• Title, Summary, Keyword: PIV

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Development of Stereoscopic PIV Measurement Technique and Its Application to Wake behind an Axial Fan (Stereoscopic PIV 기법의 개발과 이를 이용한 축류 홴 후류의 유동해석)

  • Yun, Jeong-Hwan;Lee, Sang-Jun
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers B
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.362-373
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    • 2002
  • A stereoscopic PIV (SPIV) measurement system based on the translation configuration was developed and applied to the flow behind a forward-swept axial-fan. Measurement of three orthogonal velocity components is essential for flow analysis of three-dimensional flows such as flow around a fan or propeller. In this study, the translation configuration was adopted to calculate the out-of-plane velocity component from 2-D PIV data obtained from two CCD cameras. The error caused by the out-of-plane motion was estimated by direct comparison of the 2-D PIV and 3-D SPIV results that measured from the particle images captured simultaneously. The comparison shows that the error ratio is relatively high in the region of higher out-of-plane motion near the axial fan blade. The turbulence intensity measured by the 2-D PIV method is bigger by about 5.8% in maximum compared with that of the 3-D SPIV method. The phase-averaged velocity field results show that the wake behind an axial fan has a periodic flow structure with respect to the blade phase and the characteristic flow structure is shifted downstream in the next phase.

Development of a Stereoscopic Miniature PIV(MPIV) System (Stereoscopic Miniature PIV (MPIV) 시스템의 개발)

  • Kim S.H.;Chete1at O.;Kim K.C.
    • Proceedings of the KSME Conference
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    • pp.517-520
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    • 2002
  • Stereoscopic particle image velocimetry is a measurement technique to acquire of three dimensional velocity field by two cameras. With a laser sheet illumination, the third velocity component can be deduced by out-of-plane velocity components using a stereoscopic matching method. Industrial fluid flows are almost three dimensional turbulent flows, so it is necessary to use the stereoscopic PIV measurement method. However the existing stereoscopic PIV system seems hard to use since it is very expensive and complex. In this study we have developed a Stereoscopic Miniature PIV(MPIV) system based on the concept of the Miniature PIV system which we have already developed. In this paper, we address the design and some first experimental results of the stereoscopic PIV system. The Stereoscopic MPIV system features relatively modest performances, but is considerably smaller, cheaper and easy to handle. The proposed Stereoscopic MPIV system uses two one-chip-only CMOS cameras with digital output. Only two other chips are needed, one for a buffer memory and one for an interfacing logic that controls the system. Images are transferred to a personal computer (PC) via its standard parallel port. No extra hardware is required (in particular, no frame grabber board is needed).

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Spatial Analysis of Turbulent Flow in Combustion Chamber using High Resolution Dual Color PIV (고분해능 이색 PIV를 이용한 가솔린 엔진 연소실내 난류의 공간적 해석)

  • Lee, K.H.;Lee, C.S.;Lee, H.G.;Chon, M.S.;Joo, Y.C.
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers
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    • v.6 no.6
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    • pp.132-141
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    • 1998
  • Particle image velocimetry(PIV), a planar measuring technique, is an efficient tool for studying the complicated flow field such as in-cylinder flow, and intake port flow. PIV can be also used for analyzing the integral length scale of turbulence, which is a measure of the size of the large eddies that contain most of the turbulence kinetic energy. In this study, dual color scanning PIV was designed and demonstrated by using a rotating mirror and a beam splitter. This PIV system allowed enlargement of flexibility in the intensity of vectors to be calculated by spatial filtering technique, even in combustion chamber with high velocity gradient and high vorticity$({\sim}1000s^{-1})$. A new color image processing algorithm was developed, which was used to find the direction of particle movement directly from the digital image. These measuring techniques were successfully applied to obtaining the turbulence intensity (~0.1m/s) and the turbulent integral length scale of vorticity(~1mm).

