• Title/Summary/Keyword: PM

Search Result 32,804, Processing Time 0.186 seconds

Pulmonary Function Tests of Athletes (각종(各種) 운동선수(運動選手)의 폐기능검사성적(肺機能檢査成績))

  • Cho, Ching;Yoon, Pyung-Jin
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology
    • /
    • v.15 no.1
    • /
    • pp.45-51
    • /
    • 1981
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the pulmonary function tests of athletes related to Running, Swimming, Cycle, Taekwando, Wrestling, Boxing, Yudo, Badminton, Base-ball, Soccer, Hand-ball, Basket-ball and Volley-ball. Subjects were 269 athletes from 18 to 22 years of age. They were college students and citizens. The results are as follows: 1) Frequency of breath: (cycles/min., $M{\pm}S.D$) Running shows $13{\pm}3.6$, Swimming $12{\pm}3.2$, Cycle $13{\pm}3.4$, Taekwondo $12{\pm}4.0$, Wrestling $14{\pm}2.5$, Boxing $15{\pm}4.5$, Yudo $13{\pm}3.2$, Badminton $14{\pm}5.7$, Base-ball $15{\pm}6.2$, Soccer $13{\pm}2.5$, Hand-ball $14{\pm}2.5$, Basket-ball $12{\pm}5.6$, Volley-ball $12{\pm}4.2$(Table 2, Fig. 1). 2) Vital capacity: (1, $M{\pm}S.D$) Running shows $4.29{\pm}0.634$, Swimming $4.30{\pm}0.608$, Cycle $4.08{\pm}0.718$, Taekwondo $4.32{\pm}0.595$, Wrestling $4.40{\pm}0.663$, Boxing $4.45{\pm}0.779$, Yudo $4.58{\pm}0.389$, Badminton $3.98{\pm}0.556$, Base-ball $3.99{\pm}0.617$, Soccer $4.42{\pm}0.728$, Hand-ball $4.23{\pm}0.397$, Basket-ball $4.28{\pm}0.426$, Volley-ball $4.60{\pm}0.620$(Table 2, Table 3, Fig. 2). 3) Tidal volume: (ml, $M{\pm}S.D$) Running shows $615{\pm}180$, Swimming $603{\pm}121$, Cycle $529{\pm}189$, Taekwondo $726{\pm}112$, Wrestling $512{\pm}90$, Boxing$622{\pm}134$, Yudo $583{\pm}89$, Badminton $672{\pm}121$, Base-ball $714{\pm}97$, Soccer $579{\pm}89$, Hand-ball $507{\pm}69$, Basket-ball $628{\pm}133$, Volley-ball $597{\pm}144$(Table 2, Fig.3). 4) Breath holding time : (sec., $M{\pm}S.D$) Running shows $64{\pm}18.8$, Swimming $81{\pm}23.0$, Cycle $54{\pm}13.6$, Taekwondo $55{\pm}11.8$, Wrestling $78{\pm}12.5$, Boxing $63{\pm}9.6$, Yudo $71{\pm}14.4$, Badminton $62{\pm}9.8$, Base-ball $58{\pm}8.9$, Soccer $65{\pm}10.9$, Hand-ball $66{\pm}7.6$, Basket-ball $62{\pm}8.8$, Volley-ball $57{\pm}13.4$(Table 2, Fig.4).

  • PDF

Postoperative Echocardiographic Hemodynamic Comparison between Recently Available Bileaflet Mechanical Valves (수종의 기계판막치환후 초음파심음향도를 이용한 판막간의 혈류역학적 비교)

