• Title/Summary/Keyword: PMSG

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Effect of Co-culture with Bovine and Porcine Oviductal Epithelial Cells on In Vitro Development of Mouse Embryos (마우스 수정란의 체외발달에 미치는 소와 돼지의 난관상피세포와의 공배양 효과)

  • Lee, S.;Hur, E.J.;Seok, H.B.
    • Korean Journal of Animal Reproduction
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.139-146
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    • 1997
  • This experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of mouse early embryonic development in vitro by co-culture with bovine and porcine oviductal epithelial cells(BOEC and POEC). The 2-cell embryos were collected from the oviducts of the superovulated and mated does with D-PBS/15% FCS at 48 hours after hCG injection. The in vitro developmental rate of blastocyst formation and the number of nuclei in the embryos were examined. For a comparative study of in vi패 and in vitro development, the fresh blastocyst which developed in vivo for 120 hours after hCG injection was collected from the uterus, and their numbers of nuclei were also counted. The higher developmental rates of blastocyst formation was a, pp.ared from 91% to 97% when the embryos were co-cultured with a monolayer of bovine or porcine oviductal epithelial cells in TCM 199 or Ham's F-10 and MediCult IVF media. No significant difference in developmental rates was shown between bovine and porcine oviductal eptithelial cells. The number of nuclei in the embryos cultured for 72 hours under each conditions was significantly reduced it than blastocyst in vitro conditions. The number of nuclei in embryos cultured in TCM 199, Ham's F-10 and Medicult IVF medium were counted 68.1$\pm$6.00, 67.3$\pm$4.49, 66.4$\pm$5.64, and 94.3$\pm$8.61, 92.5$\pm$7.60, 92.1$\pm$6.10 with BOEC and 93.3$\pm$5.80, 92.9$\pm$6.53, 92.3$\pm$7.35 with POEC coculture, respectively. These numbers were lowered than 107.2$\pm$7.43 in vivo conditions. In conclusions, the coculture between the mouse early embryos, and oviductal epithelial cells of BOEC and POEC give to improve the developmental and hatching rates of blastocyst but in vivo culture systems for the growth of nuclei were ineligible than in vitro conditions.

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Changes in the inward current and membrane conductance after fertilization in the mouse eggs (수정에 의한 Mouse egg의 세포막전류 변화)

  • Hong, Seong-geun;Park, Choon-ok;Han, Jae-hee;Kim, Ik-hyun;Ha, Dae-sik;Kwun, Jong-kuk
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.157-164
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    • 1992
  • Changes in the both inward current and conductance of membrane by the fertilization were observed using the one microelectrode voltage clamp(or switch clamp) technique. Unfertilized eggs and both 1- and 2-cell stage eggs after fertilization were donated from the superovulated mouse (ICR, more than 6 weeks old) treated with PMSG(pregnant mare serum gonadotropin, Sigma) and HCG(human chorionic gonadotropin, Sigma) and naturally mated ones, respectively in this experiment. Membrane potential was held at -90mV and the voltage step was applied from -80mV to 50mV with interval of 10mV or 20mV for 300ms. since both of amplitudes and time courses in the membrane currents were various according to the states of cells and clamping condition, results were presented by their $averages{\pm}SEM$(standard mean error)and ratios or percentages. Inward currents began to appear in response to the step depolarization from -60mV and reached its maximum at -50mV. However, since the potential was not clamped evenly during the voltage step, current-voltage(I-V) relationship might be positively shifted 10 or 20mV. From the steady-state currents plotted in the I-V curve, outward rectification was markedly observed. Peak inward currents$(i_{in})$ at -50mV were $-0.62{\pm}0.23nA$(n=4),$-0.52{\pm}0.25nA$(n=5) and $-0.37{\pm}0.25nA$(n=6), in the 1-cell stage, 2-cell stage fertilized eggs and in the unfertilized eggs, respectively. Pure inward current (difference between steady-state and peak, $i_{in. pure}$) were $-1.01{\pm}0.23nA$, $-0.69{\pm}0.43nA$ and $-0.68{\pm}0.29nA$, respectively in the 1-cell stage fertilized eggs, unfertilized eggs and 2-cell stage fertilized eggs. These results suggested that the outward current in fertilized eggs of 2-cell stage was more increased than those in the unfertilized eggs. Pure inward currents in the all stages of eggs showed a similar fashion in the I-V relationship from -50mV to 50mV and reversal potential at 50mV. Time constant of inactivation$({\tau})$ in the inward current was decreased as the membrane potential was depolarized in the unfertilized and 2-cell stage eggs but in the 1-cell stage eggs t was not likely to be affected significantly. Slope conductances were 14.2nS, 8.9n5 and 7.7nS in the 1-cell, 2-cell stage fertilized eggs and the unfertilized eggs, respectively. Membranes between two cells within a zona pellucida seem to be electrical-connected in the 2-cell stage eggs from the observation made in the analysis for the electronic spread and decay to the current stimuli. Both of inward current and membrane conductance were increased after fertilization in the mouse eggs. Inward current seems to be carried by the same ion or through the same channels up to the 2-cell stage and ion that carried inward current was thought to play important function after fertilization in the mouse eggs.

