• Title, Summary, Keyword: Pain threshold

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Associations Among Different Types of Quantitative Pain Measures in TMD Patients (측두하악장애환자에서 다양한 종류의 정량적 통각검사들의 연관성에 관한 연구)

  • Park, Ji-Woon;Kim, Yong-Woo;Chung, Jin-Woo
    • Journal of Oral Medicine and Pain
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    • v.32 no.4
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    • pp.413-419
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    • 2007
  • The aims of this study were to investigate the relationships among several types of thermal pain thresholds, and pressure pain thresholds. This study was designed to examine whether there were associations among different types of pain thresholds, and among different recording sites for each pain threshold measurement. Pain sensitivity thresholds including cold pain threshold (CPT), heat pain threshold (HPT), heat pain tolerance threshold (PTT), and pressure pain threshold (PPT) of 56 subjects with symptoms of temporomandibular disorders were measured on temporal muscle, masseter muscle, TMJ, and tibial areas. Thermal pain thresholds including CPT, HPT, and PTT did not show any gender differences. However, women showed significantly lower PPTs than men on all recording sites. Three thermal pain thresholds including CPT, HPT, and PTT showed weak to high correlations on all the recording sites (r= 0.324 to 0.754, p<0.05). PPTs did not show any significant correlations between each thermal pain threshold. The pain threshold of each recording site showed weak to high correlations in all pain threshold measures (r= 0.284 to 0.878, p<0.05). Our study demonstrated that thermal pain thresholds, and pain tolerance thresholds were significantly correlated, but did not show any correlation between thermal pain thresholds and pressure pain thresholds. There were relatively high correlations among the pain thresholds of different recording sites.

Gender Differences in Heat Pain and Temporal Summation Threshold in Normal Volunteers (정상 자원자에서 열통증과 시간적 가중 역치에 대한 남녀 차이)

  • Lee, Joon Ho;Yoo, Jae Hwa;Cho, Sung Hwan;Kim, Yong Ik
    • The Korean Journal of Pain
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.126-130
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    • 2008
  • Background: Females generally have a lower pain and temporal summation threshold than men. However, the results of studies designed to evaluate gender differences in the thresholds of heat pain and the temporal summation have been inconsistent. Newly developed device, CHEPS (Contact Heat Evoked Potential Stimulation) model of PATHWAY, have superiority on its fast rise and return time in temperature. Therefore we investigated gender differences in heat pain and temporal summation threshold. Methods: Forty healthy volunteers (20 males and 20 females) were enrolled in this study. A thermode was applied to the volar side of each volunteer's left forearm and heat pain and the temporal summation threshold was then measured. The heat pain threshold was estimated using the staircase method by starting from $36^{\circ}C$ and then increasing the temperature in $0.5^{\circ}C$ increments. The temporal summation threshold was estimated by applying five successive stimulation of the same temperature starting at $2^{\circ}C$ lower than the heat pain threshold and then increasing the temperature in $0.5^{\circ}C$ increments. Results: The mean heat pain thresholds was found to be $41.63{\pm}1.63^{\circ}C$ for males and $41.60{\pm}1.84^{\circ}C$ for females and the temporal summation thresholds were found to be $40.83{\pm}1.64^{\circ}C$ for males and $40.77{\pm}1.93^{\circ}C$ for females. The differences between males and females were not statistically significant. Conclusions: The result of this study suggested that there are no gender differences in heat pain and temporal summation threshold.

Sex Differences in Pain Threshold and Pain Tolerance and the Effects of Experimenter Gender on Pain Report (남녀별 및 실험자의 성별에 따른 동통역치와 동통내성의 차이)

  • Yun-Kyung Hur;Jae-Kap Choi
    • Journal of Oral Medicine and Pain
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.97-103
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    • 1995
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of experimenter gender on pain report as well as the sex differences in pain threshold and pain tolerance. Cold pressor test and pressure pain threshold (PPT) test were performed on forty dental students by both of a male and a female experimenter separately with 1 day interval. The obtained results were as follows : There were no differences in pain threshold and pain tolerance between males and females when they were examined by the same gender experimenter in the cold pressor test, but when they were examined by the opposite gender experimenter the pain threshold of males was significantly higher than females. When the pain threshold was measured by the same gender experimenter, using a algometer, there was no differences in PPT between males and females. However, when the same measurements were done by the opposite gender experimenter, the PPT of males was significantly higher than females at anterior temporalis and inferior masseter. For cold pressor test, females tended to report lower levels of pain threshold and pain tolerance to a male experimenter than a female, but the differences were not significant. Although both pain threshold and pain tolerance were increased when males were examined by a female experimenter in the cold pressor test, the statistical significance was found only in pain tolerance. When subjects were examined by the opposite gender experimenter in the PPT text, females reported significantly higher levels of pain at inferior masseter and males reported significantly lower levels of pain at anterior temporalis and inferior masseter.