  • Kang Joon Kyu;Hong Joon Hwa;Kim Hyung Tai;Park In Duk;Lee Cheol Joo
    • Journal of Chest Surgery
    • /
    • v.38 no.7 s.252
    • /
    • pp.496-500
    • /
    • 2005
  • There was no difference between the bileaflet mechanical valves on the midterm and longterm clinical outcome. We reviewed the hemodynamic comparison between recently available mechanical valves by Doppler Echocardiography. Material and Method: We retrospectively reviewed 396 postoperative hemodynamic datas (EOA, MDPG, and MSPG) by doppler echocardiography in 345 patients. Mechanical valves from 5 venders (Sorin Bicarbon, SJM, ATS, On-X, and Edward MIRA) were compared. There were 232 valves in mitral position, 162 in aortic, and 2 in tricuspid. Result: There were 178 men (mean age; $50.6\pm13.9$ years old) and 167 women $(52.6\pm,4.6)$. MDPG/EOA of 27 mm in mitral position was Sorin; $4.2\pm1.5 mmHg/3.0\pm0.9cm^2,\;SJM;\;2.3\pm1.2/3.5\pm0.6$. In 29mm, Sorin, SJM, ATS, On-X, MIRA revealed $3.4\pm1.2/3.1\pm0.6,\;3.3\pm1.1/2.7\pm0.4,\;3.8\pm0.8/3.2\pm0.6,\;4.0\pm3.0/3.1\pm0.9,\;2.9\pm0.9/3.0\pm0.8$ In 31mm, Sorin, SJM, ATS, MIRA revealed $3.9\pm1.9/2.9\pm0.6,\;3.5\pm1.2/3.0\pm0.6,\;3.4\pm0.8/2.8\pm0.2,\;3.7\pm1.5/2.7\pm0.7$. In 33mm, Sorin, SJM, MIRA revealed $4.4\pm0.9/2.5\pm0.4,\;3.4\pm1.5/3.3\pm0.5,\;4.7\pm2.4\3.0\pm0.3$. MSPG/EOA of 19mm aortic position was Sorin, SJM, ATS, On-X, MIRA $18.0 mmHg/1.2cm^2,\;25.6\pm8.7/1.1\pm0.3,\;25.9\pm12.6/1.2\pm0.3,\;23.0/1.3,\;27.9\pm7.1/1.2\pm0.1$ in that order. In 21mm, SJM, ATS, On-X, MIRA revealed $18.3\pm6.7/1.5\pm0.5,\;13.7\pm2.1/1.7\pm0.3,\;17.0/1.4,\;17.1\pm5.5/1.8\pm0.5$. In 23mm Sorin, SJM, ATS, On-X, MIRA revealed $14.0\pm4.6/1.7\pm0.6,\;12.8\pm3.2/2.0\pm0.2,\;16.8\pm12.2/2.1\pm0.9,\;14.0/1.5,\;15.0\pm5.5/1,8\pm0.5$. In 25mm, SJM and MIRA revealed $14.0\pm5.1/1.8\pm1.0,\;11.0/2.3$. There was no statistically significant difference in these values between the venders given the same position and size. 2 redo valve replacements were performed, 1 due to severe hemolysis in ATS and 1 due to leaflet immobilization in SJM. Conclusion: Postoperative hemodynamic comparison by doppler echocardiography shows no statistically significant difference between recently available mechanical valves in this country.

An Effectiveness of Simultaneous Measurement of PM10, PM2.5, and PM1.0 Concentrations in Asian Dust and Haze Monitoring

  • Cho, Changbum;Park, Gilun;Kim, Baekjo
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
    • /
    • v.22 no.6
    • /
    • pp.651-666
    • /
    • 2013
  • This study introduces a novel approach to the differentiation of two phenomena, Asian Dust and haze, which are extremely difficult to distinguish based solely on comparisons of PM10 concentration, through use of the Optical Particle Counter (OPC), which simultaneously generates PM10, PM2.5 and PM1.0 concentration. In the case of Asian Dust, PM10 concentration rose to the exclusion of PM2.5 and PM1.0 concentration. The relative ratios of PM2.5 and PM1.0 concentration versus PM10 concentration were below 40%, which is consistent with the conclusion that Asian Dust, as a prime example of the coarse-particle phenomenon, only impacts PM10 concentration, not PM2.5 and PM1.0 concentration. In contrast, PM10, PM2.5 and PM1.0 concentration simultaneously increased with haze. The relative ratios of PM2.5 and PM1.0 concentration versus PM10 concentration were generally above 70%. In this case, PM1.0 concentration varies because a haze event consists of secondary aerosol in the fine-mode, and the relative ratios of PM10 and PM2.5 concentration remain intact as these values already subsume PM1.0 concentration. The sequential shift of the peaks in PM10, PM2.5 and PM1.0 concentrations also serve to individually track the transport of coarse-mode versus fine-mode aerosols. The distinction in the relative ratios of PM2.5 and PM1.0 concentration versus PM10 concentration in an Asian Dust versus a haze event, when collected on a national or global scale using OPC monitoring networks, provides realistic information on outbreaks and transport of Asian Dust and haze.

