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Vitamin D and Risk of Respiratory Tract Infections in Children: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials (비타민 D와 소아 호흡기 감염의 위험성: 무작위 대조 연구에 대한 체계적 문헌고찰 및 메타분석)

  • Ahn, Jong Gyun;Lee, Dokyung;Kim, Kyung-Hyo
    • Pediatric Infection and Vaccine
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.109-116
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    • 2016
  • Purpose: Recent observational studies have found that vitamin D deficiency is associated with respiratory tract infections. However, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) regarding the efficacy of vitamin D in childhood respiratory tract infection (RTI) have yield inconsistent results. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the association between vitamin D supplementation and the risk of RTI. Methods: A comprehensive search was conducted using MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trial. Randomized controlled trials of vitamin D supplementation for prevention of RTI in children were included for the analysis. Cochrane Collaboration's tool for assessing the risk of bias was used to assess the quality of the studies. Pooled risk ratios with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were meta-analyzed using Review Manager 5.3. Results: A total of seven RCTs were included in the meta-analysis. According to a random-effects model, the risk ratio for vitamin D supplementation was 0.82 (95% CI: 0.69-0.98) and $I^2=62%$ for heterogeneity. On subgroup analysis, heterogeneity decreased in the subgroup with follow-up less than 1 year, participants ${\geq}5years$ of age, patients subgroup, and subgroup with dosing daily. Funnel plot showed that there might be publication bias in the field. Conclusions: The present meta-analysis supports a beneficial effect of vitamin D supplementation for the prevention of RTI in children. However, the result should be interpreted with caution due to limitations including a small number of available RCTs, heterogeneity among the studies, and potential publication bias.

Comparison of Split versus Subunit Seasonal Influenza Vaccine in Korean Children over 3 to under 18 Years of Age

  • Kang, Seah;Kim, Dong Ho;Eun, Byung Wook;Kim, Nam Hee;Kang, Eun Kyeong;Lee, Byong Sop;Kim, Yun-Kyung
    • Pediatric Infection and Vaccine
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.161-169
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    • 2019
  • Purpose: This study was conducted to compare immunogenicities and reactogenicities of the trivalent inactivated subunit influenza vaccine and split influenza vaccine in Korean children and adolescents. Methods: In total, 202 healthy children aged 36 months to <18 years were enrolled at six hospitals in Korea from October to December 2008. The subjects were vaccinated with either the split or subunit influenza vaccine. The hemagglutinin inhibition antibody titers against the H1N1, H3N2, and B virus strains were measured, and the seroconversion rates, seroprotection rates, and geometric mean titers were calculated. All subjects were observed for local and systemic reactions. Results: Both the split and subunit vaccine groups had similar seroprotection rates against all strains (95.9%, 94.9%, 96.9% vs. 96.0%, 90.9%, and 87.9%). In children aged 36 to <72 months, the seroprotection rates were similar between the two vaccine groups. In children aged 72 months to <18 years, both vaccines showed high seroprotection rates against the H1N1, H3N2, and B strain (98.4%, 98.4%, 98.4% vs. 97.0%, 95.5%, and 91.0%), but showed relatively low seroconversion rates (39.1%, 73.4%, 35.9% vs. 34.3%, 55.2%, and 38.8%). There were more local and systemic reactions in the split vaccine group than in the subunit vaccine group; however, no serious adverse reactions were observed in both groups. Conclusions: Both the split and subunit vaccines showed acceptable immunogenicity in all age groups. There were no serious adverse events with both vaccines.

Molecular Epidemiologic Study of a Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Outbreak at a Newborn Nursery and Neonatal Intensive Care Unit

  • Kang, Hyun Mi;Park, Ki Cheol;Lee, Kyung-Yil;Park, Joonhong;Park, Sun Hee;Lee, Dong-Gun;Kim, Jong-Hyun
    • Pediatric Infection and Vaccine
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.148-160
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    • 2019
  • Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the molecular epidemiology of a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) outbreak at a newborn nursery and neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Methods: During the outbreak, from August to September 2017, MRSA isolates collected from neonates and medical staff underwent genotyping and screened for virulence factors. Antibiotic susceptibilities were tested. Results: During the study period, 41 neonates were admitted at the nursery (n=27) and NICU (n=14). Of these, 7 had MRSA infections (skin infection [n=6] and sepsis [n=1]) and 4 were colonized with MRSA. Associated medical staff (n=32) were screened; three were nasal MRSA carriers. Staphylococcal chromosomal cassette mec (SCCmec) type II, sequence type (ST) 89, spa type t375 was found to be the skin infection outbreak causing strain, with multi-drug resistance including low-level mupirocin resistance. SCCmec type IVa, ST 72, and a novel spa type designated t17879, was the cause of MRSA sepsis. Many different types of MRSA were colonized on the neonates; however, SCCmec type IVa, ST 72, spa type t664 was colonized in both neonates and a NICU nurse. All MRSA isolates from colonized infants were positive for the Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) toxin gene. Conclusions: The strain causing an outbreak of skin infections had multi-drug resistance. Also, MRSA colonized in the neonates were found to carry the PVL toxin gene. Because different strains are present during an outbreak, molecular epidemiologic studies are important to identify the outbreak strain and colonized strains which aid in effective control and prevention of future MRSA outbreaks.

