• Title, Summary, Keyword: Parallel Computing

Search Result 690, Processing Time 0.054 seconds

Acceleration of Anisotropic Elastic Reverse-time Migration with GPUs (GPU를 이용한 이방성 탄성 거꿀 참반사 보정의 계산가속)

  • Choi, Hyungwook;Seol, Soon Jee;Byun, Joongmoo
    • Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration
    • /
    • v.18 no.2
    • /
    • pp.74-84
    • /
    • 2015
  • To yield physically meaningful images through elastic reverse-time migration, the wavefield separation which extracts P- and S-waves from reconstructed vector wavefields by using elastic wave equation is prerequisite. For expanding the application of the elastic reverse-time migration to anisotropic media, not only the anisotropic modelling algorithm but also the anisotropic wavefield separation is essential. The anisotropic wavefield separation which uses pseudo-derivative filters determined according to vertical velocities and anisotropic parameters of elastic media differs from the Helmholtz decomposition which is conventionally used for the isotropic wavefield separation. Since applying these pseudo-derivative filter consumes high computational costs, we have developed the efficient anisotropic wavefield separation algorithm which has capability of parallel computing by using GPUs (Graphic Processing Units). In addition, the highly efficient anisotropic elastic reverse-time migration algorithm using MPI (Message-Passing Interface) and incorporating the developed anisotropic wavefield separation algorithm with GPUs has been developed. To verify the efficiency and the validity of the developed anisotropic elastic reverse-time migration algorithm, a VTI elastic model based on Marmousi-II was built. A synthetic multicomponent seismic data set was created using this VTI elastic model. The computational speed of migration was dramatically enhanced by using GPUs and MPI and the accuracy of image was also improved because of the adoption of the anisotropic wavefield separation.

Design of Conveyor Structure for Integrated Post-Process in Multi-Injection Molding Machine Environments (다중 사출설비 환경에서 후가공 공정의 통합운영을 위한 컨베이어 구조 설계에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Ki Bum
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
    • /
    • v.21 no.5
    • /
    • pp.22-27
    • /
    • 2020
  • In this paper, we study the methodology to improve productivity and transportation efficiency simultaneously in the manufacturing environment of injection plants which has multiple injection machines arranged in parallel. In general, the post-processes such as finishing are continuously arranged in the injection machine located in the lower level of the injection plants, and one or two workers in charge of post-processing are always arranged. Therefore injection plants have low productivity due to post-processing and the front of the injection machine is very crowded due to various logistics flows. In this paper, we propose the designing methodology of conveyor structure for integrating the post-processes arranged at each injection machine and transporting the injection products to the integrated post-process automatically. Specifically, we propose the models for computing the number of conveyor units into the integrated processes, and for finding the optimal combinations to connect each machines and the conveyors. The proposed model is for the total productivity improvement, which are productivity and transportation efficiency. By applying the proposed model to companies that produce injection parts used for the home appliances, we verify the applicability and the effect of improving productivity and transportation efficiency, which more than 40%.

Information Privacy Concern in Context-Aware Personalized Services: Results of a Delphi Study