Physicochemical Characteristics of Traditional Fermented Soybean Products Manufactured in Folk Villages of Sunchang Region (순창 고추장민속마을에서 생산한 전통 장류의 이화학적 특성)

  • Kim, Jong-Wook;Kim, Yong-Suk;Jeong, Pyeong-Hwa;Kim, Hyung-Eun;Shin, Dong-Hwa
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
    • /
    • v.21 no.4
    • /
    • pp.223-230
    • /
    • 2006
  • For standardization of quality of traditional fermented soybean products manufactured in Folk Villages of Sunchang Region, the physicochemical characteristics of 28 Kochujang, 28 Doenjang, and 18 Chunggukjang were compared. Moisture contents of Kochujang, Doenjang, and Chunggukjang were $46.9{\pm}3.6,\;60.6{\pm}1.9,\;and\;57.0{\pm}3.10%$, respectively. On the basis of average moisture contents, crude protein, crude fat, and crude ash contents were calculated to $6.2{\pm}0.7,\;2.0{\pm}0.5,\;and\;8.2{\pm}1.1%$ in Kochujang, $13.2{\pm}1.0,\;7.1{\pm}0.6,\;and\;15.2{\pm}1.5%$ in Doenjang, and $18.9{\pm}1.2,\;6.1{\pm}1.4,\;and\;5.1{\pm}1.7%$ in Chunggukjang, respectively. Reducing sugar, salinity, and water activities in Kochujang were $19.25{\pm}4.1%,\;7.3{\pm}1.1%,\;and\;0.790{\pm}0.003$, in Doenjang were $2.38{\pm}0.89%,\;14.2{\pm}1.4%,\;and\;0.835{\pm}0.020$, and in Chunggukjang were $0.51{\pm}0.24%,\;4.2{\pm}1.6%,\;and\;0.962{\pm}0.028$, respectively. Amino-type nitrogen contents, which affects delicate flavors of fermented soybean products, of Kochujang, Doenjang, and Chunggukjang were $114.03{\pm}19.04,\;734.32{\pm}147.70,\;and\;600{\pm}150mg%$, respectively. Lightness (l), redness (a), and yellowness (b) values in color of Kochujang were $14.49{\pm}1.44,\;15.45{\pm}1.77,\;and\;8.34{\pm}1.02$, respectively, and the redness was lower than that of other ones. Those of Doenjang were $26.69{\pm}4.33,\;7.25{\pm}1.03,\;and\;12.02{\pm}1.82$, respectively, and those of Chunggukjang were $35.62{\pm}2.05,\;6.31{\pm}0.37,\;and\;13.50{\pm}0.78$, respectively. These results indicate that the salt concentration and quality of traditional fermented soybean products manufactured in Folk Villages of Sunchang region must be lowered and standardized, respectively.

Employing Magnetic Resonance Imaging(MRI) in the Estimation of the Biomechanical Body Segment Parameters of Korean Adults (MRI에 의한 한국인 신체분절의 생체역학적 모수치 산출)

