• Title/Summary/Keyword: Pandemic disease

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Developing Strategies to Improve Efficiency of School Health Education in an Outbreak of Pandemic Disease (감염병 유행 시 학교 보건교육의 효율성 제고를 위한 전략 개발)

  • Kim, Young-Bok;Kim, Hye-Kyeong;Kim, Myung
    • Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.71-81
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    • 2012
  • Objectives: Effective and efficient response for public health crisis necessitate planning how to respond and mobilize the resources in schools. We preformed this study to develop the strategies to improve efficiency of school health education in an outbreak of pandemic disease. Methods: We tried to review the policies, regulations and response systems of all related sectors, and advanced cases associated with pandemic disease control measures by searching databases and on-line networks connected with the Korean Ministry of Education, Science and Technology. Results: It was important to implement a consistent and systematic approach for educational offices and schools to prevent confusion resulted from the inaccurate information. First, the systems and action plans for school health should be established to prepare and respond to an outbreak of pandemic disease. Secondly, the strategies to improve the efficiency of school health education in public health crisis should be in place. Finally, the personnel pool would be needed to provide the crisis management programs. Conclusion: In order for staffs and students to have abilities to respond in an outbreak of pandemic disease, comprehensive school health approaches and efficient educational efforts should be prepared in collaboration with related sectors.

Phenotypes and Functions of SARS-CoV-2-Reactive T Cells

  • Jung, Min Kyung;Shin, Eui-Cheol
    • Molecules and Cells
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    • v.44 no.6
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    • pp.401-407
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    • 2021
  • Infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is an ongoing pandemic disease. SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses have been detected and characterized not only in COVID-19 patients and convalescents, but also unexposed individuals. Here, we review the phenotypes and functions of SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells in COVID-19 patients and the relationships between SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cell responses and COVID-19 severity. In addition, we describe the phenotypes and functions of SARS-CoV-2-specific memory T cells after recovery from COVID-19 and discuss the presence of SARS-CoV-2-reactive T cells in unexposed individuals and SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cell responses elicited by COVID-19 vaccines. A better understanding of T-cell responses is important for effective control of the current COVID-19 pandemic.

A protein interactions map of multiple organ systems associated with COVID-19 disease

  • Bharne, Dhammapal
    • Genomics & Informatics
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.14.1-14.6
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    • 2021
  • Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an on-going pandemic disease infecting millions of people across the globe. Recent reports of reduction in antibody levels and the re-emergence of the disease in recovered patients necessitated the understanding of the pandemic at the core level. The cases of multiple organ failures emphasized the consideration of different organ systems while managing the disease. The present study employed RNA sequencing data to determine the disease associated differentially regulated genes and their related protein interactions in several organ systems. It signified the importance of early diagnosis and treatment of the disease. A map of protein interactions of multiple organ systems was built and uncovered CAV1 and CTNNB1 as the top degree nodes. A core interactions sub-network was analyzed to identify different modules of functional significance. AR, CTNNB1, CAV1, and PIK3R1 proteins were unfolded as bridging nodes interconnecting different modules for the information flow across several pathways. The present study also highlighted some of the druggable targets to analyze in drug re-purposing strategies against the COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, the protein interactions map and the modular interactions of the differentially regulated genes in the multiple organ systems would incline the scientists and researchers to investigate in novel therapeutics for the COVID-19 pandemic expeditiously.

Elementary, Middle, and High School Health Teachers' Countermeasures Against an Outbreak of Pandemic Diseases, Including MERS (초·중·고 보건교사들의 메르스 발생 시 대응)

  • Jun, Eunkyoung;Lee, Gyuyoung
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Community Health Nursing
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.65-75
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    • 2018
  • Purpose: This study aims to examine how elementary, middle and high school health teachers in Gyeonggi province react to infectious disease like MERS. Methods: This is a descriptive study using a convenience sample of 1,267 school health teachers. Results: When MERS was an epidemic, school health teachers who took the 'leading' role were 92.4%. A school heath teacher's countermeasures against infectious diseases showed a high score during MERS outbreak (3.81) compared to regular days (3.59). Conclusion: Based on such results, it has been determined that schools need to keep two types of procedures manual, such as 'countermeasures on a regular basis' and 'countermeasures in the event of a pandemic disease outbreak' manual in the staff offices so that anyone can view them at any time. It is necessary to prepare regulations to strengthen their authority so that school health teachers can take the role of control tower, in a professional capacity, when communicable disease is spreading. In order to prevent any confusion and chaos, there should be a unitary reporting system at each school when dealing with an epidemic. School health teachers need to get continuous training to reinforce their abilities to react to communicable diseases.

Evaluation of the Filtration Efficiency and Facial Inhalation Resistance of Various Commercial Masks (시중에 판매되는 다양한 비인증 마스크의 분진 포집효율과 안면부 흡기저항 평가)

  • Kang, Sohyun;Kim, Soomin;Yoon, Chung Sik;Lee, Kiyoung
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.47 no.3
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    • pp.292-301
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    • 2021
  • Objectives: Wearing medical masks has been recommended since the declaration of coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) as a pandemic disease. Certified medical masks are evaluated according to filtration efficiency and facial inhalation resistance. However, some people use non-certified common masks. This study aimed to evaluate various non-certified commercial masks based on the certification criteria for medical masks. Methods: Twenty mask products (three anti-droplet, three disposable dental, eight fashion, three cotton, and three children's masks) were selected. For performance evaluation, filtration efficiency and facial inhalation resistance tests were conducted. The evaluation method followed the certification method for KF-certified masks of the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety (MFDS) and the N95 respirator of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Results: None of the 20 masks met the KF94 certification standard set by the MFDS. Four and three masks respectively met the KF80 certification standard and the N95 standard of NIOSH. Filtration efficiency was significantly higher in three-layer masks than in single layer masks. Pleated-type masks had higher filtration efficiency than cone-type masks. There was no correlation between the structure of masks and facial inhalation resistance. Conclusion: While no masks complied with the KF94 certification standard, a few masks met the KF80 and the N95 certification standards of NIOSH. Although some people wear non-certified commercial masks, protection from aerosols is not guaranteed by such masks. Evaluation of the protection efficiency of non-certified mask against microbiological infection is needed for the prevention of infectious disease.

Infection, Disease, and Christian Spirituality (전염병, Covid-19, 그리고 기독교 영성)

  • Kwon, Jingu
    • Journal of Christian Education in Korea
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    • v.63
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    • pp.65-89
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    • 2020
  • Humankind has experienced various changes in the pandemic of the Covid-19 for some months from the winter of 2019. The Church and Christians also have witnessed the changes and results of the pandemic in their Christian life and meetings such as worship, Bible study, prayer meeting, personal spiritual activities, and so on. Humans have encountered different kinds of pandemics throughout history. 1918-Influenza is an example, and the Pest(the Black Death) of the 14th century is another. What did the Christian Church do in the pandemics? This study focuses especially on the spiritual matters of each case and era. This study explores the well-known cases of pandemics in history and reflects on the Christian spiritual responses and its lessons. The three points this study raises are the life and attitude of the spiritual figures, the practice of silence, and the social aspect of the Christian spirituality in this time of the pandemic.