  • Lee, Yon-Nim;Kwon, Oh-Byung
    • Asia pacific journal of information systems
    • /
    • v.20 no.2
    • /
    • pp.63-86
    • /
    • 2010
  • Personalized services directly and indirectly acquire personal data, in part, to provide customers with higher-value services that are specifically context-relevant (such as place and time). Information technologies continue to mature and develop, providing greatly improved performance. Sensory networks and intelligent software can now obtain context data, and that is the cornerstone for providing personalized, context-specific services. Yet, the danger of overflowing personal information is increasing because the data retrieved by the sensors usually contains privacy information. Various technical characteristics of context-aware applications have more troubling implications for information privacy. In parallel with increasing use of context for service personalization, information privacy concerns have also increased such as an unrestricted availability of context information. Those privacy concerns are consistently regarded as a critical issue facing context-aware personalized service success. The entire field of information privacy is growing as an important area of research, with many new definitions and terminologies, because of a need for a better understanding of information privacy concepts. Especially, it requires that the factors of information privacy should be revised according to the characteristics of new technologies. However, previous information privacy factors of context-aware applications have at least two shortcomings. First, there has been little overview of the technology characteristics of context-aware computing. Existing studies have only focused on a small subset of the technical characteristics of context-aware computing. Therefore, there has not been a mutually exclusive set of factors that uniquely and completely describe information privacy on context-aware applications. Second, user survey has been widely used to identify factors of information privacy in most studies despite the limitation of users' knowledge and experiences about context-aware computing technology. To date, since context-aware services have not been widely deployed on a commercial scale yet, only very few people have prior experiences with context-aware personalized services. It is difficult to build users' knowledge about context-aware technology even by increasing their understanding in various ways: scenarios, pictures, flash animation, etc. Nevertheless, conducting a survey, assuming that the participants have sufficient experience or understanding about the technologies shown in the survey, may not be absolutely valid. Moreover, some surveys are based solely on simplifying and hence unrealistic assumptions (e.g., they only consider location information as a context data). A better understanding of information privacy concern in context-aware personalized services is highly needed. Hence, the purpose of this paper is to identify a generic set of factors for elemental information privacy concern in context-aware personalized services and to develop a rank-order list of information privacy concern factors. We consider overall technology characteristics to establish a mutually exclusive set of factors. A Delphi survey, a rigorous data collection method, was deployed to obtain a reliable opinion from the experts and to produce a rank-order list. It, therefore, lends itself well to obtaining a set of universal factors of information privacy concern and its priority. An international panel of researchers and practitioners who have the expertise in privacy and context-aware system fields were involved in our research. Delphi rounds formatting will faithfully follow the procedure for the Delphi study proposed by Okoli and Pawlowski. This will involve three general rounds: (1) brainstorming for important factors; (2) narrowing down the original list to the most important ones; and (3) ranking the list of important factors. For this round only, experts were treated as individuals, not panels. Adapted from Okoli and Pawlowski, we outlined the process of administrating the study. We performed three rounds. In the first and second rounds of the Delphi questionnaire, we gathered a set of exclusive factors for information privacy concern in context-aware personalized services. The respondents were asked to provide at least five main factors for the most appropriate understanding of the information privacy concern in the first round. To do so, some of the main factors found in the literature were presented to the participants. The second round of the questionnaire discussed the main factor provided in the first round, fleshed out with relevant sub-factors. Respondents were then requested to evaluate each sub factor's suitability against the corresponding main factors to determine the final sub-factors from the candidate factors. The sub-factors were found from the literature survey. Final factors selected by over 50% of experts. In the third round, a list of factors with corresponding questions was provided, and the respondents were requested to assess the importance of each main factor and its corresponding sub factors. Finally, we calculated the mean rank of each item to make a final result. While analyzing the data, we focused on group consensus rather than individual insistence. To do so, a concordance analysis, which measures the consistency of the experts' responses over successive rounds of the Delphi, was adopted during the survey process. As a result, experts reported that context data collection and high identifiable level of identical data are the most important factor in the main factors and sub factors, respectively. Additional important sub-factors included diverse types of context data collected, tracking and recording functionalities, and embedded and disappeared sensor devices. The average score of each factor is very useful for future context-aware personalized service development in the view of the information privacy. The final factors have the following differences comparing to those proposed in other studies. First, the concern factors differ from existing studies, which are based on privacy issues that may occur during the lifecycle of acquired user information. However, our study helped to clarify these sometimes vague issues by determining which privacy concern issues are viable based on specific technical characteristics in context-aware personalized services. Since a context-aware service differs in its technical characteristics compared to other services, we selected specific characteristics that had a higher potential to increase user's privacy concerns. Secondly, this study considered privacy issues in terms of service delivery and display that were almost overlooked in existing studies by introducing IPOS as the factor division. Lastly, in each factor, it correlated the level of importance with professionals' opinions as to what extent users have privacy concerns. The reason that it did not select the traditional method questionnaire at that time is that context-aware personalized service considered the absolute lack in understanding and experience of users with new technology. For understanding users' privacy concerns, professionals in the Delphi questionnaire process selected context data collection, tracking and recording, and sensory network as the most important factors among technological characteristics of context-aware personalized services. In the creation of a context-aware personalized services, this study demonstrates the importance and relevance of determining an optimal methodology, and which technologies and in what sequence are needed, to acquire what types of users' context information. Most studies focus on which services and systems should be provided and developed by utilizing context information on the supposition, along with the development of context-aware technology. However, the results in this study show that, in terms of users' privacy, it is necessary to pay greater attention to the activities that acquire context information. To inspect the results in the evaluation of sub factor, additional studies would be necessary for approaches on reducing users' privacy concerns toward technological characteristics such as highly identifiable level of identical data, diverse types of context data collected, tracking and recording functionality, embedded and disappearing sensor devices. The factor ranked the next highest level of importance after input is a context-aware service delivery that is related to output. The results show that delivery and display showing services to users in a context-aware personalized services toward the anywhere-anytime-any device concept have been regarded as even more important than in previous computing environment. Considering the concern factors to develop context aware personalized services will help to increase service success rate and hopefully user acceptance for those services. Our future work will be to adopt these factors for qualifying context aware service development projects such as u-city development projects in terms of service quality and hence user acceptance.

