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Effect of Mixture of p-Phenylenediamine with Hydrogen Peroxide to Rat Skin (p-Phenylenediamine과 과산화수소 혼합액 도포가 흰쥐 피부조직에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Sang-Hee;Lee, Sang-Il
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.35 no.8
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    • pp.1010-1015
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    • 2006
  • p-Pheylenediamimine (PPD) is one of hair dye's ingredients, and the mixture of PPD with hydrogen peroxide is generally used to dye hair at beauty shop. This study is conducted to investigate the effect of oxidized PPD on rat skin. 6% hydrogen peroxide, PPD (5% PPD in 2% $NH_4OH$) or the mixture (isovolumed mixture of 5% PPD and 6% hydrogen peroxide in 2% $NH_4OH$) was applied to rat skin ($25\;mg/16.5\;cm^2$) five times every other day. The activity of acid phosphatase (ACP) was more increased in the mixture of PPD with hydrogen peroxide applied group than PPD applied group. Furthermore, the activity of glucose 6-phosphatase (G6Pase) in the mixture of PPD with hydrogen peroxide applied group showed higher decreasing rate than that of PPD applied group. In histopathological findings, the mixed PPD with hydrogen peroxide applied group showed more thickening of epithelium, increased numbers of dermal fibroblasts, and the dilatation of dermal capillaries than PPD applied group. The significant increasing of xanthine oxidase (XO) activity was determined in mixture of PPD with hydrogen peroxide applied group compared with PPD applied group. However, reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging system, the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) were more significantly decreased in mixed PPD with hydrogen peroxide applied groups than in PPD applied group. In conclusion, topical application with the mixture of PPD with hydrogen peroxide compared with PPD application resulted in imbalance with ROS generating and scavenging which probably led to severe skin injury.

Effect of p-Phenylenediamine to Rat Skin (p-Phenylenediamine이 흰쥐의 피부 조직에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, SangHee;Cho, HyunGug;Lee, Sang-Il
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.34 no.9
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    • pp.1330-1335
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    • 2005
  • Red brownish p-pheylenediamine (PPD) has been widely used hair dye for women. The dye was known to cause systemic anaphylaxis, dermatitis and bladder cancer. But the effect of PPD toxicity with oxygen free radical has not been studied. This study investigated the degree of skin injury by PPD. PPD ($2.5\%$ PPD in $2\%\;NH_{4}OH$) was applied to the rat skin ($25 mg/16.5\;cm^2$) 3 or 5 times every other day. Histopathological findings demonstrated the proliferation of epithelial cells and the increased keratinization by PPD. The activities of glucose 6-phosphatase (G6Pase) was decreased and acid phosphatase (ACP) was increased in PPD-applied rat skin. Groups in which PPD was applied 5 times were more damaged than groups applied 3 times. To examine the relationship between tissue damage and oxygen free radicals, effect of PPD on xanthine oxidase (XO) activity was measured and XO activity was more significantly increased in the group treated with PPD 5 times than 3 times. However, reduced glutathione (GSH) content, and the activities of catalase (CAT), super-oxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione S -transferase (GST) were more decreased in PPD-applied groups than in controls. Even though the activities of XOD was not changed in the group treated with PPD 3 times, the decreased activities of oxygen free radical system and the damaged skin tissue were observed. This result might be caused by the production of toxic PPD metabolites in rat skin. In conclusion, topical PPD application led to skin injury in a dose-dependent manner, probably due to the generation rate of oxygen free radical.

Tuberculin Reactivity in Neonates Vaccinated with BCG at Primary Care Clinics - With Two Types of BCG Vaccine and Two Strengths of PPD - (개원가의 신생아 BCG 접종 후 투베르쿨린 반응 평가 -접종 방법과 PPD 종류에 의한 차이 비교-)

