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Application of carbon-supported PdPt as anode catalysts in PEM fuel cell (PdPt/C 촉매의 고분자전해질 연료전지의 산화극 촉매 적용)

  • Cho, Yong-Hun;Choi, Baeck-Beom;Cho, Yoon-Hwan;Park, Hyun-Seo;Sung, Yung-Eun
    • 한국신재생에너지학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.396-398
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    • 2006
  • PdPt/C (Pd:Pt atomic ratio of around 19:1 60wt, %) 촉매를 고분자전해질 연료전지용 전극 촉매소재의 적용하였다. PdPt/C 촉매를 산화극 촉매로, 환원극 촉매로는 Pt/C 촉매를 사용하고 반대로 산화극 촉매는 Pt/C 촉매, 환원극 촉매로는 PdPt/C 촉매를 사용했을 때, PdPt/C 촉매를 산화극과 환원극 촉매로 동시에 사용했을 때의 고분자전해질 연료전지의 단위전지 성능을 각각 비교하였다. PdPt/C촉매를 산화극에만 적용했을 때에 Pt/C 상용촉매를 산화극과 환원극에 모두 적용했을 때의 성능만큼 좋은 성능을 확인할 수 있었다. 환원극 촉매는 Pt/C를 사용하고 산화극 촉매를 PdPt/C Pt/C Pd/C를 사용하였을 매의 성능을 비교하였다. Pd/C를 산화극 촉매로 사용한 단위전지가 나머지 두 경우의 성능에 비하여 현저히 떨어짐을 확인할 수 있었다. 이는 극소량의 Pt 량을 포함한 PdPt/C 촉매가 고분자전해질 연료전지의 산화극 Pt/C 촉매의 대체촉매로 사용 가능함을 보여준다.

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Pt Electrocatalysts Composited on Electro-Spun Pt Nanowires for Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

  • An, Geon-Hyoung;Ahn, Hyo-Jin
    • Korean Journal of Materials Research
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    • v.22 no.8
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    • pp.421-425
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    • 2012
  • Two types of Pt nanoparticle electrocatalysts were composited on Pt nanowires by a combination of an electrospinning method and an impregnation method with NaBH4 as a reducing agent. The structural properties and electrocatalytic activities for methanol electro-oxidation in direct methanol fuel cells were investigated by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and cyclic voltammetry. In particular, SEM, HRTEM, XRD, and XPS results indicate that the metallic Pt nanoparticles with polycrystalline property are uniformly decorated on the electro-spun Pt nanowires. In order to investigate the catalytic activity of the Pt nanoparticles decorated on the electro-spun Pt nanowires, two types of 20 wt% Pt nanoparticles and 40 wt% Pt nanoparticles decorated on the electro-spun Pt nanowires were fabricated. In addition, for comparison, single Pt nanowires were fabricated via an electrospinning method without an impregnation method. As a result, the cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry results demonstrate that the electrode containing 40 wt% Pt nanoparticles exhibits the best catalytic activity for methanol electro-oxidation and the highest electrochemical stability among the single Pt nanowires, the 20 wt% Pt nanoparticles decorated with Pt nanowires, and the 40 wt% Pt nanoparticles decorated with Pt nanowires studied for use in direct methanol fuel cells.

Effect of Combined Exposure to EDTA and Zinc Pyrithione on Pyrithione Absorption in Rats

  • Jung, Dong Sik;Jung, Guk Hwa;Lee, Eun Ho;Park, Hye Ran;Kim, Ju Hwan;Kim, Kyu-Bong;Kim, Hak Rim;Kim, Hyung Gun
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.35 no.2
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    • pp.155-160
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    • 2019
  • Zinc pyrithione (ZnPT) is a coordination complex of zinc and has been used widely as an anti-dandruff agent in shampoos. Many shampoos contain both ZnPT and EDTA, a chelating agent speculated to increase ZnPT absorption, thereby raising concerns about neurotoxicity. Here, we investigated the effect of EDTA on ZnPT absorption by direct comparison of ZnPT and pyrithione (PT) concentrations in shampoo formulations, and by pharmacokinetic analysis of ZnPT, PT, and 2-methanesulfonylpyridine (MSP), the main ZnPT metabolite, in rat plasma or urine following exposure to shampoo containing ZnPT alone or a combination of ZnPT and EDTA. Approximately 17.3% of ZnPT was converted to PT by the addition of EDTA in the shampoo formulation. Plasma ZnPT and PT concentrations were not measured up to 24 hr after treatment with shampoo containing 1% ZnPT or 1% ZnPT + 2% EDTA in all rats. However, PT amount in 24-hr urine sample, MSP concentration in plasma, and MSP amount in 24-hr urine sample were approximately 4-, 2.6-, and 2.7-fold higher, respectively, in the 1% ZnPT + 2% EDTA shampoo group than in the 1% ZnPT shampoo group. As confirmed by the formulation analysis and in vivo pharmacokinetic analysis, the exposure of ZnPT could be increased by the absorption of PT due to partial dissociation of ZnPT into PT.