Development and evaluation of a 2-dimensional land surface flood analysis model using uniform square grid (정형 사각 격자 기반의 2차원 지표면 침수해석 모형 개발 및 평가)

  • Choi, Yun-Seok;Kim, Joo-Hun;Choi, Cheon-Kyu;Kim, Kyung-Tak
    • Journal of Korea Water Resources Association
    • /
    • v.52 no.5
    • /
    • pp.361-372
    • /
    • 2019
  • The purpose of this study is to develop a two-dimensional land surface flood analysis model based on uniform square grid using the governing equations except for the convective acceleration term in the momentum equation. Finite volume method and implicit method were applied to spatial and temporal discretization. In order to reduce the execution time of the model, parallel computation techniques using CPU were applied. To verify the developed model, the model was compared with the analytical solution and the behavior of the model was evaluated through numerical experiments in the virtual domain. In addition, inundation analyzes were performed at different spatial resolutions for the domestic Janghowon area and the Sebou river area in Morocco, and the results were compared with the analysis results using the CAESER-LISFLOOD (CLF) model. In model verification, simulation results were well matched with the analytical solution, and the flow analyses in the virtual domain were also evaluated to be reasonable. The results of inundation simulations in the Janghowon and the Sebou river area by this study and CLF model were similar with each other and for Janghowon area, the simulation result was also similar to the flooding area of flood hazard map. The different parts in the simulation results of this study and the CLF model were compared and evaluated for each case. The results of this study suggest that the model proposed in this study can simulate the flooding well in the floodplain. However, in case of flood analysis using the model presented in this study, the characteristics and limitations of the model by domain composition method, governing equation and numerical method should be fully considered.

Design of a Bit-Serial Divider in GF(2$^{m}$ ) for Elliptic Curve Cryptosystem (타원곡선 암호시스템을 위한 GF(2$^{m}$ )상의 비트-시리얼 나눗셈기 설계)

  • 김창훈;홍춘표;김남식;권순학
    • The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences
    • /
    • v.27 no.12C
    • /
    • pp.1288-1298
    • /
    • 2002
  • To implement elliptic curve cryptosystem in GF(2$\^$m/) at high speed, a fast divider is required. Although bit-parallel architecture is well suited for high speed division operations, elliptic curve cryptosystem requires large m(at least 163) to support a sufficient security. In other words, since the bit-parallel architecture has an area complexity of 0(m$\^$m/), it is not suited for this application. In this paper, we propose a new serial-in serial-out systolic array for computing division operations in GF(2$\^$m/) using the standard basis representation. Based on a modified version of tile binary extended greatest common divisor algorithm, we obtain a new data dependence graph and design an efficient bit-serial systolic divider. The proposed divider has 0(m) time complexity and 0(m) area complexity. If input data come in continuously, the proposed divider can produce division results at a rate of one per m clock cycles, after an initial delay of 5m-2 cycles. Analysis shows that the proposed divider provides a significant reduction in both chip area and computational delay time compared to previously proposed systolic dividers with the same I/O format. Since the proposed divider can perform division operations at high speed with the reduced chip area, it is well suited for division circuit of elliptic curve cryptosystem. Furthermore, since the proposed architecture does not restrict the choice of irreducible polynomial, and has a unidirectional data flow and regularity, it provides a high flexibility and scalability with respect to the field size m.

Benchmark Results of a Monte Carlo Treatment Planning system (몬데카를로 기반 치료계획시스템의 성능평가)

