Sun, Yong Han;Cho, Hye-Kyung
    • Pediatric Infection and Vaccine
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.202-208
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    • 2016
  • Purpose: Rotavirus vaccine (RV) was introduced in Korea since 2007, and intussusception (IS) remains an important safety concern. This study investigated the trend of IS occurrence related to RV as well as the temporal relevance between vaccination and IS in children. Methods: We collected data of the patient aged ${\leq}18$ years with IS admitted to Gachon University Gil Medical Center, 2003 to 2015. For the patients that have occurred since 2008, the immunization records of RV were collected. The proportion of cases <1 year was calculated by the year and the temporal relationship between vaccination and IS occurrence was analyzed. Results: A total of 696 IS cases were noted. The cases <1 year were 30.7% (214/696). Although the incidence of all IS has increased over the 13-year period (from 74.1 in 2003 to 89.5 in 2015, linear by linear association, P=0.003), the incidence of IS <1 year has not increased (from 56.9 in 2003 to 53.3 in 2015, P=0.910), and the proportion of cases <1 year has decreased (from 35.4 in 2003 to 18.8 in 2015, P=0.000). Of 128 cases <1 year since 2008, 53.9% received RV. In the vaccinated group, 10 cases of IS occurred within 30 days, and eight cases did within 31 to 60 days. Numbers of IS after first, second, and third dose were three, 10, and five cases, respectively. Conclusions: Occurrence of IS in children <1 year of age did not increase since the introduction of RV. Further monitoring is essential for evaluation of vaccine safety.

Molecular Epidemiology of Bacillus cereus in a Pediatric Cancer Center (소아 암 환자에서 발생한 Bacillus cereus 균혈증의 분자역학 분석에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Jong Min;Park, Ki-Sup;Lee, Byung-Kee;Kim, Soo Jin;Kang, Ji-Man;Kim, Yanghyun;Yoo, Keon Hee;Sung, Ki Woong;Koo, Hong Hoe;Lee, Nam Yong;Kim, Yae-Jean
    • Pediatric Infection and Vaccine
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.172-179
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    • 2016
  • Purpose: Bacillus cereus has been reported as the cause of nosocomial infections in cancer patients. In our pediatric cancer ward, a sudden rise in the number of patients with B. cereus bacteremia was observed in 2013 to 2014. This study was performed to investigate the molecular epidemiology of increased B. cereus bacteremia cases in our center. Methods: Pediatric cancer patients who developed B. cereus bacteremia were identified from January 2001 to June 2014. The B. cereus bacteremia in this study was defined as a case in which at least one B. cereus identified in blood cultures, regardless of true bacteremia. Available isolates were further tested by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analysis. A retrospective chart review was performed. Results: Nineteen patients developed B. cereus bacteremia during the study period. However, in 2013, a sudden increase in the number of patients with B. cereus bacteremia was observed. In addition, three patients developed B. cereus bacteremia within 1 week in July and the other three patients within 1 week in October, respectively, during emergency room renovation. However, MLST analysis revealed different sequence types without consistent patterns. Before 2013, five tested isolates were ST18, ST26, ST177, and ST147-like type, and ST219-like type. Isolates from 2013 were ST18, ST73, ST90, ST427, ST784, ST34-like type, and ST130-like type. Conclusions: MLST analyses showed variable ST distribution of B. cereus isolates. Based on this study, there was no significant evidence suggesting a true outbreak caused by a single ST among patients who developed B. cereus bacteremia.

Epidemiology and Clinical manifestations of Enterovirus in Pediatric Inpatient in Incheon (인천지역 소아 입원 환자의 엔테로바이러스 역학과 혈청형에 따른 임상양상 비교)

  • Cho, Byoung Wook;Kwon, Seong Eun;Kwon, Mun Ju;Hur, Myong Je;Kim, Kyung Seon;Hong, Young Jin;Kim, Soon Ki;Kwon, Young Se;Kim, Dong Hyun
    • Pediatric Infection and Vaccine
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.46-53
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    • 2016
  • Purpose: Enterovirus (EV) infection in children can manifest various diseases from asymptomatic infection to nonspecific febrile illness, hand-foot-mouth disease, and aseptic meningitis. This study was aimed to investigate epidemiology and clinical significance of various genotypes of EV infections in pediatric inpatient. Methods: We collected the stool samples from the admitted pediatric patients in Inha University Hospital from March 2014 to March 2015. EV detection and genotype identification were performed by real-time RT-PCR and semi-nested RT-PCR. Phylogenetic trees were constructed by neighbor joining method. Results: A total of 400 samples were collected during study period and 112 patients (28%) were diagnosed with EV infections. The mean age of EV positive patients was 2.66 years (0.1-14) and sex ratio was 1.73:1. Genetic sequences of EVs were identified; coxsackievirus B5 (17, 15.2%), coxsackievirus A16 (13, 11.6%), enterovirus 71 (10, 8.9%), and coxsackievirus A2 (9, 8.0%). Nonspecific febrile illness (96, 86%) was the most common clinical manifestation and the duration of fever was 0-11 days (mean 3.1 days). Rash (44, 39%) and meningitis (43, 38%) were followed. Patients who were attending daycare center or had siblings accounted for 82.1%. Phylogenetic relationship tree revealed 6 distinct genogroups among 56 types of EVs. Conclusions: This study is the report of epidemiology, serotype distribution and clinical manifestations of children with EV infection in Incheon. This data will be helpful for further study about the epidemiology of EV infection in Korea.

Comparison of Cervical-lymph-node-first Presentation of Kawasaki Disease and Typical Kawasaki Disease (전형적인 가와사키병 환아와 경부 림프절종대를 주소로 내원하여 가와사키병으로 진단된 환아의 비교)

  • Yun, Hye-Won;Lee, Jun-Yeol;Yang, Song-I;Yu, Hee-Joon;Kang, Min-Jae;Lee, So-Yeon;Lee, Hae-Ran;Kim, Kwang-Nam;Kim, Sung-Hye
    • Pediatric Infection and Vaccine
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.10-17
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    • 2016
  • Purpose: The diagnosis of Kawasaki disease depends on clinical symptoms, which makes it difficult to diagnose early in patients with only cervical lymphadenopathy. The purpose of this study is to understand the clinical characteristics of cervical-lymph-node-first presentation of Kawasaki disease and compare them with those of typical Kawasaki disease. Methods: We surveyed 283 patients who were admitted to Hallym Sacred Heart Hospital and were diagnosed with Kawasaki disease from January 2012 to December 2014. The patients were divided into two groups: cervical-lymph-node-first presentation of Kawasaki disease (LKD, N=24) and typical Kawasaki disease (KD, N=259). The medical records were retrospectively reviewed. Results: The mean age of the LKD group was higher than that of the KD group (P=0.04). At admission, the LKD patients had on average 1.62 out of 5 symptoms, whereas the KD patients had 3.47. The time from fever to diagnosis and administration of IV immunoglobulin was longer in the LKD group than in the KD group (P<0.001). The mean C-reactive protein of the LKD group was higher than that of the KD group (P=0.01). There were no statistical differences in the presence of coronary artery complications between the two groups at two weeks or at two months after diagnosis (P=0.52, P=0.08). Conclusions: The Kawasaki disease patients with fever and cervical lymphadenopathy usually do not present obvious clinical symptoms, which makes it hard to diagnose in the early phase of disease. Clinician must pay attention when examining these patients.