Clinical Manifestations of PFAPA (Periodic Fever, Aphthous Stomatitis, Pharyngitis, and Adenitis) Syndrome from a Single Center (단일기관에서 진단한 PFAPA (Periodic Fever, Aphthous Stomatitis, Pharyngitis, and Adenitis) 증후군의 임상양상)

  • Shin, Minsoo;Choi, Eun Hwa;Han, Mi Seon
    • Pediatric Infection and Vaccine
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.179-187
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    • 2019
  • Purpose: Periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and adenitis (PFAPA) syndrome is a leading cause of periodic fever in children. This study describes the clinical characteristics of PFAPA syndrome in patients from a single center. Methods: Thirteen children diagnosed with PFAPA syndrome at Seoul National University Children's Hospital were included in this study. Retrospective medical chart reviews were performed. Results: Among the 13 patients, 8 (61.5%) were male. The median follow-up duration was 3.3 years (range, 10 months-8.3 years). The median age of periodic fever onset was 3 years (range, 1-6 years). All patients had at least 5 episodes of periodic fever and pharyngitis, managed with oral antibiotics, before diagnosis. The median occurrence of fever was every 3.9 weeks and lasted for 4.2 days. All patients had pharyngitis and 12 (92.3%) had cervical lymphadenitis. Blood tests were performed for 12 patients, and no patients had neutropenia. Both the C-reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate were elevated at medians of 4.5 mg/dL (range, 0.4-13.2 mg/dL) and 29 mm/hr (range, 16-49 mm/hr), respectively. Throat swab cultures and rapid streptococcal antigen tests were negative. Nine (69.2%) patients received oral prednisolone at a median dose of 0.8 mg/kg, and in 6 (66.7%) patients, fever resolved within a few hours. Three (23.1%) patients received tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy. Conclusions: PFAPA syndrome should be considered when a child presents with periodic fever along with aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, or cervical lymphadenitis. Glucocorticoid administration is effective for fever resolution and can reduce unnecessary use of antibiotics.

Clinical Features of and Antibiotic Resistance in Recurrent Urinary Tract Infection in Children with Vesicoureteral Reflux

  • Eun, So Hyun;Kang, Ji-Man;Kim, Ji Hong;Kim, Sang Woon;Lee, Yong Seung;Han, Sang Won;Ahn, Jong Gyun
    • Pediatric Infection and Vaccine
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    • v.27 no.1
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    • pp.35-44
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    • 2020
  • Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the clinical features of recurrent urinary tract infection (UTI) in children with vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) and to compare the causative uropathogen and antibiotic susceptibility between the first and recurrent UTI episodes. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of children with VUR who had recurrent UTI. Group 1 included patients in whom the same pathogen caused the first and recurrent UTI episodes. Group 2 included patients in whom different pathogens caused the first and recurrent UTI episodes. Results: During a 13-year study period (2005-2018), 77 children with VUR experienced at least one episode of UTI. Among these, 47 patients (61.0%) had recurrent UTI. Of the children with recurrent UTI, 19 (40.4%) were in group 1 and 28 (59.6%) were in group 2. Escherichia coli was the most commonly isolated uropathogen (n=37; 39.4%) in both episodes of recurrent UTIs, followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (n=18; 19.1%), Enterococcus faecalis (n=14; 14.9%), and Enterobacter aerogenes (n=7; 7.4%). Although the difference was not significant, the rate of resistance to the antibiotics ceftazidime, piperacillin/tazobactam, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole increased in patients with the second episode of E. coli recurrence in group 1, and that to cefotaxime, ceftazidime, piperacillin/tazobactam, and meropenem increased in children with the second episode of E. aerogenes recurrence in group 1. Conclusions: When selecting empirical antibiotics for recurrent UTI in children with VUR, it is important to consider that the pathogen and antimicrobial susceptibility of the previous UTI are not always the same in recurrent UTIs.