Trends in Production and Application Technology of Nano-platinum Group Particles for PEFC (고분자고체형연료전지용 나노백금족입자의 제조와 응용기술 동향)

  • Kil, Sang-Cheol;Hwang, Young-Gil
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Resources Recycling
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.79-91
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    • 2017
  • The core of Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles (FCV) is polymer solid fuel cell (PEFC), and the core material that generates electrochemical electricity in the cell is platinum catalyst. Platinum is localized in South Africa and Russia, and the world production of Pt is about 178 tons per year, which is expensive and recycled. At present, the amount of Pt used in PEFC is $0.2{\sim}0.1mg/cm^2$. In order to reduce the price of the battery and increase the FCV supply, the target is to reduce the amount of Pt used to $0.05{\sim}0.03mg/cm^2$. $Pt-Pd/Al_2O_3$, Pt/C, Pt/GCB, Pt/Au/C, PtCo/C, PtPd/C, etc. by using polyol method using nano Pt, improved Cu-UPD/Pt substitution method and nano-capsule method, Have been researched and developed, and there have been reported techniques for improving the activity of Pt catalysts and stabilizing them. This paper investigates the production technology of nano-Pt and nano-Pt catalysts, recycling of spent Pt catalysts and application trends of Pt catalysts.

The Formation of Epitaxial PtSi Films on Si(100) by Solid Phase Epitaxy (고상 에피택셜 성장에 의한 PtSi 박막의 형성)

  • 최치규;강민성;이개명;김상기;서경수;이정용;김건호
    • Journal of the Korean Vacuum Society
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    • v.4 no.3
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    • pp.319-326
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    • 1995
  • 초고진공에서 Si(100)-2X1 기판 위에 Pt를 약 100$\AA$의 두께로 증착한 후 in-situ로 열처리하는 고상에피택셜 성장법으로 PtSi 박막을 형성시켰다. XRD와 XPS 분석 결과 $200^{\circ}C$로 열처리한 시료에서는 Pt3Si, Pt2Si와 PtSi의 상이 섞여 있었으나 50$0^{\circ}C$로 열처리한 시료에서는 PtSi의 단일상만 확인되었으며, 형성된 PtSi 박막은 주상구조와 판상구조의 이중구조를 나타내었다. 기판 온도를 $500^{\circ}C$로 유지하면서 Pt를 증착한 후 $750^{\circ}C$에서 열처리한 경우에는 판상구조를 갖는 양질의 PtSi 박막이 에피택셜 성장되었다. HRTEM분석 결과 에피텍셜 성장된 PtSi와 기판 Si(100)의 계면은 PtSi[110]//Si[110], ptSi(110)//Si(100)의 정합성을 가졌다. 판상구조를 갖는 PtSi상의 에피택셜 방향은 기판과 열처리 온도에는 의존하나 열처리 시간에는 무관한 것으로 나타났다.

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Effect of promoter on platinum catalyst for oxidation of VOCs (VOCs 산화반응에서 Pt 촉매에 대한 조촉매의 영향)

  • Kim, Moon-Chan;Shin, Jin-Sil
    • Analytical Science and Technology
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    • v.19 no.5
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    • pp.422-432
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    • 2006
  • The volatile organic compounds(VOCs) have been recognized as a major contributor to air pollution. The catalytic oxidation is one of the most important processes for VOCs destruction due to getting high efficiency at low temperature. In this study, monometallic Pt and bimetallic Pt-Ru, Pt-Ir were supported to ${\gamma}-Al_2O_3$. Xylene, toluene and MEK were used as reactants. The monometallic or bimetallic catalysts were prepared by the excess wetness impregnation method and were characterized by XRD, XPS, TEM and BET analysis. As a result, Pt-Ru, Pt-Ir bimetallic catalysts showed higher conversion than Pt monometallic catalyst. Pt-Ir bimetallic catalyst showed the highest conversion on the ${\gamma}-Al_2O_3$ support. In the VOCs oxidation, Pt-Ru, Pt-Ir bimetallic catalyst had multipoint active sites, so it improved the range of Pt metal state. Therefore, bimetallic catalysts showed higher conversion of VOCs than monometallic ones. In this study, the use of small amount of Ru, Ir to Pt promoted oxidation conversion of VOCs.