  • Joo, Young-Hwa
    • Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics
    • /
    • v.12 no.1
    • /
    • pp.233-249
    • /
    • 2002
  • The purpose of this study was to employing MRI in the estimation of the biomechanical body segment parameters of Korean adults. for this purpose MRI study on 19 Korean living subjects were used to measurement. All the parameters that was concerned were inertial characteristics of human body mass of each segment, center of mass of them and the length of radius of gyration of them. The cross sectional images and saggital images of every 1cm interval were got using the 0.5 Tesla MRI from the top of head to the bottom of foot, whole body. And then, by tracing the images of the film and scanning them, got the area which the several tissues occupied in the image of slice. By summing the area of slice of each segment which were calculating and by multipling the density of the tissues, got the mass of segment and other inertial characteristics. The ratios of radius of gyration in both transverse axis and longitudinal axis though the segmental mass and segment length are as follow: male A : head($0.229\pm0.0029$), neck($0.256\pm0.0095$), thorax($0.374\pm0.0059$) abdomen($0.245\pm0.0020$), pelvis($0.368\pm0.0106$), thigh($0.288\pm0.0030$) shank($0.280\pm0.0043$), foot($0.277\pm0.0195$), upperarm($0.311\pm0.0074$) forearm($0.286\pm0.0051$), hand($0.253\pm0.0095$) female A : head($0.214\pm0.0032$), neck($0.254\pm0.0112$), thorax($0.295\pm0.0061$) abdomen($0.289\pm0.0021$), pelvis($0.329\pm0.0108$), thigh($0.288\pm0.0036$) shank($0.280\pm0.0047$), foot($0.243\pm0.0206$), upperarm($0.279\pm0.0083$) forearm($0.286\pm0.0048$), hand($0.229\pm0.0097$) male B : head($0.532\pm0.0006$), neck($0.533\pm0.0006$), thorax($0.658\pm0.0008$) abdomen($1.350\pm0.0022$), pelvis($0.875\pm0.0002$), thigh($0.213\pm0.0001$) shank($0.160\pm0.0001$), foot($0.152\pm0.0002$), upperarm($0.136\pm0.0002$) forearm($0.202\pm0.0002$), hand($0.273\pm0.0006$) female B : head($0.198\pm0.0002$), neck($0.335\pm0.0011$), thorax($0.238\pm0.0001$) abdomen($0.888\pm0.0001$), pelvis($1.318\pm0.0117$), thigh($0.095\pm0.0001$) shank($0.075\pm0.0001$), foot($0.181\pm0.0006$), upperarm($0.0.062\pm0.0001$) forearm($0.083\pm0.0001$), hand($0.105\pm0.0007$).

Hematological and Serum Chemical Values in Pere David′s Deer and Wapiti (사불상 및 와피티 사슴의 혈액 및 혈청화학치)

  • Shin Nam-Sik;Kwon Soo-Wahn;Han Duk-Hwan;Lee Heung-Shik
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
    • /
    • v.11 no.1
    • /
    • pp.471-478
    • /
    • 1994
  • The hematologic values and serum chemistry were examined healthy male 12 Pere David's Deer and 8 Wapiti at the Farmland Zoological Garden. In wapiti, the blood values collected from horn and jugular vein were compared. The results were as follows: 1. There were not any significant differences in hematologic values and serum chemistry of blood col. looted from horn and jugular vein in wapiti. 2. In Pere David's Deer, Mean$\pm$SD Values of White Blood Cell(WBC) count were 4673.50$\pm$1893.42/${mu}ell$, of Neutrophils 65.42$\pm$12.7%, of Lymphocytes 31.50$\pm$8.68%, of Monocytes 0.25$\pm$0.43%, of Eosinophils 0.17$\pm$0.37%. of Basophils, of Red Blood Cell(RBC) 9.93$\pm$1.38$\times$10/${mu}ell$, of PCV 54.25$\pm$6.25%, of Hb 16.89$\pm$2.43g/㎗, of Tot protein 7.63$\pm$0.6g/㎗, of Cholesterol 87.25$\pm$10.76mg/㎗, of Glucose 109.36$\pm$43.7mg/㎗, of SGOT 85.17$\pm$33IU/$\ell$, of SGPT 102.92$\pm$31.49IU/$\ell$, of BUN 21.00$\pm$5.18mg/㎗, of Creatinine 2.1$\pm$0.43mg/㎗, of ALKP 156$\pm$32.72IU/$\ell$, of Ca 11.28$\pm$1.04mg/㎗, of Na 127.92$\pm$10.04mmo1/$\ell$, of NH3 102.83$\pm$42.25mmo1/$\ell$, of Cl 105.91$\pm$3.45mmo1/$\ell$, respectively. 3. In wapiti, Mean$\pm$SD Values of White Blood Cell(WBC) count were 3450.00$\pm$1040.73/${mu}ell$, of Neutrophils 53.88$\pm$7.42%, of Lymphocytes 36.00$\pm$5.72%, of Monocytes 1.13$\pm$1.05%, of Eosinophils 1.38$\pm$1.93%, of Basophils 7.63$\pm$4.15%, of Red Blood Cell 10.09$\pm$1.3$\times$10/${mu}ell$, of PCV 46.88$\pm$3.33%, of H 15.09$\pm$1.48g/㎗, of Total protein 7.15$\pm$0.73g/㎗, of Cholesterol 78.63$\pm$12.27mg/㎗, of Glucose 75.63$\pm$33.22mg/㎗ , of SGOT 79.25$\pm$18.43IU/$\ell$, of SGPT 36.50$\pm$19.20IU/$\ell$, of BUN 29.63$\pm$4.15mg/㎗, of Creatinine 1.35$\pm$0.21mg/㎗ , of ALKP 283.50$\pm$88.13IU/$\ell$, of Ca 9.78$\pm$0.43mg/㎗ , of Na 120.00$\pm$10.02mmol/$\ell$, of NH3 261.50$\pm$ 103.46mmol/$\ell$, of Cl 92.00$\pm$9.19mmol/$\ell$, respectively.