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Studies on the Ovarian Respones of Rabbits Superovulated Repeatedly (반복과배란토끼의 난소반응에 관한 연구)

  • 한기영
    • Korean Journal of Animal Reproduction
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.36-45
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    • 1984
  • This study was carried out to investigate the changes in ovary in repeatedly superovulated rabbits. A total of 57 New Zealand White and Californian, 25 mature virgin and 32 immature does were used in this study. For induction of repeated superovulation, PMSG and HCG were injected at 17-day and 30-day intervals for mature does and 17-day intervals for immature ones. The repeatedly superovulated does at 17-day intervals were induced luteolysis of pseudopregnant corpus luteum with PGF2${\alpha}$ on Day 8 to 9 p.c. The effect of repeated superovulation on reproductive organs was investigated on Day 3 p.c. in mature does and on Day 3 and 6 p.c. in immature ones, respectively. 1. In mature virgin does, the number of ovulation points in the 2nd and 3rd superovulation period averaged 7.0 and 5.0 at 17-day intervals and 13.4 and 6.0 at 30-day intervals, respectively. These numbers were statistically similar to 9.5 ovulation points in the control. However, there were less (p<0.05) ovulation points in those periods compared with 22.1 ovulation points in the 1st superovulation period. 2. In immature does, the number of ovulation points in the 2nd and 3rd superovulation period averaged 5.3 and 2.3, respectively. These numbers were significantly (p<0.05) decreased than 17.1 ovulation points in the 1st periods. The number of ovulation points in the 2nd superovulation period was similar to that in the control, but there was a significant (p<0.05) decrease in the number of ovulation points in the 3rd period as compared to the control. 3. In mature virgin does, the number of visible normal and hemorrhagic follicles (>1.0mm diameter) on day 3 p.c. averaged 19.1 and 8.9 in the 1st superovulation period, respectively. In the 2nd 3rd superovulation period, the number of normal follicles averaged 8.3 and 15.5 at 17-day intervals and 17.8 and 14.5 at 30-day intervals. The number of hemorrhagic follicles in the 2nd and 3rd superovulation period averaged 6.3 and 2.0 at 17-day intervals and 5.2 and 7.8 at 30-day intervals, respectively. There was a slight decrease, although not significant, in the number of normal and hemorrhagic follicles in the 2nd and 3rd period at 17-day intervals compared to that in the 1st period. 4. In immature does, the number of visible normal follicles on day 3 and day 6 p.c. in the 1st superovulation period averaged 27:3 and 26.1, respectively. The follicles on day 3 p.c. tended to increase slightly more than that in the cortrol, but the average number of normal follicles on day 6 p.c. did not differ from that in the control. The number of visible hemorrhagic follicles on day 3 and day 6 p.c. in the 1st of follicles in the 1st superovulation period average 10.2 and 9.9, respectively. There was a slight increase in the number of follicles in the 1st period compared to that in the control. In the 2nd and 3rd superovulation period, the number of normal follicles revealed a slight decrease in the 3rd period, but the number of hemorrhagic follicles was not different between periods. 5. The number of growing follicles with incipient intral formation on day 3 p.c. in mature does of the 1st superovulaton period average 29.7 and the average number of growing follicles in the 3rd period was 26.7 at 17-day intervals and 31.0 at 30-day intervals, respectively. These numbers did not differ from that in the control. In immature does, the number of growing follicles averaged 57.7, 45.0 and 59.3 in the 1st, 2nd and 3rd superovulation period, respectively. There was a slight but not significant decrease in the number of growing follicles in the 3rd period compared to that in the control.

