• Title, Summary, Keyword: Paenibacillus polymyxa

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Identification and Characterization of Paenibacillus polymyxa DY5 with Antifungal Activity against Crop Pathogenic Fungi (작물병원 진균에 대하여 항균 활성을 보이는 Paenibacillus polymyxa DY5의 동정 및 특성)

  • Kim, Hyo-Yoon;Weon, Hang-Yeon;Kim, Wan-Gyu;Yoo, Kwan-Hee
    • The Korean Journal of Mycology
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    • v.37 no.2
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    • pp.181-188
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    • 2009
  • A Gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria named DY5 was isolated from a peat sample collected from Daeam mountain in Korea. The culture filtrate of the bacterial isolate DY5 showed a broad spectrum of antifungal activity on various crop pathogenic fungi such as Trichoderma koningii, Fusarium oxysporum, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Rhizoctonia solani AG-1(IA) For the identification of the DY5, morphological, biochemical, API 50 CHB test, analysis of fatty acid and molecular phylogenetic approaches were performed. The DY5 was found to be a member of the genus Paenibacillus on the basis of morphological and biochemical analysis. The 16S rRNA of DY5 showed high similarity(98%) with Paenibacillus polymyxa. On the basis of these results, the DY5 was identified as Paenibacillus polymyxa. Antifungal substance of the DY5 would be mild alkaline proteine molecule. The DY5 seems to have a great potential to be a biocontrol agent against various crop pathogens.

Auxin Production and Detection of the Gene Coding for the Auxin Efflux Carrier (AEC) Protein in Paenibacillus polymyxa

  • Da Mota, Fabio Faria;Gomes, Eliane Aparecida;Seldin, Lucy
    • Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.46 no.3
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    • pp.257-264
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    • 2008
  • Different species of Paenibacillus are considered to be plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) due to their ability to repress soil borne pathogens, fix atmospheric nitrogen, induce plant resistance to diseases and/or produce plant growth-regulating substances such as auxins. Although it is known that indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is the primary naturally occurring auxin excreted by Paenibacillus species, its transport mechanisms (auxin efflux carriers) have not yet been characterized. In this study, the auxin production of P. polymyxa and P. graminis, which are prevalent in the rhizospheres of maize and sorghum sown in Brazil, was evaluated. In addition, the gene encoding the Auxin Efflux Carrier (AEC) protein from P. polymyxa $DSM36^T$ was sequenced and used to determine if various strains of P. polymyxa and P. graminis possessed this gene. Each of the 68 P. polymyxa strains evaluated in this study was able to produce IAA, which was produced at concentrations varying from 1 to $17{\mu}g/ml$. However, auxin production was not detected in any of the 13 P. graminis strains tested in this study. Different primers were designed for the PCR amplification of the gene coding for the AEC in P. polymyxa, and the predicted protein of 319 aa was homologous to AEC from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, B. licheniformis, and B. subtilis. However, no product was observed when these primers were used to amplify the genomic DNA of seven strains of P. graminis, which suggests that this gene is not present in this species. Moreover, none of the P. graminis genomes tested were homologous to the gene coding for AEC, whereas all of the P. polymyxa genomes evaluated were. This is the first study to demonstrate that the AEC protein is present in P. polymyxa genome.

Quantitative Real-Time PCR Assay for Detection of Paenibacillus polymyxa Using Membrane-Fusion Protein-Based Primers

  • Cho, Min Seok;Park, Dong Suk;Lee, Jung Won;Chi, Hee Youn;Sohn, Soo-In;Jeon, Bong-Kyun;Ma, Jong-Beom
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.22 no.11
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    • pp.1575-1579
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    • 2012
  • Paenibacillus polymyxa is known to be a plant-growth-promoting rhizobacterium. The present study describes a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay for the specific detection and quantitation of P. polymyxa using a primer pair based on the sequence of a membrane-fusion protein for the amplification of a 268 bp DNA fragment. This study reports that the qPCR-based method is applicable for the rapid and sensitive detection of P. polymyxa and can be used as an alternative method for agricultural soil monitoring.

Pathogenicity of Paenibacillus polymyxa JB115 and single-dose toxicity of its culture broth containing ${\beta}$-glucan in rats (Rat에서 Paenibacillus polymyxa JB115의 병원성 및 ${\beta}$-glucan 함유 배양산물에 대한 단회 경구독성시험)

  • Jung, Hee-Kyoung;Kang, Eun-Hee;Chang, Zhi-Qiang;Hong, Joo-Heon;Kim, Sang-Dal;Park, Byung-Kwon;Yun, Hyo-In;Park, Seung-Chun
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.47 no.4
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    • pp.379-387
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    • 2007
  • This study was conducted to investigate the pathogenicity of Paenibacillus (R) polymyxa JB 115 and single oral dose toxicity of culture broth containing (${\beta}$-glucan (CBG-JB 115) produced from P. polymyxa JB 115 in Sprague-Dawely rats of both sexes for 14 days. After oral administration of P. polymyxa JB 115 into rats, we could not find any abnormal clinical signs and variation in the body weight and temperature as compared with control group. We also investigated the acute toxicity of CBG-JB 115. As the results, there were no clinical signs and variance in the body weight and temperature related with CBG-JB 115 in comparison with the control group. From the this experiment, we could not find out any significant pathogenicity and toxicity induced by P. polymyxa JB 115 or by CBG-JB 115. Results of this study demonstrated that consumption of P. polymyxa JB 115 and its culture broth containing (${\beta}$-glucan was not associated with any obvious signs of toxicity in Sprague-Dawely rats even following consumption of large quantities.