  • PDF

Studies on the Blood Chemistry of Korean Native Cattle and Pigs (한우 및 돼지의 혈액화학치에 관한 연구)

  • 도재철;이창우;손재권;정종식
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Service
    • /
    • v.13 no.1
    • /
    • pp.49-53
    • /
    • 1990
  • In order to know the range in blood chemical values and enzyme activities of korean native cattle and pigs being raised in kyongbuk province, the mean values of serum protein compositions, enzyme activities(GOT, GPT, ALP), cholesterol, glucose, bilirubin, creatinine, urea nitrogen and uric acid were determined and the results obtained were as follows ; 1. Mean contents of total protein, albumin, globulin and A / G ratio for the korean native male cattle were $7.28{\pm}0.86$ g / dl, 43.39{\pm}0.65$ g / dl, 43.83{\pm}0.92$ g / dl & 40.95{\pm}0.34$;for the male pigs were 47.39{\pm}0.84$ g / dl, 43.63{\pm}0.43$ g / dl, 43.77{\pm}0.88$ g / dl, 40.97{\pm}0.26$;for the female pigs were 47.60{\pm}0.68$ g/ dl, 43.54{\pm}0.58$ g / dl, 43.90{\pm}0.74$ g / dl, 41.02{\pm}0.34. 2.$ Mean activities of GOT, GPT and ALP for the korean native male cattle were 448.3{\pm}11.6$ U, 429.6{\pm}4.6$ U, 413.7{\pm}2.8$ U; for the male pigs were 458.6{\pm}10.6$ U, 438.6{\pm}5.3$ U, 424.9{\pm}9.2$ U; for the female pigs were 443.9{\pm}10.8$ U, 440.5{\pm}4.6$ U, 413.9{\pm}3.4$ U. 3. Mean contents of cholesterol, glucose and bilirubin for the korean native male cattle were 4108.7{\pm}31.8$ mg / dl, 488.2{\pm}26.4$ mg / dl, $0.69{\pm}0.52$ mg / dl; for the male pigs were 4105.9{\pm}18.3$ mg / dl, 4102.9{\pm}22.3$ mg / dl, 40.70{\pm}0.18$ mg / dl: for the female pigs were $113.1{\pm}20.9$ mg / dl , 4103.2{\pm}23.9$ mg / dl, 40.49{\pm}0.21$ mg / dl. 4. Mean contents of creatinine, urea nitrogen and uric acid for the korean native male cattle were 42.86{\pm}0.69$ mg / dl, $18.1{\pm}5.0$ mg / dl, 41.38{\pm}0.66$ mg /dl; for the male pigs were 42.20{\pm}0.51$ mg / dl, $18.2{\pm}4.3$ mg / dl, 40.29{\pm}0.10$ mg /dl: for the female pigs were 42.36{\pm}0.70$ mg / dl, $20.5{\pm}5.4$ mg / dl, 40.69{\pm}0.27$ mg / dl.

