• Title, Summary, Keyword: PPF

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Inhibitory effect of propofol on endothelium-dependent relaxation and blood pressure lowering in rats (흰쥐에서 혈관내피 의존적인 혈관이완과 혈압하강에 대한 propofol의 억제 효과)

  • Kim, Shang-Jin;Kim, Jeong-gon;Joe, Sung-gun;Kang, Hyung-sub;Kim, Jin-shang
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.44 no.3
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    • pp.357-366
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    • 2004
  • We studied the effect of propofol (PPF) on the endothelium-dependent vascular responses in isolated rat thoracic aorta. In aortic rings with endothelium, PPF inhibited the phenylephrine (PE)-induced contraction in a concentration-dependent manner. In PE-precontracted preparations, PPF attenuated the endothelium-dependent relaxation by acetylcholine but not by A23187. And PPF did not attenuate the endothelium-independent relaxation by sodium nitroprusside (SNP). The relaxation induced by acetylcholine in PE-precontracted aortic rings was significantly augmented by zaprinast, a cGMP-specific phosphodiesterase inhibitor, and this augmentation was inhibited by PPF. Although SNP-induced relaxation was significantly augmented by zaprinast, this augmentation was not inhibited by PPF. In preparations preconstricted with PE, the PPF-induced relaxation was inhibited by atropine. In addition, PPF attenuated the vasorelaxation by phosphodiesterase inhibitors (IBMX, Ro20-1724 or zaprinast except milrinone). In vivo, the infusion of acetylcholine and SNP showed decreased arterial blood pressure in rats. The pre-injection of PPF inhibited the acetylcholine-induced blood pressure lowering, but not the SNP-induced blood pressure lowering. These results suggest that PPF can attenuate in part the acetylcholine-induced vasorelaxation and blood pressure lowering through the inhibition of the acetylcholine receptor-mediated endothelium-derived relaxing factor by acting on endothelium. It is considered that the inhibitory effect of PPF on the vasorelaxation is due to the decreased level of cGMP which can be attributed to the inhibition of the muscarinic receptor and/or receptor-G-protein interaction.

Active Vibration Control of Multi-Mode Forced Vibration Using PPF Control Technique (PPF 제어기법을 이용한 다중 모드 강제 진동의 능동 진동 제어)

  • 한상보;곽문규;윤신일
    • Journal of KSNVE
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    • v.7 no.6
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    • pp.1007-1013
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    • 1997
  • This paper presents active vibration control scheme of multi-mode forced vibration using piezocetamic sensors and actuators. The control scheme adopted is the Positive Position Feedback (PPF) control. Among various vibration control techniques. PPF control technique makes use of generalized displacement measurements to accomplish the vibration suppression. Two independent controllers are implemented to control the first and the second modes of the beam under external excitation. Experimental results for various damping ratios and feedback gains of the PPF controllers are compared with respect to the contorl efficiency. The results indicate that steady state vibration under wide band excitation can be controlled effectively when multiple sets of PZT sensors and actuators were used with PPF control technique.

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Vibration Suppression of Smart Structures Using a Combined PPF-SRF Control Technique (PPF와 SRF 조합기법을 사용한 지능구조물의 능동진동제어)

  • 곽문규;라완규;윤광준
    • Journal of KSNVE
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    • v.7 no.5
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    • pp.811-817
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    • 1997
  • This paper is concerned with the active vibration controller design for the grid structure based on the positive position feedback (PPF) and the strain rate feedback (SRF) control. A new control methodology by the combination of the PPF and SRF control can suppress all the modes of the structure theoretically and can be easily implemented with analog circuits. The underlying concept for the design of the new controller is that the SRF controller stabilizes the modes higher than the second mode and the PPF controller stabilizes the fundamental mode which is destabilized by the SRF controller. In order for the new controller to be implemented succesfully, the collocated control is necessary. To this end, the piezoceramic sensor and actuator are located as close as possible, thus realizing the nearly collocated control. The combined PPF and ARF controller proves its effectiveness by experiments.