  • Kim, Wan Ju;Lee, Sun Ho;Ahn, Sang Yoon;Yang, Seung Jae;Oh, Sung Hee
    • Pediatric Infection and Vaccine
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.208-214
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    • 2002
  • Purpose : The number of newborns vaccinated with BCG of Tokyo 172 strain, which has been claimed to cause lesser degree of local adverse events including scar, has recently been increasing. However, tuberculin response to this vaccine has inadequately been studied, especially with newborns cared at primary care clinics. We, therefore, performed a study in newborns vaccinated with BCG at private pediatric offices and evaluated the response to PPD 2TU or PPD 5TU following vaccination with percutaneous or intradermal BCG. Methods : Two hundred infants who had been cared at three private pediatric offices were retrospectively enrolled in the study. One hundred fifty one infants had received percutaneous BCG(Tokyo strain); 129 infants had had tuberuclin test with PPD 2TU and the rest of 22 infants with PPD 5TU. Forty nine infants had received intradermal BCG(28 infants Copenhagen strain, I infant French strain, 20 infants unknown); 35 infants had had tuberculin test with PPD 2TU, 14 infants(11%) with PPD 5TU. Results : In infants vaccinated with percutaneous BCG, the mean induration diameter in tuberculin test was significantly greater with PPD 5TU($12.4{\pm}3.5mm$) compared to PPD 2TU ($9.2{\pm}4.4mm$). In infants vaccinated with intradermal BCG, the mean induration diameters in tuberculin test were $5.7{\pm}5.1mm$ to PPD 2TU and $6.6{\pm}4.8mm$ to PPD 5TU, which were not significantly different. The tuberculin response to PPD 2TU was significantly greater in infants vaccinated with percutaneous BCG compared to those with intradermal BCG. The tuberculin response to PPD 5TU was also significantly greater in infants vaccinated with percutaneous BCG compared to those with intradermal BCG. Conclusion : Percutaneous BCG(Tokyo strain) seems to cause greater response to tuberculin compared to intradermal BCG and PPD 2TU induces weaker response compared to PPD 5TU. Acknowledging some discrepancies from the previously reported data, which might have been due to the different source of the study subjects, more studies are needed to establish the range of tuberculin response following BCG vaccination in order to differentiate from tuberculosis.

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Synthesis of p-Phenylenediamine (PPD) using Supercritical Ammonia (초임계 암모니아를 이용한 p-Phenylenediamine(PPD) 합성 및 특성연구)

  • Cho, Hang-Kyu;Lim, Jong Sung
    • Korean Chemical Engineering Research
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    • v.53 no.1
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    • pp.53-56
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    • 2015
  • In this study, investigated the synthesis method of p-Phenylenediamine (PPD) by amination of p-Diiodobenzene (PDIB) under supercritical ammonia and CuI catalyst conditions. We examined the effects of various process variables (e.g., reaction temperature, pressure, amount of ammonia inserted, amount of catalyst inserted, and reaction time) on the production yield of PPD by analyzing the Gas Chromatography (GC). The experimental results demonstrated that PPD was not produced under non-catalyst conditions, and PPD production yield increased with increasing temperature, pressure, amount of catalyst inserted, and reaction time. However, for the reaction temperature case, it was found that $200^{\circ}C$ was the optimal temperature, because thermal degradation of PPD occurred above $250^{\circ}C$. In addition, we confirmed the structure of PPD and the bonding characteristics of the amine group via FT-IR and H-NMR analysis.

Sensitivity of Repeat Tuberculin Test with Bovine PPD, Seibert's Fraction A (SFA) and Avian PPD Tuberculins in Visible and Non-visible Lesion Reactor Cattle to HCSM Tuberculin (Tuberculin(HCSM)반응(反應) 유우(乳牛)에 대한 PPD, SFA 및 PPD-A Tuberculin을 이용한 재검사법(再檢査法)의 민감성(敏感性))

  • Choi, Chul-soon;Kim, Jae-hak;Yoon, Yong-dhuk
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.50-57
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    • 1984
  • Tuberculin(HCSM) 반응유우 60두에 대하여 가열살균처리한 우결핵균에서 얻은 PPD-BS tuberculin을 이용한 추벽피내재검사법과 석탄산살균처리한 우결핵균에서 얻은 SFA tuberculin을 이용한 경측피내재검사법간의 민감성과 특이성을 비교하였다. 또한 SFA tuberculin과 현행 조형 PPD(PPD-A) tuberculin을 이용한 비교검사법의 가치를 판독기준에 따라 분석하였다. 병소우군에서 PPD-BS와 SFA tuberculin간에 민감성은 차이가 없었으나 무병소우와 감염우동거군에서 SFA tuberculin은 PPD-BS tuberculin에 비하여 비특이반응이 현저히 낮았다(P<0.01). SFA와 PPD-A를 이용한 비교검사법은 판독기준에 따라 가양성반응과 가음성반응에 크게 영향을 주었으며, 피내반응차이 4mm를 판독기준으로 할 때 병소우와 무병소우를 감별할 수 없었다. 이 연구에서 SFA tuberculin은 PPD-BS에 비하여 병소우에서 민감성간에는 차이가 없었으나 무병소우에서 특이성이 현저히 높았다는 점으로 보아 앞으로 HCSM tuberculin 반응우에 대한 재검사는 현행 PPD에서 SFA tuberculin으로 대체함으로써 비특이반응우를 더욱 감소시킬 수 있다는 것을 의미한다.