  • PDF

Impact of Yellow Dust Transport from Gobi Desert on Fractional Ratio and Correlations of Temporal PM10, PM2.5, PM1 at Gangneung City in Fall (고비사막으로부터 황사수송이 가을에 강릉시의 시간별 PM10, PM2.5, PM1 간의 농도차비와 상관관계에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Mi-Sook;Chung, Jin-Do
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
    • /
    • v.21 no.2
    • /
    • pp.217-231
    • /
    • 2012
  • Hourly concentrations of $PM_1$, $PM_{2.5}$ and $PM_{10}$, were investigated at Gangneung city in the Korean east coast on 0000LST October 26~1800LST October 29, 2003. Before the intrusion of Yellow dust from Gobi Desert, $PM_{10}$($PM_{2.5}$, $PM_1$) concentration was generally low, more or less than 20 (10, 5) ${\mu}g/m^3$, and higher PM concentration was found at 0900LST at the beginning time of office hour and their maximum ones at 1700LST around its ending time. As correlation coefficient of $PM_{10}$ and $PM_{2.5}$($PM_{2.5}$ and $PM_1$, and $PM_{10}$ and $PM_1$) was very high with 0.90(0.99, 0.84), and fractional ratios of $(PM_{10}-PM_{2.5})/PM_{2.5}((PM_{2.5}-PM_1)/PM_1)$ were 1.37~3.39(0.23~0.54), respectively. It implied that local $PM_{10}$ concentration could be greatly affected by particulate matters of sizes larger than $2.5{\mu}m$, and $PM_{2.5}$ concentration could be by particulate matters of sizes smaller than $2.5{\mu}m$. During the dust intrusion, maximum concentration of $PM_{10}$($PM_{2.5}$, $PM_1$) reached 154.57(93.19, 76.05) ${\mu}g/m^3$ with 3.8(3.4, 14.1) times higher concentration than before the dust intrusion. As correlation coefficient of $PM_{10}$ and $PM_{2.5}$(vice verse, $PM_{2.5}$, $PM_1$) was almost perfect high with 0.98(1.00, 0.97) and fractional ratios of $(PM_{10}-PM_{2.5})/PM_{2.5}((PM_{2.5}-PM_1)/PM_1)$ were 0.48~1.25(0.16~0.37), local $PM_{10}$ concentration could be major affected by particulates smaller than both $2.5{\mu}m$ and $1{\mu}m$ (fine particulate), opposite to ones before the dust intrusion. After the ending of dust intrusion, as its coefficient of 0.23(0.81, - 0.36) was very low, except the case of $PM_{2.5}$ and $PM_1$ and $(PM_{10}-PM_{2.5})/PM_{2.5}((PM_{2.5}-PM_1)/PM_1)$ were 1.13~1.91(0.29~1.90), concentrations of coarse particulates larger than $2.5{\mu}m$ greatly contributed to $PM_{10}$ concentration, again. For a whole period, as the correlation coefficients of $PM_{10}$, $PM_{2.5}$, $PM_1$ were very high with 0.94, 1.00 and 0.92, reliable regression equations among PM concentrations were suggested.

Kinemetic analysis of a thumping security motion with an expandable barton (경호원의 삼단봉 머리치기 동작의 운동학적 분석)