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Characteristics of a nonmagnetic preplating leadframe (비자성 선도금 리드프레임의 특성)

  • Lee, D.H.;Jang, T.S.;Kim, H.D.;Hong, S.S.;Lee, J.W.;Yang, H.W.
    • Proceedings of the KAIS Fall Conference
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    • pp.162-166
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    • 2006
  • 기존의 Ni PPF를 대신하여 새롭게 Cu-Sn 합금을 barrier층으로 적용한 PPF를 제조하여, 그 제반 특성들을 조사하였다. Cu-Sn 합금도금층은 기존의 Ni PPF와 마찬가지로 반도체 substrate로서 지녀야 할 열적 안정성을 충분히 확보할 수 있음을 알 수 있었다. 또한 기지층 및 보호층과의 계면간 밀착성이 Ni PPF보다 더 우수했으며, 미세한 결정립들이 균일하게 분포한 도금층 구조를 나타내어, 이들이 Ni PPF보다 구조적으로 더욱 안정할 것임을 예상할 수 있었다. 한편 강자성 거동을 보이는 Ni PPF와는 달리 Cu-Sn PPF는 완벽한 상자성 특성을 보여, 점차 고집적, 고밀도화 되어가는 반도체 패키지의 동작중 발생할 발열 및 신호간섭의 위험이 원천적으로 제거될 수 있음을 보였으며, solderability, bondability 등의 field 특성 또한 Ni PPF와 거의 비슷함을 알 수 있었다.

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Pharmacokinetics of Propentofylline and the Quantitation of Its Metaolite Hydroxypropentofylline in Human Volunteers

  • Kwon, Oh-Seung;Chung, Youn-Bok;Kim, Min-Hee;Hahn, Hoh-Gyu;Rhee, Hee-Kyung;Ryu, Jae-Chun
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.21 no.6
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    • pp.698-702
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    • 1998
  • Propentofylline (PPF, 3-methyl-1-(5-oxohexyl)-7-propylxanthine) has been reported to be effective for the treatment of both vascular dementia and dementia of the Alzheimer type. The pharmacological effects of PPF may be exerted via the stimulation of nerve growth factor, increased cerebral blood flow, and inhibition of adenosine uptake. The objectives of this experiment are to determine the kinetic behavior of PPF, to identify, and to quantify its metabolite in human. Blood samples were obtained from human volunteers following oral administration of 200mg of PPF tablets. For the identification and quantification of the metabolite, 3-methyl-1-(5-hydroxyhexyl)-7-propylxanthine (PPFOH), PPFOH was synthesized and identified by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS) and $^1H$-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The molecular weight of synthesized metabolite is 308 dalton. The PPF and PPFOH in plasma were extracted with diethyl ether and identified by electron impact GC/MS. The plasma concentrations of PPF and PPFOH were determined by gas chromatography/nitrogen phosphorus detector in plasma and their pharmacokinetic parameters were determined. The mean half-life of PPF was 0.74 hr. The areas under the curve (AUCs) of PPF and PPFOH were 508 and 460ng.hr/ml, respectively. $C_{max}$ of PPF was about 828.4ng/ml and the peak concentration was achieved at about 2.2 hr ($T_{max}$). These results indicate that PPF is rapidly disappeared from blood due to extensive metabolism into PPFOH.

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Measurement System of Photosynthetic Photon Flux Distribution and Illumination Efficiency of LED Lamps for Plant Growth

  • Lee, Jae Su;Kim, Yong Hyeon
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.37 no.5
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    • pp.314-318
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    • 2012
  • Purpose: This study was conducted to develop a measurement system for determining photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) distribution and illumination efficiency of LED lamps. Methods: The system was composed of a linear moving sensor part (LMSP), a rotating part to turn the LMSP, a body assembly to support the rotating part, and a motor controller. The average PPF of the LED lamp with natural cooling and water cooling was evaluated using the measurement system. Results: The PPF of LED lamp with water cooling was 3.1-31.7% greater than that with natural cooling. Based on the measured value, PPF on the horizontal surface was predicted. Illumination efficiency of the LED lamp was slightly increased with water cooling by 3.4%, compared with natural cooling. A simulation program using MATLAB was developed to analyze the effects of the vertical distance from lighting sources to growing bed, lamp spacing, and number of LED lamps, on the PPF distribution on the horizontal surface. The uniformity of the PPF distribution of the LED lamps was fairly improved with 15 cm spacing, as compared to the 5 cm spacing. By simulation, PPF of $217.0{\pm}27.9{\mu}mol{\cdot}m^{-2}{\cdot}s^{-1}$ was obtained at the vertical distance of 40 cm from six LED lamps with 12 cm spacing. This simulated PPF was compared to the measured one of $225.9{\pm}25.6{\mu}mol{\cdot}m^{-2}{\cdot}s^{-1}$. After continuous lighting of 346 days, the relative PPF of LED lamps with water cooling and natural cooling was decreased by 6.6% and 22.8%, respectively. Conclusions: From these results, it was concluded that the measurement system developed in this study was useful for determining PPF and illumination efficiency of artificial lighting sources including LED lamp.