  • Cho, Byung-Chul
    • Progress in Medical Physics
    • /
    • v.13 no.3
    • /
    • pp.149-155
    • /
    • 2002
  • Recent advances in radiation transport algorithms, computer hardware performance, and parallel computing make the clinical use of Monte Carlo based dose calculations possible. To compare the speed and accuracies of dose calculations between different developed codes, a benchmark tests were proposed at the XIIth ICCR (International Conference on the use of Computers in Radiation Therapy, Heidelberg, Germany 2000). A Monte Carlo treatment planning comprised of 28 various Intel Pentium CPUs was implemented for routine clinical use. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of our system using the above benchmark tests. The benchmark procedures are comprised of three parts. a) speed of photon beams dose calculation inside a given phantom of 30.5 cm$\times$39.5 cm $\times$ 30 cm deep and filled with 5 ㎣ voxels within 2% statistical uncertainty. b) speed of electron beams dose calculation inside the same phantom as that of the photon beams. c) accuracy of photon and electron beam calculation inside heterogeneous slab phantom compared with the reference results of EGS4/PRESTA calculation. As results of the speed benchmark tests, it took 5.5 minutes to achieve less than 2% statistical uncertainty for 18 MV photon beams. Though the net calculation for electron beams was an order of faster than the photon beam, the overall calculation time was similar to that of photon beam case due to the overhead time to maintain parallel processing. Since our Monte Carlo code is EGSnrc, which is an improved version of EGS4, the accuracy tests of our system showed, as expected, very good agreement with the reference data. In conclusion, our Monte Carlo treatment planning system shows clinically meaningful results. Though other more efficient codes are developed such like MCDOSE and VMC++, BEAMnrc based on EGSnrc code system may be used for routine clinical Monte Carlo treatment planning in conjunction with clustering technique.

  • PDF

Comparison of the wall clock time for extracting remote sensing data in Hierarchical Data Format using Geospatial Data Abstraction Library by operating system and compiler (운영 체제와 컴파일러에 따른 Geospatial Data Abstraction Library의 Hierarchical Data Format 형식 원격 탐사 자료 추출 속도 비교)

  • Yoo, Byoung Hyun;Kim, Kwang Soo;Lee, Jihye
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology
    • /
    • v.21 no.1
    • /
    • pp.65-73
    • /
    • 2019
  • The MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data in Hierarchical Data Format (HDF) have been processed using the Geospatial Data Abstraction Library (GDAL). Because of a relatively large data size, it would be preferable to build and install the data analysis tool with greater computing performance, which would differ by operating system and the form of distribution, e.g., source code or binary package. The objective of this study was to examine the performance of the GDAL for processing the HDF files, which would guide construction of a computer system for remote sensing data analysis. The differences in execution time were compared between environments under which the GDAL was installed. The wall clock time was measured after extracting data for each variable in the MODIS data file using a tool built lining against GDAL under a combination of operating systems (Ubuntu and openSUSE), compilers (GNU and Intel), and distribution forms. The MOD07 product, which contains atmosphere data, were processed for eight 2-D variables and two 3-D variables. The GDAL compiled with Intel compiler under Ubuntu had the shortest computation time. For openSUSE, the GDAL compiled using GNU and intel compilers had greater performance for 2-D and 3-D variables, respectively. It was found that the wall clock time was considerably long for the GDAL complied with "--with-hdf4=no" configuration option or RPM package manager under openSUSE. These results indicated that the choice of the environments under which the GDAL is installed, e.g., operation system or compiler, would have a considerable impact on the performance of a system for processing remote sensing data. Application of parallel computing approaches would improve the performance of the data processing for the HDF files, which merits further evaluation of these computational methods.

Determination of Equivalent Hydraulic Conductivity of Rock Mass Using Three-Dimensional Discontinuity Network (삼차원 불연속면 연결망을 이용한 암반의 등가수리전도도 결정에 대한 연구)

  • 방상혁;전석원;최종근
    • Tunnel and Underground Space
    • /
    • v.13 no.1
    • /
    • pp.52-63
    • /
    • 2003
  • Discontinuities such as faults, fractures and joints in rock mass play the dominant role in the mechanical and hydraulic properties of the rock mass. The key factors that influence on the flow of groundwater are hydraulic and geometric characteristics of discontinuities and their connectivity. In this study, a program that analyzes groundwater flow in the 3D discontinuity network was developed on the assumption that the discontinuity characteristics such as density, trace length, orientation and aperture have particular distribution functions. This program generates discontinuities in a three-dimensional space and analyzes their connectivity and groundwater flow. Due to the limited computing capacity In this study, REV was not exactly determined, but it was inferred to be greater than 25$\times$25$\times$25 ㎥. By calculating the extent of aperture that influences on the groundwater flow, it was found that the discontinuities with the aperture smaller than 30% of the mean aperture had little influence on the groundwater flow. In addition, there was little difference in the equivalent hydraulic conductivity for the the two cases when considering and not considering the boundary effect. It was because the groundwater flow was mostly influenced by the discontinuities with large aperture. Among the parameters considered in this study, the length, aperture, and orientation of discontinuities had the greatest influence on the equivalent hydraulic conductivity of rock mass in their order. In case of existence of a fault in rock mass, elements of the equivalent hydraulic conductivity tensor parallel to the fault fairly increased in their magnitude but those perpendicular to the fault were increased in a very small amount at the first stage and then converged.