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Studies on the In Vitro Development of Cloned Embryos by Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer in Korean Native Goats (재래산양의 체세포 핵이식에 의한 복제수정란의 체외발달에 관한 연구)

  • Park H. S.;Kim T. S.;Jung S. Y.;Lee Y. H.;Jung J. Y.
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.105-112
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    • 2005
  • The present study was conducted to examine some factors affecting in vitro development of oocytes from somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) in Korean native goats. Recipient oocytes were surgically collected after superovulation by using CIDR and FSH, PMSG, hCG and estrous synchronization in Korean Native goats. For nuclear transfer, the fibroblasts from caprine ear cells and fetal fibroblasts were surgically harvested and were cultured in vitro until cell confluency in serum-starvation condition (TCM-199 + $0.5\%$ FBS) for 3 to 5 days. The zona pellucidae of matured oocytes were partially drilled by laser irradiation. A single somatic cell was individually transferred into each enucleated oocyte. The reconstructed oocytes were then electrically fused and activated. Activated NT embryos were cultured in mSOF medium supplemented with $0.8\%\;BSA\;6\~7\;day\;at\;39^{\circ}C,\;5\%\;CO_2,\;5\%\;O_2,\;90\%\;N_2$ in air. There were no significant difference in the number of embryos cleaved and 4-cell development between the fibroblast nuclei from mature ear cells and fetal cells, but the rate of 8-cell development was higher (P<0.05) in ear cells $(40.5\%)$ than in fetal cells $(55.5\%)$. However, the embryo development to morula or blastocyst was not significantly different between both the groups$(6.7\%\;vs\;16.0\%)$, respectively. The number of embryo cleaved $(79.0\%)$ were higher (P<0.05) in the oocytes activated with ionomycin+6-DMAP than in the oocytes activated electrically $(9.5\%)$. The development of fused embryos to morula or blastocyst was found $15.6\%$ in ionomycin+6-DMAP, but no morula or blastocysts were developed in electrical stimulation. The development rate of SCNT embryos to morula or blastocyst was love. (P<0.05) in SCNT embryos $(19.0\%\;vs\;0.0\%)$ than that in parthenotes $(66.1\%\;vs\;59.1\%)$. In the parthenotes, the cleavage rate and development to morula or blastocyst were significantly higher (P<0.05) as $86.8\%\;and\;50.0\%$ in ovulated oocytes than in follicular oocytes $(69.0\%\;vs\;23.6\%)$, respectively. These results suggest that some factors Including superovulation treatment, oocyte source, maturation of follicular oocytes, activation method and culture condition may affect in vitro developmental capability of embryos produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer in Korean Native goats, and the fusion rate be greatly low compared with other species.