Phases and phase Equilibria of the Pt-Sb System (백금-안티모니 계의 식평구 및 화합흉에 대한 연구)

  • 김원사
    • Korean Journal of Crystallography
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.18-24
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    • 1993
  • The phase diagram of the Pt-Sb system was reinvestigated, using the conventional sealedcapsule technique. The identification of phases present in the reaction products was made by reflected light microscopy, X-ray diffraction and electron microprobe analysis. The existence of compounds, Pt5Sb, Pt3Sb, Pt3Sb2, PtSb and PtSb5 was confirmed. A new phase, Pt5Sb with a composition of 83at% Pt and tetragonal structure of the lattice parameters a=3.948(3), c=16.85(1)A, was found. The X-ray powder data of Ptsb may be indexable on a tetragonal cell with a=3.9455(7), c=16.959(5)A. PtSb is stoichiometric up to 800t and becomes Pt-deficient as much as lat% at 1000t. Solid solubility limits of Sb in Pt were determined to be 7.5,10.0 and 6.1at% at 1000˚,800˚ and 600˚ , respectively. The earlier reported Pts Sbf was not found in this study. The liquidus curve between the Ptsb2 and Sb phases was revised.

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The Effects of 2nd Metals in Pt-based Electrocatalysts on Methanol Oxidation (Pt합금 촉매에서 메탄을 산화 반응에 미치는 제2금속의 영향)

  • Kim Yeong Min;Park Gyeong Won;Choi Jong Ho;Park In Su;Seong Yeong Eun
    • 한국전기화학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.179-182
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    • 2002
  • The electrooxidation of methanol was studied using Pt, PtRu(1:1), PtNi(1:1), PtRh(1:1) and PtOs(1:1) alloy nanoparticles for application as electrocatalysts. The effects of the second metals in the electrocatalytic activity was investigated using cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronoamperometry (CA), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). There are the metallic and oxygen states in the PtRu and PtOs electrocatalysts . In the XPS of PtRu and PtOs alloy nanoparticles, the oxygen sources were dominant as the second metal's effects. Negative shifts of the binding energies of Pt for the PtNi, PtRh alloy nanoparticles were determined by XPS measurements, which can be explained by electronic effects.

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PtNi and PtRuNi Alloy catalysts for Methanol Electrooxidation (메탄올 산화 반응을 위한 PtNi과 PtRuNi 합금 촉매)

  • Park Kyeong Won;Gwon Bu Gil;Choi Jong Ho;Seong Yeong Eun
    • 한국전기화학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.37-42
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    • 2001
  • The electrooxidation of methanol was studied using Pt, PtNi(1.1 and 3:1), PtRuNi and PtRu(1:1) alloy nanoparticles in sulfuric acid solution for application to a direct methanol fuel cell. The PtNi and PtRuNi alloys showed excellent catalytic activities compared to those of pure Pt and PtRu. The role of Ni in the electrocatalytic activity was investigated using cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronoamperometry (CA), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The XPS data confirm that the chemical states of Pt are exclusively metal as well as the presence of metallic Ni, NiO, $Ni(OH)_2$, NiOOH, metallic Ru, $RuO_2$, and $RuO_3$. Negative shifts of the binding energies of Pt for the PtNi alloy nanoparticles were determined by XPS measurements. This can be explained based by assuming that the enhanced activities of PtNi alloys for methanol electrooxidation were caused by the oxide states of Ni and by the change in the electronic structure of Pt component in the alloys.

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Facile Synthesis of Pt Nanoparticle and Graphene Composite Materials: Comparison of Electrocatalytic Activity with Analogous CNT Composite

  • Lee, Jihye;Jang, Ho Young;Jung, Insub;Yoon, Yeoheung;Jang, Hee-Jeong;Lee, Hyoyoung;Park, Sungho
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.35 no.7
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    • pp.1973-1978
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    • 2014
  • Here, we present a facile method to synthesize Pt nanoparticles (NPs) and graphene composite materials (Pt/G) via vacuum filtration. Anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) templates were used to separate Pt/G composite and liquid phase. This method can be used to easily tune the mass ratio of Pt NPs and graphene. Pt NPs, graphene, and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as building blocks were characterized by a variety of techniques such as scanning electron microscopy, UV-Vis spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. We compared the electrocatalytic activities of Pt/G with Pt NP and CNT films (Pt/CNT) by cyclic voltammetry (CV), CO oxidation, and methanol oxidation. Pt/G was much more stable than pure Pt films. Also, Pt/G had better electrochemical activity, CO tolerance and methanol oxidation than Pt/CNT loaded with the same amount of Pt NPs due to the better dispersion of Pt NPs on graphene flakes without aggregation. We further synthesized Au@Pt disk/G and Pt nanorods/G to determine if our synthetic method can be applied to other NP shapes such as nanodisks and nanorods, for further electrocatalysis studies.