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Experimental Study on Vertical Velocity Distribution in the Open Channel with Smooth bed Using PIV Technique (매끄러운 하상의 개수로에서 PIV 기법을 이용한 연직유속분포의 실험적 연구)

  • Byun, Hyun-Hyuk;Yoon, Byung-Man;Ji, Un
    • Proceedings of the Korea Water Resources Association Conference
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    • pp.614-614
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    • 2012
  • 개수로에서 혹은 수리구조물 주변에서의 흐름 및 난류 특성을 파악하기 위해서는 연직유속분포 및 수심별 평면유속분포의 측정이 필요하다. 유속분포를 측정하기 위한 방법은 음파 도플러 유속계(ADV:Acoustic Doppler Velocimetry)를 사용하는 방법과 PIV 기법을 이용하는 방법이 있다. 일반적으로 ADV는 한 지점의 유속을 시간변화에 따라 연속적으로 측정할 수 있어 난류특성의 정량적인 해석에 장점이 있으나 동시간에 여러 지점을 측정할 수 없기 때문에 난류의 공간적인 문제를 해석함에 있어서 한계가 있다. 그러나, 입자영상유속계(PIV:Particle Image Velocity)는 측정하고자 하는 단면에서 연직 횡단면의 유속분포 및 수심별 평면 유속분포 흐름장 측정이 가능하여 난류흐름의 공간적인 문제를 해석하는데 효과적일 뿐만 아니라 영상간의 시간간격을 짧게 하고, 촬영시간을 충분히 길게 한다면 개수로 내 난류특성 분석도 가능하다. 이에 본 연구의 목적은 PIV 기법을 이용하여 매끄러운 하상의 개수로에서 연직유속분포를 측정하고 그 특성을 정량적으로 분석하고자 한다. 본 연구에서는 첫째, PIV 기법을 이용하여 측정한 연직유속분포와 3차원 전자식 유속계를 이용하여 측정한 연직유속분포를 비교 분석하였다. 둘째, 후류법칙에 의해 계산된 연직유속분포와 PIV 기법을 이용하여 측정한 연직유속분포의 비교를 위해 각각의 무차원 유속분포(지점 유속/지점 마찰속도)를 계산하고 비교하였다. 마지막으로 각 흐름 조건에 따라 수심의 변화를 주어 연직유속분포를 PIV 기법으로 측정한 후 개수로의 수심변화에 따른 연직유속의 특성을 분석하였다. 분석 결과, PIV 기법을 이용하여 측정한 연직유속 성분에 비해 3차원 전자식 유속계로 측정한 연직유속 성분이 작게 나타났고 바닥에서부터 0.2h 지점까지는 무차원 유속분포(지점 유속/지점 마찰속도)가 후류법칙과 잘 맞는 경향을 보였으나 0.2h 지점부터 수표면까지는 유속이 감소하는 현상이 나타났다.

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Characteristics of Flow Field at Curved Section of Oil Fence using PIV Measurements and CFD Simulations (PIV 계측과 CFD 해석을 통한 오일펜스 만곡부 단면에서의 유동장 특성)

  • Kim, Tae-Ho;Jang, Duck-Jong;Na, Sun-Chol;Bae, Jae-Hyun;Kim, Dae-An
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Marine Environment & Safety
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.29-37
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    • 2011
  • PIV measurements of the velocity field, pressure field, vorticity, and turbulent intensity in the rear of curved section of an oil fence with current speed showed that the flow directions in the rear of flow boundary area were similar to those in the front of it. As the current speed increased, the patterns of pressure distribution were changed, and the turbulent flow became more irregular. CFD simulations under the same conditions as the PIV tests showed that the flow patterns of the wake were similar to those by PIV tests in speed of 0.3 m/s and less, but were distinctively deviated from those in 0.4 m/s due to the flexibility of the oil fence, which was not properly taken care of in CFD modeling.

Development of Single-Frame PIV Velocity Field Measurement Technique Using a High Resolution CCD Camera (고해상도 CCD카메라를 이용한 Single-Frame PIV 속도장 측정기법 개발)