Effects of Donor Cells and Estrus Synchronization on the Production of Cloned Korean Native Goat (공핵 세포 및 발정 동기화가 복제 재래 산양 생산에 미치는 영향)

  • Park H.S.;Kim T.S.;Jung S.Y.;Park J.K.;Lee J.S.;Jung J.Y.
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.137-146
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    • 2006
  • The objective of this study was to examine the effect of donor cell types, the source of recipient oocytes and estrous synchronization on pregnancy and delivery rates of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos in Korean native goats. Recipient oocytes were surgically collected after superovulation. Ear cells and fetal fibroblasts were collected and cultured in serum-starvation condition (TCM-199 + 0.5% FBS) for cell confluence. The zonae pellucidae of in vivo- and in vitro-matured oocytes were partially drilled using a laser system. Single somatic cell was transferred into the enucleated oocyte. The reconstructed oocytes were electrically fused with 0.3 M mannitol. After the fusion, embryos were activated by Ionomycin+6-DMAP. NT embryos were cultured in mSOF medium supplemented with 0.8% BSA at $39^{\circ}C$ in an atmosphere of 5% $CO_2$, 5% $O_2$, 90% $N_2$ for 12 to 20 hr. One hundred and two SCNT embryos were transferred into 20 recipients and pregnancy rate at days 30 was 20.0%. Of them, one developed to term and delivered 1 kid. Ear cells showed significantly higher fusion (63.8 vs. 26.5%) and pregnancy rates (20.0 vs. 0.0%) than those of fetal fibroblast (p<0.05). The recipients synchronized by CIDR showed significantly lower pregnancy rates compared to that of recipient in natural estrus ($0.0{\sim}25.0%$ vs. 100%) (p<0.05). Cloned kid was born from the recipient in natural estrus. For the synchronization of estrus between recipient and donor, there was no difference between treatments (${\pm}0$ vs. +12 hr) in pregnancy rate. The first healthy cloned kid (Jinsoonny) was produced by transfer of SCNT embryos derived from in vivo oocytes and ear cells into a recipient goat whose estrus was synchronized with the donor. These results imply that donor cells for nuclear transfer may affect the success rate, and the estrus synchronization between donor and recipient animals can also be important.

Effects of Permeable Cryoprotectants on Viability of Mammalian Embryo Model (침투성 동결보호제가 포유류 초기배자의 생존성에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Hyun;Cho, Sang-Rae;Kim, Dong Kyo;Choe, Changyong;Seong, Hwan-Hoo
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.30 no.3
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    • pp.195-200
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    • 2015
  • The objective of this study was to evaluate the toxicities of permeable cryoprotectants and finally to establish the cryopreservation method of surplus embryos obtained during assisted reproductive technology (ART). Toxicities of permeable cryoprotectants, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), ethylene glycol (EG), Glycerol, and 1,2-PROH were investigated using a murine embryo model. Female $F-{_1}$ mice were stimulated with gonadotropin, induced ovulation with hCG and mated. Two cell embryos were collected and cultured after exposure to among DMSO, EG, Glycerol, and 1,2-PROH. Embryo development was evaluated up to the blastocyst stage. The total cell count of blastocysts that were treated with DMSO and Glycerol at the 2-cell stage was significantly lower than that were treated with EG ($81.1{\pm}15.1$), 1,2-PROH ($88.0{\pm}21.1$) or the control ($99.9{\pm}21.3$) (p<0.001). On comparison of four cryoprotectant treated groups, the DMSO and Glycerol treated group showed a decreased cell count compared with the EG and 1,2-PROH treated group (p<0.05). Both DMSO ($14.7{\pm}1.3$), EG ($12.1{\pm}1.1$), Glycerol ($15.2{\pm}1.8$), and 1,2-PROH ($11.5{\pm}1.3$) treated groups showed higher apoptosis rates of cells in the blastocyst compared with the control ($6.5{\pm}0.7$, p<0.0001). In addition, the DMSO or Glycerol treated group showed more apoptotic cells than the EG or 1,2-PROH treated group (p<0.001). The potential toxicity of cryoprotectants was uncovered by prolonged exposure of murine embryos to among DMSO, EG, Glycerol, and 1,2-PROH at room temperature. When comparing four permeable cryoprotective agents, EG and 1,2-PROH appeared to be less toxic than DMSO and Glycerol at least in a murine embryo model.