Optimization of Culture Conditions for the Production of Antibacterial Activities by Paenibacillus polymyxa DY1 Isolated from Soil (토양에서 분리한 Paenibacillus polymyxa DY1의 항균활성물질 생산을 위한 배양조건 최적화)

  • Shin, Eun-Seok;Kwon, Sun-Il;Yoo, Kwan-Hee
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Biology
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    • v.25 no.4
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    • pp.342-348
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    • 2007
  • In a previous study, a new antibacterial activity was found from Paenibacillus polymyxa DY1 isolated from Korean soil, which showed a good growth inhibition against various multidrug resistant enteric bacteria. Thus the effect of nutritional factors and physicochemical conditions on the growth of P. polymyxa DY1 cells and the production of antibacterial activity were evaluated in this study. For the growth of P. polymyxa DY1 cells the optimum condition reaches by incubating at $35^{\circ}C$ for 48 hours by shaking at 180 rpm in the basal medium containing 0.6% dextrose, 1.4% ammonium phosphate dibasic, 0.9% peptone, 2.4% glutamine, and 2 mM sodium molybdate with initial pH 8.0. A maximum level of antibacterial activity was obtained when P. polymyxa DY1 was incubated at $35^{\circ}C$ for 48 hours by shaking at 180 rpm in the basal medium with initial pH 8.0 containing 1% dextrose, 1.5% ammonium sulfate, 1.1% casamino acid, 1.9% aspartic acid, and 2 mM ferrous sulfate.

Characteristics of the Antibacterial Substance Produced by Paenibacillus polymyxa JB115 (Paenibacillus polymyxa JB115로부터 생산된 항균물질의 특성)

  • Jung, Hee-Kyoung;Park, Seung-Chun;Park, Byung-Kwon;Kim, Sang-Dal;Nam, Doo-Hyun;Hong, Joo-Heon
    • KSBB Journal
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.65-69
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    • 2008
  • The culture broth of a ${\beta}$-glucan-producing bacterium, Paenibacillus polymyxa JB115, was confirmed to show the antibiosis against pathogenic bacteria of livestock disease. The antibacterial substance produced by P. polymyxa JB115 exhibited strong bactericidal or bacteriostatic effect on the growth of livestock pathogenic bacteria including Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella choleraesuis, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This antibacterial substance also showed high stabilities in broad pH range (pH 3-11) and in broad temperature range $(40-121^{\circ}C)$, which is good enough to apply spray-dry method for the formulation of culture broth. It was also found that the antibacterial substance was very stable in artificial gastric fluid and bile acid, which implies the anticipated antibacterial activity against gastrointestinal bacteria harmful for livestocks. In conclusion, the culture broth of P. polymyxa JB115 can be developed as a multifuctional feed additive containing immune-enhancing ${\beta}$-glucan as well as antibacterial agent against livestock pathogenic bacteria.

Identification and Characterization of Paenibacillus polymyxa DY1 Isolated from Korean Soil with New Antibacterial Activity (새로운 항균활성을 보이는 토양 분리 세균 Paenibacillus polymyxa DY1의 분류와 동정)

  • Shin, Eun-Seok;Lee, Hee-Moo;Lee, Bok-Kwon;Kim, Sung-Hoon;Kwon, Sun-Il;Yoo, Kwan-Hee
    • Korean Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.43 no.1
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    • pp.47-53
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    • 2007
  • The DY1 strain of Gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria was isolated from the soil sample collected from Daeam mountain, Korea. The culture filtrate of DY1 strain showed a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity on various pathogenic and food poisoning enteric bacterial species tested in vitro. It showed significant growth-inhibitory effect on Salmonella enterica sp., Shigella sp., pathogenic Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahemolyticus, and Yersinia enterocolitica. For the identification of the DY1 strain, morphological, biochemical and molecular phylogenetic approaches were performed. The DY1 strain was found to be a member of the genus Paenibacillus on the basis of morphological and biochemical analyses. The 16S rDNA of DY1 showed the highest pairwise identity with Paenibacillus polymyxa with 99.79% (1,413 bp/1,416 bp). The antimicrobial entity from DY1 looked different from preciously reported ones and seems to have a great potential to be further studied as a candidate of new antibiotics to control multi-drug resistant pathogens.