  • Lee, Sang-Joon;Shin, Dae-Sig
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers B
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.21-28
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    • 2000
  • Although commercial PIV systems have been widely used for the non-intrusive velocity field measurement of fluid flows, they are still under development and have considerable room for improvement. In this study, a single-frame double-exposure PIV system using a high-resolution CCD camera was developed. A pulsed Nd:Yag laser and high-resolution CCD camera were synchronized by a home-made control circuit. In order to resolve the directional ambiguity problem encountered in the single-frame PIV technique, the second particle image was genuinely shifted in the CCD sensor array during the time interval dt. The velocity vector field was determined by calculating the displacement vector at each interrogation window using cross-correlation with 50% overlapping. In order to check the effect of spatial resolution of CCD camera on the accuracy of PIV velocity field measurement, the developed PIV system with three different resolution modes of the CCD camera (512 ${\times}$ 512, lK ${\times}$ IK, 2K ${\times}$ 2K) was applied to a turbulent flow which simulate the Zn plating process of a steel strip. The experimental model consists of a snout and a moving belt. Aluminum flakes about $1{\mu}m$ diameter were used as scattering particles for the liquid flow in the zinc pot and the gas flow above the zinc surface was seeded with atomized olive oil with an average diameter of 1-$3{\mu}m$. Velocity field measurements were carried out at the strip speed $V_s$=1.0 m/s. The 2K ${\times}$ 2K high-resolution PIV technique was significantly superior compared to the smaller pixel resolution PIV system. For the cases of 512 ${\times}$ 512 and 1K ${\times}$ 1K pixel resolution PIV system, it was difficult to get accurate flow structure of viscous flow near the wall and small vortex structure in the region of large velocity gradient.

Measurement of the Flow Field in a River (LSPIV에 의한 하천 표면유속장의 관측)

  • Kim, Young-Sung;Yang, Jae-Rheen
    • Proceedings of the Korea Water Resources Association Conference
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    • pp.1812-1816
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    • 2009
  • 이미지 해석에 의한 유속장 측정방법은 유체역학분야에서 지난 30 여년 동안 많이 활용되어온 속도측정 기법으로 오늘날에는 이를 수공학 분야에서 이를 유량측정 등 수리현상 해석에 활용하려는 시도가 다각적으로 이루어지고 있다. 이에 본 연구에서는 이미지 해석에 의한 유속장 측정방법을 용담댐 시험유역에 적용하여 그의 자연하천에서의 적용성을 검토하고자 한다. 이미지 해석에 의한 유속장 측정방법은 PIV(Particle Image Velocimetry)로 통칭되고 있으며, PIV는 seeding, illumination, recording, 및 image processing의 네 가지 요소로 구성된다. seeding을 위해서 유체를 따라 흐를수 있는 작은 입자를 유체에 첨가한다. 유체를 따라 흐르는 입자들의 선명한 이미지를 얻기 위해서illumination이 필요하다. PIV를 이용하여 흐름을 해석하기 위한 illumination은 일반적으로 이중펄스 레이저가 이용된다. 이렇게 유속장 해석을 하려는 유체에 대하여 seeding 및 illumination이 준비되면 단일노출- 다중 프레임법, 혹은 다중노출-단일 프레임법으로 흐름을 recording을 한다. image processing은 이미지를 다운로드하고, 디지타이징 및 화질향상을 하는 전처리(pre-processing), 상관계수의 산정에 의한 유속 벡터의 결정 및 에러 벡터를 제거하고 유속장을 그래프화하는 후처리(post-processing) 과정으로 구성된다. LSPIV(Large Scale PIV)는 PIV의 기본원리를 근거로 하여 기존의 PIV에 비하여 실험실 내에서의 수리모형실험이나 일반 하천에서의 유속측정과 같은 큰 규모$(4m^2\sim45,000m^2$)의 흐름해석을 할 수 있도록 Fujita et al.(1994)와 Aya et al.(1995)이 확장시킨 것이다. PIV와 비교시 LSPIV의 다른 점은 넓은 흐름 표면적을 포함하기 위하여 촬영시에 카메라의 광축과 흐름 사이의 각도가 PIV에서 이용하는 수직이 아닌 경사각을 이용하였고 이에 따라 발생하는 이미지의 왜곡을 제거하기 위하여 이미지 변환기법을 적용하여 왜곡이 없는 정사촬영 이미지로 변환시킨다. 이후부터는 PIV의 이미지 처리 방법이 적용되어 표면유속을 산정한다. 다만 이미지 변환을 PIV 이미지 처리 전에 하느냐 후에 하느냐에 따라 유속장 해석결과에 차이가 있다. PIV의 네가지 단계를 포함하여 LSPIV의 각 단계를 구분하면, seeding, illumination, recording, image transformation,image processing 및 post-processing의 여섯 단계로 나뉘어진다 (Li, 2002). LSPIV를 적용시 물표면 입자의 Tracing을 위하여 자연하천에서 사용하기에 적합한 환경친화적인 seeding 재료인 Wood Mulch를 사용하여 유속을 측정하였다. 적용지점은 용담댐 상류의 동향수위관측소 지점으로 이 지점은 한국수자원공사의 수자원시험유역이 위치하고 있다. 이미지의 촬영은 가정용 비디오 캠코더 (Sony DCR-PC 350)을 이용하여 두 줄기의 흐름에 대하여 각각 약 5분 동안의 영상을 촬영한후 이중에서 seeding의 분포가 잘 이루어진 약 1분간을 추출한후 이를 이용하여 PIV 분석에 이용하였다. 대체적으로 유속장의 계산이 무난하게 이루어지었으나 비교적 수질 상태가 양호하고, 수심이 낮고, 하상재료가 자갈로 이루어져 있어 비슷한 색상의 seeding 재료를 추적하기 어려운 구간이 발생한 부분에서는 유속의 계산이 정확히 이루어지지 않았다.