Development of Effective Cryopreservation Method for Mammalian Embryo (포유류 초기 배아의 효율적인 동결 보존 방법에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Hyun;Cho, Young Moo;Ko, Yeoung-Gyu;Kim, Sung Woo;Seong, Hwan-Hoo;Yamanouchi, Keitaro
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.29 no.3
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    • pp.241-248
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    • 2014
  • This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of embryonic stage, cryoprotectant, and freezing-thawing method on the rates of survival and development of the cryopreserved mouse early embryo and finally to establish the cryopreservation method of surplus embryos obtained during assisted reproductive technology (ART). Two to eight cell embryos were obtained from oviducts of mated $F_1$ hybrid female mice superovulated by PMSG and hCG. Two-step EG, DMSO and 4-step EG, DMSO were used as cryoprotectant and dehydration and rehydration method of embryos, and slow-cooling or rapid-cooling method was used as frozen program. The survival rates of embryos were measured after thawing and rehydration, and the developmental rates of embryos were compared and observed during culturing embryos for 24, 48, 72, 96 hrs. As for the survival and development rates of embryos according to embryonic stage, the survival rate of 2 cell stage in EG and DMSO was significantly higher than 4~8 cell (65.4% versus 61.2%, 81.1% versus 72.5%) (p<0.01, p<0.01), but the development rates of 4~8 cell embryos in EG and DMSO were significantly higher than 2 cell embryos for whole culture period (p<0.01) and the development rates of 4~8 cell embryos in EG were significantly higher than 2 cell embryos in DMSO (p<0.01). As for the survival and development rates of embryos according to cryoprotectant, the survival rate of 2 cell embryo in DMSO was significantly higher than that in EG(77.0% versus 64.4%) (p<0.01), whereas the development rate of embryos was not differ till 24 hrs. The development rate from morular to hatching blastocyst, however, was sinificantly higher in EG than in DMSO during 48 hr (p<0.01). The survival rate of 4~8 cell embryo was 62.5% in EG and 73.3% in DMSO. The development rates of embryo in EG were significantly higher for whole culture periods (p<0.01, 0.05). In respect to the effect of freezing and thawing program on the survival and development rates of embryos, method of slow cooling and rapid thawing was more effective than that of rapid cooling and rapid thawing. The survival rate of embryo in 2 cell stage was higher than in 4~8 cell stage, and EG appears more effective cryoprotectant than DMSO because EG showed better development rates of embryos in 2 and 4~8 cell stage. Moreover, slow cooling and rapid thawing method was considered as the best cryopreservation program.

Effect of Fusion Condition on In Vitro Development of Caprine Cloned Oocytes with Nuclear Transfer (재래산양에 있어서 핵이식란의 융합조건이 융합 및 체외발달에 미치는 영향)