Positive Position Feedback Control of Plate Vibrations Using Moment Pair Actuators (모멘트쌍 액추에이터가 적용된 PPF에 의한 평판의 능동진동제어)

  • Shin, Chang-Joo;Hong, Chin-Suk;Jeong, Weui-Bong;You, Ho-Young
    • Transactions of the Korean Society for Noise and Vibration Engineering
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.383-392
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    • 2012
  • This paper reports the active vibration control of plates using a positive position feedback(PPF) controller with moment pair actuators. The equations of motion of the plates under a force and moment pairs are derived and the equations of PPF controllers are formulated. The numerical active control system is then achieved. The effect of the parameters - gain and damping ratio - of the PPF controllers on the open loop transfer function was investigated mainly in terms of the system stability. Increasing the gain of the PPF controller tuned at a mode, the magnitude of the open loop transfer function is increased at all frequencies without changing the phase behavior. The increase of the damping ratio of the PPF controller leads to decrease the magnitude of the open loop transfer function and to modify its phase characteristics, ie, system stability. Based on the behavior of the gain and the damping ratio of the controller, PPF controller for reduction of the plate vibration can be achieved. Two PPF controllers are designed with their connection in parallel to control the two modes simultaneously. Each PPF controller is tuned at the $1^{st}$ and $2^{nd}$ modes, respectively. Their parameters were determined to remain the system to be stable based on the results of the parametric study. A significant reduction in vibration at the tuned modes can be obtained.

Settlement Characteristics of Short-fiber Reinforced Soil under Simulated Railroad Loading (열차모의하중에 대한 단섬유 보강토체의 침하특성)

  • 박영곤;김정기;김현기;황선근
    • Proceedings of the KSR Conference
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    • pp.596-600
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    • 2002
  • To analyze the settlement characteristics of short-fiber reinforced soil(SFRS), which will be used as a new backfill material of reinforced retaining wall, under simulated railroad loading, a series of tests with loading condition of 5 Hz frequency and 500,000 cycles were performed. The materials used for tests are soils with SM or ML type, and polypropylene short-fibers with mono-filament(PPM) or fibrillated type(PPF). From the tests, average plastic settlement is low at PPF38(0.3%)(abbreviation of PPF with 38mm length and mixing ratio 0.3%), PPF38(0.5%), PPM60(0.2%) for SFRS using SM soil and at PPF38(0.3%), PPF60(0.2%) for SFRS using ML soil. Elastic settlement is low at PPM60(0.2%) for SFRS using SM soil and at PPM60(0.5%) for SFRS using ML soil.

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Comparison of the Multiple PPF Control and the Modified LQG Control for the Active Vibration Suppression of Intelligent Structures (지능구조물의 능동진동제어를 위한 다중 PPF 제어기와 수정 LQG 제어기의 비교 연구)

  • 곽문규
    • Journal of KSNVE
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    • v.8 no.6
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    • pp.1121-1129
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    • 1998
  • This research is concerned with the multiple PPF and the modified LQG controller design for active vibration control of intelligent structures. The intelligent structure is defined as the structure equipped with smart actuators and sensors. Various control techniques aimed for the piezoceramic sensors and actuators have been proposed for the active vibration control of smart structures and some of them prove their effectiveness experimentally. In this paper, the multiple PPF controller and the modified LQG controller are developed and applied to the smart grid structure. The multiple PPF control and the modified LQG control can be classified as the classical and the modern control techniques. respectively. The experimental results show that both control techniques are effective in suppressing vibrations. Two control techniques are compared with respect to the design process. the ease of implementation and the effectiveness

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Performance Analysis of MCDD in an OBP Satellite Communications System

  • Kim, Sang-Goo;Yoon, Dong-Weon
    • Journal of Communications and Networks
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    • v.12 no.6
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    • pp.529-532
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    • 2010
  • Multi-carrier demultiplexer/demodulator (MCDD) in an on-board processing (OBP) satellite used for digital multimedia services has two typical architectures according to the channel demultiplexing procedure: Multistage multi-carrier demultiplexer (M-MCD) or poly-phase fast Fourier transform (PPF). During the channel demultiplexing, phase and quantization errors influence the performance of MCDD; those errors affect the bit error rate (BER) performance of M-MCD and PPF differently. In this paper, we derive the phase error variances that satisfy the condition that M-MCD and PPF have the same signal to noise ratio according to quantization bits, and then, with these results, analyze the BER performances of M-MCD and PPF. The results provided here may be a useful reference for the selection of M-MCD or PPF in designing the MCDD in an OBP satellite communications system.