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Examination of Adult Low Back Pain Using the Quantitative Sensory Testing (정량적 평가도구를 이용한 성인 요통검사)

  • Lee, Dongjin
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Integrative Medicine
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.39-46
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    • 2015
  • Purpose: For this study, low back pain was analyzed by determining the influences of pain threshold, proprioceptive sense, and balance ability. Method: A total of 80 college students participated in this study with 30 adults regarded as normal and 50 adults regarded as having lower back pain. Measurements for participants regarding pain threshold, proprioception, and balance ability were conducted from April 10 to May 16, 2014. Result: Results from this study show significant differences between groups for back with regards to cold pain threshold, warm pain threshold measurements. There were also significant differences in proprioception for extension measurements. Finally, there were significant differences when comparing groups regarding balance for total balance score. Conclusion: With this data, practicing physical therapists can realize that a difference may exist between the patient's perception of treatment received and the actual treatment given by professionals due to differences in threshold, proprioception and balance ability. It is important for physical therapists to understand the reliance on objective data showing the effects of threshold, proprioception and balance ability on patients with back pain.

The Change of Pressure Pain Threshold of Myofascial Trigger Points by Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (경피신경전기자극에 의한 근-근막 발통점의 압통각 역치의 변화)

  • Lee, Jeong-Woo;Han, Dong-Wook
    • Journal of the Korean Academy of Clinical Electrophysiology
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    • v.1 no.2
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    • pp.69-76
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    • 2003
  • The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation(TENS) on the alteration of pressure pain threshold of myofascial trigger points. We used fifty nine patients with upper trapezius mayofascial pain syndrome. Participants classified according to each group in conventional TENS(high rate, low intensity) and acupuncture like TENS(low rate, high intensity). The test was measured continuously pre test, post-test by algometer. The following results were obtained; 1. Pressure pain threshold were significantly increased in all groups(p<.001). 2. In comparison between groups, pressure pain threshold were not significantly differenced. These results lead us to the conclusion that each method by TENS were significantly increased pressure pain threshold of upper trapezius trigger points. Therefore, a further direction of this study will be to provide more evidence that TENS method have an effect on pressure pain threshold of myofascial trigger points.

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Correlation between the Pressure Pain Threshold and Sonography and Spontaneous Electrical Activity in Myofascial Trigger Points

  • Kim, Hyun-Jin;Kim, Myung-Hoon;Kim, Su-Hyon;Oh, Seok;Choi, Ji-Ho;Kim, Tae-Youl
    • The Journal of Korean Physical Therapy
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.17-21
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    • 2010
  • Purpose: This study was designed to investigate possibilities for quantitative analysis using the electromyography and sonography. For better understanding, we evaluated the correlation between the pressure pain threshold and sonography, spontaneous electrical activity in trigger points located in the upper trapezius muscle. Methods: Thirty three active subjects volunteered to participate in this study (n=33). They had a palpable taut band, exquisite spot tenderness of a nodule in a taut band, spontaneous pain, referred pain, jump sign, local twitch response, and a painful limit to full stretch range of motion. We measured Pressure pain threshold, density, white area index, root mean square, and reaction. Pearson’s correlation coefficient was calculated to estimate the relationship between the pressure pain threshold and other variables including density, white area index, root mean square, and reaction time. Results: There were significant correlations between pressure pain threshold and density (r=-0.75, p<0.01), and between pressure pain threshold and white area index (r=-0.74, p<0.01). A significant correlations between pressure pain threshold and root mean square (r=-0.59, p<0.01). The significant correlation was found between pressure pain threshold and reaction time (r=-0.64, p<0.01). Conclusion: These should indicate whether quantitative analysis can be done using the characteristics of electromyography and sonography.

Effects of Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation and Laser at Auricular Points on Experimental Cutaneous Pain Threshold (외이에 대한 경피신경 전기자극과 레이저가 실험적 피부 통증역치에 미치는 영향)

  • Sim, Youn-Ju;Lee, Mi-Sun;Lee, Yun-Ju
    • Physical Therapy Korea
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.87-94
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    • 1997
  • The purposes of this study were 1) to determine the changes between pre-treatment and post-treatment of four groups of 15 persons each and 2) to compare the effect of conventional transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation(TENS) and laser at auricular acupuncture points on experimental pain threshold measured at the wrist. Sixty healthy adult men and women(M:32, F:28), aged 20 to 28 years, were assigned randomly to one of four groups. Group 1 received TENS to the appropriate auricular point for wrist pain, Group 2 received laser to the appropriate auricular point for wrist pain, Group 3 received placebo TENS to the appropriate auricular point for wrist pain, Group 4 received no treatment and served as controls. Experimental pain threshold at the wrist was determined with a painful electrical stimulus before and 20 minutes after ear stimulation. Group 1 was the only group that showed a stastically significant increase (p<0.05) in pain threshold after treatment whereas the Group 2,3 and 4 did not. These results suggest that TENS has the capability to higher pain threshold but laser does not.