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A Study on the Factors related to postpartum Depression in Postpartum Women (산욕기 산모의 산후 우울증에 영향을 미치는 요인)

  • Choi, Euy-Soon;Oh, Jeong-Ah
    • Korean Journal of Women Health Nursing
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    • v.6 no.3
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    • pp.358-371
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    • 2000
  • The purpose of this study was to provide the basic, data for developing a program for effective prevention for Postpartum Depression (PPD) by investigating the level of PPD in postpartum 2 weeks women. The subjects were 384 women who visited obstetrical clinics for postnatal care. The data were collected from June 29. 1999 to April. 2000, using a 46-item questionnaire related to PPD, and analyzed by SAS program for t-test, ANOVA, Scheffe test, stepwise multiple regressions. The results were as follows : 1. The level of PPD according to general characteristics Women had mild PPD (Min score; 46.0, Max score; 124.0). The PPD levels were significantly differences according to religion and marital satisfaction (p<0.05). 2. The level of PPD according to obstetrical characteristics 1) Characteristics related to pregnancy The PPD levels were significantly differences according to mood change, confidence of body weight recovery, depression related to appearance change, husband's help to housework, and husband's emotional support (p<0.05). 2) Stressful events during pregnancy The PPD levels were significantly differences according to financial problem, conflict between partners, conflict between family, and husband's job change (p<0.05). 3) Characteristics related to delivery and post natal period The PPD levels were significantly differences according to baby's health state, parenting confidence, and difficulties related to postpartum care (p<0.05). 3. The variables to predict postpartum depression in postpartum women are depression related to appearance change (10.4%), parenting confidence (8.8%), husband's help to housework (2.7%), confidence of body weight recovery (2.4%), husband's job change (1.9%), baby's health state (1.9%), difficulties related to postpartum care (1.6%), mood change (1.2%), conflict between partners (0.6%), marital satisfaction (0.5%), financial problem (0.4%). The sum total of all the above variables can account for 32.4% of postpartum depression. 4. The level of PPD according to PPD factors. Women had the highest degree of PPD in biophysiological phenomena-disturbance of physical functioning factor. The factors of relationship to baby-negative feeling and cognitive phenomena-self concept disturbance were showed the lowest degree of PPD. As a result of the above findings, a systemic and individualized program is strongly recommended for PPD prevention, diagnosis, and care for PPD in postpartum women. In near future, this study should be expanded to investigate the coping skills according to the PPD levels in postpartum women.

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Study on the Usefulness of Ultrasonography for Postpartum Depression and Thyroid Disease (출산 후 우울증과 갑상선질환에 대한 초음파검사의 유용성에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Yun-Yi;Lim, Cheong-Hwan;Jung, Hong-Ryang;Park, Mi-Ja;You, In-Gyu
    • Journal of radiological science and technology
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    • v.35 no.3
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    • pp.237-248
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    • 2012
  • Postpartum depression(PPD) of women with depression increased frequency of thyroid disease, and so the correlations for depression and thyroid disease has been the subject of discussed whether. The purpose of this study was to predict the prevalence of PPD and the correlation between PPD and thyroid disease through ultrasonography. January 2010 to November 2011, Obstetrics & Gynecology in M-clinical center admitted 230 patients within 1 year postpartum were enrolled. EPDS by PPD scale depression screening and general characteristics of subjects were investigated and thyroid was examined that ultrasonography and thyroid blood tests. A total of 230 patients non PPD group were 53.0% and PPD group were 47.0%. In ultrasonography, among 27 patients who changed in size of thyroid, non PPD group were 14.8% and PPD group were 85.2%. Among 124 patients who thyroid nodules were presence, non PPD were 35.8% and PPD group were 64.2%. In ultrasonography, PPD group were higher incidence than non PPD group were changes in size of thyroid and the presence of nodules. There was significant difference between the changed in size of thyroid and thyroid nodules were presence the two group. Definitive histopathological diagnosis was benign in 33 patients (non PPD group were 45.5%, PPD group were 54.5%), malignancy in 5 patients (only PPD group were 100%), thyroiditis in 3 patients (non PPD group were 33.3%, PPD group were 66.7%). The results of thyroid blood tests, abnormal TSH level were 7 patients (non PPD group were 28.6%, PPD group were 71.4%) and abnormal Free T4 level were 9 patients (non PPD group were 44.4%, PPD group were 55.6%). There was no significant difference between the abnormal TSH level and Free T4 level of the two group. 5 patients were diagnosed as thyroid dysfunction. Of these, 2 patients were subclinical hyperthyroidism in non PPD group, 2 patients were subclinical hyperthyroidism and 1 patient was subclinical hyperthyroidism in PPD group. This study was significant the correlation between PPD and thyroid gland disease through ultrasonography. And the objective results of this study might be able to provide guideline that understanding, prevention and treatment for PPD and thyroid disease.