  • 박희성;김태숙;이윤희;정수영;이명열;홍승표;박준규;김충희;정장용
    • Reproductive and Developmental Biology
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    • v.28 no.2
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    • pp.127-132
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    • 2004
  • This study was conducted to examine the effects of electric stimulation conditions on in vitro developmental ability of caprine embryos after somatic cell nuclear transfer. Recipient oocytes were surgically collected after superovulation by using CIDR and FSH, PMSG, hCG and estrous synchronization in Korean native goats. The caprine ear cells were cultured in vitro in serum-starvation condition (TCM-l99 + 0.5% FBS) for 3 to 5 days of cell confluence. The zona pellucida of in vivo and in vitro matured oocytes were partially drilled using laser system. Single somatic cell was individually transferred into the enucleated oocyte. The reconstructed oocytes were electrically fused with 0.3M mannitol. After the electofusion, embryos were activated by electric stimulation or Ionomycin + 6-DMAP. Nuclear transfer embryos were cultured in mSOF medium supplemented with 0.8% BSA 6∼7 days at 39 , 5% $CO_2$, 5% $O_2$, 90% $N_2$. The fusion rate of donor cells was 60.4% and 40.3 % in ear cell and fetal fibroblast, and cleavage rate were 40.6% and 48.2%, respectively. No significant difference was found in the fusion and cleavage rate in different donor cells. Nuclear transferred oocytes were fused by electric pulses of 1.30∼1.40, 2.30∼2.39 and 2.40∼2.46 ㎸/cm. There was no significant difference among different electric pulses in fusion rates (26.7, 34.8 and 43.8%). The cleavage rate was higher (p<0.05) in 1.30∼1.40 ㎸/cm (82.9%) than 2.30∼2.39 ㎸/cm (43.8%) and 2.40∼2.46 ㎸/cm. (51.8%). The fusion rates of recipient oocyte source were 1st (43.5% and 23.6%), 2nd (55.7% and 39.2%) and 3rd (66.1% and 52.8%) in in vivo and in vitro oocytes. However, fusion ratee were significantly higher (p<0.05) in in vivo than in vitro oocyte. The cleavage rate of fused oocytes from in vivo and in vitro sources were 52.6% and 54.4%, respectively. No significant difference was found in the cleavage rate according to the recipient oocyte source. These results suggest that factors such as field pulse of electric stimulation and oocyte source could affect in vitro developmental ability of nuclear transplanted caprine oocytes.

Establishment of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cell-like Cells from In Vitro Fertilized Embryos (체외수정 생쥐 배아에서의 배아 줄기세포 확립)

  • Shin, Yong-Moon;Park, Yong-Bin;Kim, Hee-Sun;Oh, Sun-Kyung;Chun, Dae-Woo;Suh, Chang-Suk;Choe, Young-Min;Kim, Jung-Gu;Lee, Jin-Yong;Kim, Seok-Hyun
    • Clinical and Experimental Reproductive Medicine
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.1-12
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    • 2002
  • Objective: In order to acquire the technique for the establishment of human embryonic stem cells (ESe) derived from the human frozen-thawed embryos produced in IVF-ET program, this study was performed to establish mouse ESC derived from the in vitro fertilized embryos. Materials and Methods: After Fl hybrid (C57BL female $\times$ CBA mael) female mice were superovulated with PMSG and hCG treatment, their oocytes were retrieved and inseminated, and the fertilized embryos were cultured for 96-120 hours until the expected stages of blastocysts were obtained. To isolate the inner cell mass (ICM), either the blastocysts were treated with immunosurgery, or the whole embryos were cultured for 4 days. Isolated ICMs were then cultured onto STO feeder cell layer, and the resultant ICM colonies were subcultured with trypsin-EDTA treatment. During the subculture process, ESC-like cell colonies were observed with phase contrast microscopy. To identify ESC in the subcultured ESC-like cell colonies, alkaline phosphatase activity and Oct-4 (octamer-binding transcription factor-4) expression were examined by immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR, respectively. To examine the spontaneous differentiation, ESC-like cell colonies were cultured without STO feeder cell layer and leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF). Results: Seven ESC-like cell lines were established from ICMs isolated from the in vitro fertilized embryos. According to the developmental stage, the growth of ICMs isolated from the expanded blastocysts was significantly better than that of ICMs isolated from the hatched blastocysts (80.3% vs. 58.7%, p<0.05). ESC-like cell colonies were only obtained from ICMs of expanded blastocysts. However, the ICMs isolated from the embryos treated with immunosurgery were poorly grown and frequently differentiated during the culture process. The established ESC-like cell colonies were positively stained with alkaline phosphatase and expressed Oct-4, and their morphology resembled that observed in the previously reported mouse ESC. In addition, following the extended in vitro culture process, they maintained their expression of cell surface markers characteristic of the pluripotent stem cells such as alkaline phosphatase and Oct-4. When cultured without STO feeder cell layer and LIF, they were spontaneously differentiated into the various types of cells. Conclusion: The findings of this study suggest that the establishment of mouse ESC can be successfully derived from the in vitro fertilized embryos. The established ESC-like cells expressed the cell surface markers characteristic of the pluripotent stem cells and spontaneously differentiated into the various types of cells.