Involvement of Growth-Promoting Rhizobacterium Paenibacillus polymyxa in Root Rot of Stored Korean Ginseng

  • Jeon, Yong-Ho;Chang, Sung-Pae;Hwang, In-Gyu;Kim, Young-Ho
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.13 no.6
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    • pp.881-891
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    • 2003
  • Paenibacillus polymyxa is a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) which can be used for biological control of plant diseases. Several bacterial strains were isolated from rotten roots of Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer) that were in storage. These strains were identified as P. polymyxa, based on a RAPD analysis using a P. polymyxa-specific primer, cultural and physiological characteristics, an analysis utilizing the Biolog system, gas chromatography of fatty acid methyl esters (GC-FAME), and the 16S rDNA sequence analysis. These strains were found to cause the rot in stored ginseng roots. Twenty-six P. polymyxa strains, including twenty GBR strains, were phylogenetically classified into two groups according to the ERIC and BOX-PCR analyses and 16S rDNA sequencing, and the resulting groupings systematized to the degrees of virulence of each strain in causing root rot. In particular, highly virulent GBR strains clustered together, and this group may be considered as subspecies or biovar. The virulence of the strains seemed to be related to their starch hydrolysis enzyme activity, but not their cellulase or hemicellulase activity, since strains with reduced or no starch-hydrolytic activity showed little or no virulence. Artificial inoculation of the highly virulent strain GBR-1 onto the root surfaces of Korean ginseng resulted in small brown lesions which were sunken and confined to the outer portion of the root. Ginseng root discs inoculated in vitro or two-year-old roots grown in soil drenched with the inoculum developed significant rot only when the inoculum density was $10^{6}-10^{7}$ or more colony-forming units (CFU) per ml. These results suggest that P. polymyxa might induce ginseng root rot if their population levels are high. Based on these results, it is recommended that the concentration of P. polymyxa should be monitored, when it is used as a biocontrol agent of ginseng, especially in the treatment of stored roots.

Assessment of Root-Associated Paenibacillus polymyxa Groups on Growth Promotion and Induced Systemic Resistance in Pepper

  • Phi, Quyet-Tien;Park, Yu-Mi;Seul, Keyung-Jo;Ryu, Choong-Min;Park, Seung-Hwan;Kim, Jong-Guk;Ghim, Sa-Youl
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.20 no.12
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    • pp.1605-1613
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    • 2010
  • Twenty-nine P. polymyxa strains isolated from rhizospheres of various crops were clustered into five genotypic groups on the basis of BOX-PCR analysis. The characteristics of several plant growth-promoting factors among the isolates revealed the distinct attributes in each allocated group. Under gnotobiotic conditions, inoculation of pepper roots with P. polymyxa isolates significantly increased the biomass in 17 of total 29 treated plants with untreated plants. Experiments on induced systemic resistance (ISR) against bacterial spot pathogen Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. vesicatoria in pepper by P. polymyxa strains were conducted and only one isolate (KNUC265) was selected. Further studies into ISR mediation by the KNUC265 strain against the soft-rot pathogen Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora in tobacco demonstrated that the tobacco seedlings exposed to either bacterial volatiles or diffusible metabolites exhibited a reduction in disease severity. In conclusion, ISR and plant growth promotion triggered by P. polymyxa isolates were systemically investigated on pepper for the first time. The P. polymyxa KNUC265 strain, which elicited both ISR and plant growth promotion, could be potentially used in improving the yield of pepper and possibly of other crops.

Differential Structural Responses of Ginseng Root Tissues to Different Initial Inoculum Levels of Paenibacillus polymyxa GBR-1

  • Jeon, Yong-Ho;Kim, Young-Ho
    • The Plant Pathology Journal
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.352-356
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    • 2008
  • Root discs of 4-year-old ginseng, Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer, were inoculated with the higher($10^8$ colonyforming units(CFU)/ml) and lower($10^6\;or\;10^5$ CFU/ml) initial inoculum levels of a plant-growth promoting rhizobacterium(PGPR), Paenibacillus polymyxa GBR-1 to examine rot symptom development and bacterial population changes on the root discs. At the higher inoculum level, brown rot symptoms developed and expanded on the whole root discs in which the bacterial population increased continuously up to 4 days after inoculation. In light and electron microscopy, ginseng root cells on the inoculation sites were extensively decayed, which were characterized by dissolved cell walls and destructed cytoplasmic contents. However, no rot symptoms were developed and the bacterial population increased only during the initial two days of inoculation at the lower inoculum level($10^6$ CFU/ml) of P. polymyxa GBR-1. At the lower inoculum level($10^5$ CFU/ml), boundary layers with parallel periclinal cell divisions, structurally similar to wound periderm, were formed internal to the inoculation sites, beneath which the cells were intact containing numerous normal-looking starch granules and no disorganized cell organelles, suggesting that these structural features may be related to the suppression of symptom development, a histological defense mechanism.