  • Kim, Yong-Hak;Kim, Sin-Hye;Jung, Sung-Bae
    • Korean Security Journal
    • /
    • no.36
    • /
    • pp.93-109
    • /
    • 2013
  • This research is mainly based on the experimental result due to seek different outcomes whena certain security motion with a paticular gear is applied in a plausible confrontational situation. For the purpose of this research an Expandable Baton, which is one of the most commonsecurity equipments, was chosen to be applied in a situation of hitting a person's head. Alsothe results will be studied in the view of Kinematic theory. To demonstrate, 10 students who were majeored in Escort Crane studies at 'H' university werechosen as testees. The participants were grouped into two-one is practiced with the 'expanadable baton use program' and the other is pre-practiced. In this report two groups abovewill be reffered as 'group A' and 'group B' for conveniency. There were a number of differences and changes between two groups. Group B took more timethan the other group did. Group A spent about 0.428sec in section 'e2' and 0.230sec in section'e3' while Group B took 0.435sec, 0.232sec in each sections.To add on, more distinctive results were out when it was more focused on physical movements. Two gropus presented considerable changes- in an 'left-right' moving displacement-Group A;$2.16{\pm}0.9cm$ (left side), $3.78{\pm}1.42cm$ (right side), total $5.94{\pm}2.03cm$. Group B; $2.97{\pm}1.01cm$ (left side),$4.56{\pm}1.57cm$ (right side), total $7.53{\pm}2.13cm$.Continuously, different outcomeswere shown between two groups in a 'back and forth' moving displacement-Group A;$32.48{\pm}3.86cm$, $35.21{\pm}4.64cm$, total $69.36{\pm}5.72$. Group B; $34.50{\pm}6.12cm$, $37.04{\pm}3.70cm$, total $71.46{\pm}7.17cm$. Furthermore, changes in an 'up and down' moving displacement were - GroupA; $5.62{\pm}2.41cm$, $4.54{\pm}1.87cm$, total $10.11{\pm}1.57cm$. Group B; $6.33{\pm}1.78cm$, $4.86{\pm}1.85cm$,total $10.68{\pm}1.81cm$. To continue, there were few modifications of degree on participants' joints, espcially on 'Wristjoint', 'Elbow joint' and 'Shoulder joint', depend on different sections -Wrist joint;Group A; e1 $114.62{\pm}7.13$, e2 $68.27{\pm}6.37$, e3 $131.64{\pm}6.27$. Group B; e1 $112.62{\pm}6.13$, e2 $66.28{\pm}7.38$, e3$137.42{\pm}4.28$ and Elbow joint ; Group A e1 $132.31{\pm}6.55$, e2 $117.92{\pm}8.42$, e3 $144.41{\pm}6.32$. Group B; e1 $133.58{\pm}8.56$, e2 $114.45{\pm}8.21$, e3 $139.89{\pm}4.38$. Lastly, degree changes ofshoulder joint were; Group A; e1 $13.55{\pm}3.85$, e2 $131.42{\pm}11.24$, e3 $78.32{\pm}6.28$. Group B; e1$9.45{\pm}1.23$, e2 $136.74{\pm}13.21$, e3 $79.75{\pm}4.24$.

  • PDF

Performance Characteristics of PM10 and PM2.5 Samplers with an Advanced Chamber System (챔버 기술 개발을 통한 PM10과 PM2.5 시료채취기의 수행 특성)

  • Kim, Do-Hyeon;Kim, Seon-Hong;Kim, Ji-Hoon;Cho, Seung-Yeon;Park, Ju-Myon
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
    • /
    • v.32 no.8
    • /
    • pp.739-746
    • /
    • 2010
  • The purposes of this study are 1) to develop an advanced chamber system within ${\pm}10%$ of air velocity at the particulate matter (PM) collection area, 2) to research theoretical characteristics of PM10 and PM2.5 samplers, 3) to assess the performance characteristics of PM10 and PM2.5 samplers through chamber experiments. The total six one-hour experiments were conducted using the cornstarch with an mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) of $20\;{\mu}m$ and an geometric standard deviation of 2.0 at the two different air velocity conditions of 0.67 m/s and 2.15 m/s in the chamber. The aerosol samplers used in the present study are one APM PM10 and one PM2.5 samplers accordance with the US federal reference methods and specially designed three mini-volume aerosol samplers (two for PM10 and one for PM2.5). The overall results indicate that PM10 and PM2.5 mini-volume samplers need correction factors of 0.25 and 0.39 respectively when APM PM samplers considered as reference samplers and there is significant difference between two mini-volume aerosol samplers when a two-way analysis of variance is tested using the measured PM10 mass concentrations. The PM10 and PM2.5 samplers with the cutpoints and slopes (PM10: $10{\pm}0.5\;{\mu}m$ and $1.5{\pm}0.1$, PM2.5: $2.5{\pm}0.2\;{\mu}m$ and $1.3{\pm}0.03$) theoretically collect the ranges of 86~114% and 64~152% considering the cornstarch characteristics used in this research. Furthermore, the calculated mass concentrations of PM samplers are higher than the ideal mass concentrations when the airborne MMADs for the cornstarch used are smaller than the cutpoints of PM samplers and the PM samplers collected less PM in another case. The chamber experiment also showed that PM10 and PM2.5 samplers had the bigger collection ranges of 37~158% and 55~149% than the theocratical calculated mass concentration ranges and the relatively similar mass concentration ranges were measured at the air velocity of 2.15 m/s comparing with the 0.67 m/s.