Biological Functions of N- and O-linked Oligosaccharides of Equine Chorionic Gonadotropin and Lutropin/Chorionic Gonadotropin Receptor

  • Min, K.S.
    • Korean Journal of Animal Reproduction
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.357-364
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    • 2000
  • Members of the glycoprotein family, which includes CG, LH, FSH and TSH, comprise two noncovalently linked $\alpha$- and $\beta$-subunits. Equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG), known as PMSG, has a number of interesting and unique characteristics since it appears to be a single molecule that possesses both LH- and FSH-like activities in other species than the horse. This dual activity of eCG in heterologous species is of fundamental interest to the study of the structure-function relationships of gonadotropins and their receptors. CG and LH $\beta$ genes are different in primates. In horse, however, a single gene encodes both eCG and eLH $\beta$ -subunits. The subunit mRNA levels seem to be independently regulated and their imbalance may account for differences in the quantities of $\alpha$ - and $\beta$-subunits in the placenta and pituitary. The dual activities of eCG could be separated by removal of the N-linked oligosaccharide on the $\alpha$-subunit Asn 56 or CTP-associated O-linked oligosaccharides. The tethered-eCG was efficiently secreted and showed similar LH-like activity to the dimeric eCG. Interestingly, the FSH-like activity of the tethered-eCG was increased markedly in comparison with the native and wild type eCG. These results also suggest that this molecular can implay particular models of FSH-like activity not LH-like activity in the eCG/indicate that the constructs of tethered molecule will be useful in the study of mutants that affect subunit association and/or secretion. A single-chain analog can also be constructed to include additional hormone-specific bioactive generating potentially efficacious compounds that have only FSH-like activity. The LH/CG receptor (LH/CGR), a membrane glycoprotein that is present on testicular Leydig cells and ovarian theca, granulosa, luteal, and interstitial cells, plays a pivotal role in the regulation of gonadal development and function in males as well as in nonpregnant and pregnant females. The LH/CGR is a member of the family of G protein-coupled receptors and its structure is predicted to of a large extracellular domain connected to a bundle of seven membrane-spanning a-helices. The LH/CGR phosphorylation can be induced with a phorbol ester, but not with a calcium ionophore. The truncated form of LHR also was down-regulated normally in response to hCG stimulation. In contrast, the cell lines expressing LHR-t631 or LHR-628, the two phosphorylation-negative receptor mutant, showed a delay in the early phase of hCG-induced desensitization, a complete loss of PMA-induced desensitization, and an increase in the rate of hCG-induced receptor down-regulation. These results clearly show that residues 632~653 in the C-terminal tail of the LHR are involved in PMA-induced desensitization, hCG-induced desensitization, and hCG-induced down-regulation. Recently, constitutively activating mutations of the receptor have been identified that are associated with familial male-precocious puberty. Cells expressing LHR-D556Y bind hCG with normal affinity, exhibit a 25-fold increase in basal cAMP and respond to hCG with a normal increase in cAMP accumulation. This mutation enhances the internalization of the free and agoinst-occupied receptors ~2- and ~17- fold, respectively. We conclude that the state of activation of the LHR can modulate its basal and/or agonist-stimulated internalization. Since the internalization of hCG is involved in the termination of hCG actions, we suggest that the lack of responsiveness detected in cells expressing LHR-L435R is due to the fast rate of internalization of the bound hCG. This statement is supported by the finding that hCG responsiveness is restored when the cells are lysed and signal transduction is measured in a subcellular fraction (membranes) that cannot internalize the bound hormone.

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