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Effects of TENS & Auricular of Somatic on Experimental Pain Threshold (외이경혈자극과 경피신경전기자극이 체성감각에 미치는 영향)

  • Cheon, Jin-Sung;Kim, Kyung-Hee;Kim, Seo-Hee;Kim, Ji-Hye
    • Journal of the Korean Academy of Clinical Electrophysiology
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    • v.2 no.2
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    • pp.39-49
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    • 2004
  • The purpose of this study were to examine the effect of high intensity, low frequency transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation at auricular acupuncture points on experimental pain threshold measured at the wrist and to determine the changes in effect over time. Forty-two healthy adult men and women were assigned randomly to one of three treatment groups. Group 1(n=15) received TENS to appropriate auricular points for wrist, Group 2(n=12) received TENS to wrist, and Group 3(n=15) received no TENS. We measured experimental pain threshold at the wrist after an electrical stimulus during one pre-treatment and three post-treatment time periods. Group 1 and 2 showed stastically significant increase(p<0.05) in pain threshold after treatment whereas the Group 3 did not. Group 1 showed a significant increase in pain threshold than Group 2. These results suggest that high intensity, low frequency TENS applied to appropriate auricular acupuncture points can increase pain threshold.

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Neuroticism and pain catastrophizing aggravate response to pain in healthy adults: an experimental study

  • Banozic, Adriana;Miljkovic, Ana;Bras, Marijana;Puljak, Livia;Kolcic, Ivana;Hayward, Caroline;Polasek, Ozren
    • The Korean Journal of Pain
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.16-26
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    • 2018
  • Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between neuroticism, pain catastrophizing, and experimentally induced pain threshold and pain tolerance in a healthy adult sample from two regions of the country of Croatia: the island of Korcula and city of Split. Methods: A total of 1,322 participants were enrolled from the Island of Korcula (n = 824) and the city of Split (n = 498). Participants completed a self-reported personality measure Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) and pain catastrophizing questionnaire Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS), followed by a mechanical pain pressure threshold and tolerance test. We have explored the mediating role of catastrophizing in the relationship between neuroticism and pain intensity. Results: The results showed that pain catastrophizing partially mediated the relationship between neuroticism and pain intensity, suggesting the importance of pain catastrophizing in increasing vulnerability to pain. The results also indicated gender-related differences, marked by the higher pain threshold and tolerance in men. Conclusions: This study adds to the understanding of the complex interplay between personality and pain, by providing a better understanding of such mechanisms in healthy adults.

A Study Comparing the Effects of Burst Mode and High Rate Mode Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation on Experimental Pain Threshold and Skin Temperature (Burst형과 고빈도형 경피신경전기자극치료가 실험적 동통역치와 체온에 미치는 영향 비교)

  • Kim, Suhn-Yeop;Choi, Houng-Sik;Kwon, Oh-Yun
    • Journal of Korean Physical Therapy Science
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    • v.2 no.2
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    • pp.465-479
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    • 1995
  • We randomly assigned 61 healthy subjects(male 14, female 47) to compare the experimental pain threshold and skin temperature between high mode TENS and burst mode TENS. In this study, 61 subjects were divided into three groups ; high mode TENS(n=20), burst mode TENS (n=20), and control group(n=21). Experimental pain thresholds and skin temperatures were measured before, immediately after cessation of stimulation, and at 30 minutes post stimulation. Stimulation was applied to the dorsal surface of the forearm(L14, LI10). Pain thresholds were measured by chronaxie meter. Skin temperature were measured by electrical digital thermometer. The results are as follows ; 1. There were no statistical difference in the pain threshold and skin temperature at before TENS stimulation among the three groups(p>0.05). 2. The pain threshold and skin temperature in burst mode TENS group was significantly higher and longer effect than that in high mode TENS group and control group(p<0.01). 3. The pain threshold in burst mode TENS group decreased to prestimulation levels by 30 minutes poststimulation. 4. The skin temperature in burst mode TENS group decreased to prestimulation levels by 20 minutes poststimulation. 5. The skin temperature was significantly difference among three group at immediately after, and at 30 minutes poststimulation and the skin temperature in burst mode TENS group was significantely higher than that in two groups(p<0.001). 6. The increasing rate of pain threshold in high mode TENS group after immediately cassation of stimulation was 24.3%(p<0.001). 7. The increasing rate of pain threshold in burst mode TENS group after immediately cessation of stimulation was 93.5% (p<0.001).

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