A Clinical Study on the Postpartum Depression (산후우울증에 대한 임상적 연구)

  • Kim Lak-Hyung;Kim Su-Yeon;Kwon Bo-Hyung
    • Journal of Oriental Neuropsychiatry
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.123-130
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    • 2000
  • Objectives: Postpartum depression(PPD) is a kind of serious problem which influences on the postpartum woman, her family and infant. It has been known to be caused by many factors and some depression scales have been used to assess the degree of PPD. Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale(EPDS) recently began to be used for screening for PPD.Methods: The subjects were 46 women who admitted for postpartum treatment in Oriental Hospital of Woosuk University from May 2000 to December 2000. In this study, we used EPDS and Beck Depression Inventory(BDI) to assess the degree of PPD, and we researched the related factors of PPD. Results: 13 women(28.3%) in the high risk group by EPDS and 7 women(15.2%) in depression - severe depression group by BDI were diagnosed as PPD among the 46 women. There was significant correlation between Epds score and BDI score. The mean score of EPDS was higher in normal delivery group than caesarean delivery group, higher in primiparae group than multiparae group, and higher in the group who delivered female infants than male infants. But there were not significant differences. And there was not significant correlation between EPDS score and age.Conclusions: These results suggest that PPD is quite frequent at postpartum period and it is necessary to treat for PPD. It is important for clinicians to pay attention to the related factors of PPD as well as to recognize and treat PPD.

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Rheological Implications of mesomorphic Order in the Lyotropic Liquid Crystalline Polymer Systems (유방성 액정고분자계에 있어서 중간상의 분자배열 규칙성의 유변학적 해석)

  • 김병철
    • The Korean Journal of Rheology
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    • v.9 no.4
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    • pp.200-205
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    • 1997
  • 등방상에서는 폴리파라페닐렌테레프탈아미드(PPD-T)와 히드록시 프로필 셀룰로오 스(HPC)가 비슷한 유변학적 거동을 보였다. 그러나 이방성에서는 네마틱상을 형성하는 PPD-T와 콜레스테릭상(또는 꼬인 네마틱상)을 형성하는 HPC는 상이한 유변학적 특성을 나타냈다. 이방상을 나타내는 임계농도(C*)이상의 농도에서 Herchel-Bulkey 모델에 의해 얻 어진 항복응력을 보면 HPC의 경우 농도에 관계없이 거의 일정한 값을 나타낸 반면PPD-T 의경우에는 농도증가와 더불어 항북응력값이 크게 증가하였다. 또한 PPD-T가 일\ulcorner거으로 HPC보다 큰값의 항복응력을 나타냈다. 진동수 1 rad/s 에서는 PPD-T와 HPCahen 탄성계 수 G'/2G"가 농도의 증가와 더불어 증가하엿다. 그러나 100rad/s 에서는 HPCdmlruddn 임계농도이상의 농도에서 농도증가와 더불어 탄성계수값이 단순감소한 반면 PPD-T의 경우 에는 포화농도(B-point)이상의 농도에서 농도증가와 더불어 탄성계수값이 계속적으로 증가 하였다. HPC의 경우 저장탄성률이 변형정도의 영향을 받지 않았으나 PPD-T의 경우에는 저장탄성률이 변형정도에 매우 민감하였다.

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Identification of Microsatellite Markers Linked to Photoperiod Insensitive Gene Ppd-D1a in Wheat

  • Heo, Hwa-Young;Talbert, Luther;Blake, Nancy;Sherman, Jamie;Suh, Sae-Jung;Kim, Dea-Wook;Kim, Si-Ju
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.52 no.1
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    • pp.12-16
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    • 2007
  • To facilitate breeding of lines with either the Ppd-D1a or ppd-d1a, we screened 342 $F_2$ progenies from a cross between Laura (photoperiod insensitive, Ppd-D1a) spring wheat and SWP5304 (photoperiod sensitive, ppd-d1a) for their time to heading under 10 hour day length, and with a set of 37 microsatellite primers previously mapped to chromosome 2D. Bulk segregant analysis was used to identify tow linked microsatellite loci. The Ppd-D1a locus was flanked by Xgwm484 with 13.7 cM distance and Xgwm455 with 27 cM. These markers may be useful in selection of the desired photoperiod sensitivity in segregating populations grown in Northern latitude.