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A Study on Flow Characteristics and Efficiency in Guide Vane of Diffuser Pump Using PIV Measurement (PIV를 이용한 디퓨저펌프 정익에서의 성능과 유동특성에 관한 연구)

  • 김정환;김범석;김진구;함승덕;이영호
    • Journal of Advanced Marine Engineering and Technology
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    • v.27 no.5
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    • pp.633-640
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    • 2003
  • The present experimental study is focused on the application of multi-point simultaneous measurement by PIV(Particle Image Velocimetry) to guide vane region within diffuser pump. Various different kinds of rotational velocity were selected as experimental condition. Optimized cross correlation Identification to obtain velocity vectors is implemented with direct calculation of correlation coefficients. Fine optical setup concerned with PIV performance is arranged for the accurate PIV measurement of high-speed complex flow. Variable flow pattern are represented quantitatively at the stator region.

Precise Estimations on Vorticities using a Hybrid PTV-PIV Algorithm (하이브리드 PTV-PIV알고리듬에 의한 고정밀 와도 추정)

  • Doh, Deog-Hee;Cho, Gyong-Rae;Lee, Jae-Min
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Visualization
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    • v.8 no.4
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    • pp.26-30
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    • 2010
  • A PTV algorithm was constructed using a linear transformation, in which the merits of the conventional PIV and PTV were adopted. In PIV calculations, the obtained velocity vectors are affected by the filtering effects by its calculation principle. PTV techniques are widely used for their excellences of measuring small scaled flows, such as nano and bio flows. However, PTVs produce vector errors due to interpolation process. To overcome these problems, a hybrid PTV algorithm was constructed by combining PTVs' and PIVs' benefits using a linear transformation. The Taylor-Green vortex flows were generated for the tests of vorticity calculations. The conventional gray-level cross-correlation PIV technique and 2-Frame PTV technique were tested for the same flows for comparisons with those obtained by the constructed hybrid algorithm. The excellence of the constructed hybrid algorithm was validated through an actual experiment on the cylinder wake.

PIV Measurements of the Pressure Driven Flow Inside a T-Shaped Microchannel Junction (T헝 마이크로채널 연결부 압력구동 유동의 PIV계측)

  • Choi Jayho;Lee In-Seop
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Visualization
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.75-81
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    • 2003
  • A custom micro-PIV optics assembly has been used to measure the flow fold inside a T-junction of a microchannel. The micro-PIV system consists of microscope objectives of various magnifications, a dichroic cube, and an 8-bit CCD camera. Fluorescent particles of diameters 620 nm have been used with a Nd:YAG laser and color filters. A programmable syringe pump with Teflon tubings were used to inject particle-seeded distilled water into the channel at flow rates of 2.0, 4.0, 6.0 mL/hr. The micro-channels are fabricated with PDMS with a silicon mold, then O$_{2}$ -ion bonded onto a slide glass. Results show differences in flow characteristics and resolution according to fluid injection rates, and magnifications, respectively. The results include PIV data with vector-to-vector distances of 2 $\mu$m with 32 pixel-square interrogation windows at 50$\%$ overlap.

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