Hardware Approach to Fuzzy Inference―ASIC and RISC―

  • Watanabe, Hiroyuki
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Intelligent Systems Conference
    • /
    • /
    • pp.975-976
    • /
    • 1993
  • This talk presents the overview of the author's research and development activities on fuzzy inference hardware. We involved it with two distinct approaches. The first approach is to use application specific integrated circuits (ASIC) technology. The fuzzy inference method is directly implemented in silicon. The second approach, which is in its preliminary stage, is to use more conventional microprocessor architecture. Here, we use a quantitative technique used by designer of reduced instruction set computer (RISC) to modify an architecture of a microprocessor. In the ASIC approach, we implemented the most widely used fuzzy inference mechanism directly on silicon. The mechanism is beaded on a max-min compositional rule of inference, and Mandami's method of fuzzy implication. The two VLSI fuzzy inference chips are designed, fabricated, and fully tested. Both used a full-custom CMOS technology. The second and more claborate chip was designed at the University of North Carolina(U C) in cooperation with MCNC. Both VLSI chips had muliple datapaths for rule digital fuzzy inference chips had multiple datapaths for rule evaluation, and they executed multiple fuzzy if-then rules in parallel. The AT & T chip is the first digital fuzzy inference chip in the world. It ran with a 20 MHz clock cycle and achieved an approximately 80.000 Fuzzy Logical inferences Per Second (FLIPS). It stored and executed 16 fuzzy if-then rules. Since it was designed as a proof of concept prototype chip, it had minimal amount of peripheral logic for system integration. UNC/MCNC chip consists of 688,131 transistors of which 476,160 are used for RAM memory. It ran with a 10 MHz clock cycle. The chip has a 3-staged pipeline and initiates a computation of new inference every 64 cycle. This chip achieved an approximately 160,000 FLIPS. The new architecture have the following important improvements from the AT & T chip: Programmable rule set memory (RAM). On-chip fuzzification operation by a table lookup method. On-chip defuzzification operation by a centroid method. Reconfigurable architecture for processing two rule formats. RAM/datapath redundancy for higher yield It can store and execute 51 if-then rule of the following format: IF A and B and C and D Then Do E, and Then Do F. With this format, the chip takes four inputs and produces two outputs. By software reconfiguration, it can store and execute 102 if-then rules of the following simpler format using the same datapath: IF A and B Then Do E. With this format the chip takes two inputs and produces one outputs. We have built two VME-bus board systems based on this chip for Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The board is now installed in a robot at ORNL. Researchers uses this board for experiment in autonomous robot navigation. The Fuzzy Logic system board places the Fuzzy chip into a VMEbus environment. High level C language functions hide the operational details of the board from the applications programme . The programmer treats rule memories and fuzzification function memories as local structures passed as parameters to the C functions. ASIC fuzzy inference hardware is extremely fast, but they are limited in generality. Many aspects of the design are limited or fixed. We have proposed to designing a are limited or fixed. We have proposed to designing a fuzzy information processor as an application specific processor using a quantitative approach. The quantitative approach was developed by RISC designers. In effect, we are interested in evaluating the effectiveness of a specialized RISC processor for fuzzy information processing. As the first step, we measured the possible speed-up of a fuzzy inference program based on if-then rules by an introduction of specialized instructions, i.e., min and max instructions. The minimum and maximum operations are heavily used in fuzzy logic applications as fuzzy intersection and union. We performed measurements using a MIPS R3000 as a base micropro essor. The initial result is encouraging. We can achieve as high as a 2.5 increase in inference speed if the R3000 had min and max instructions. Also, they are useful for speeding up other fuzzy operations such as bounded product and bounded sum. The embedded processor's main task is to control some device or process. It usually runs a single or a embedded processer to create an embedded processor for fuzzy control is very effective. Table I shows the measured speed of the inference by a MIPS R3000 microprocessor, a fictitious MIPS R3000 microprocessor with min and max instructions, and a UNC/MCNC ASIC fuzzy inference chip. The software that used on microprocessors is a simulator of the ASIC chip. The first row is the computation time in seconds of 6000 inferences using 51 rules where each fuzzy set is represented by an array of 64 elements. The second row is the time required to perform a single inference. The last row is the fuzzy logical inferences per second (FLIPS) measured for ach device. There is a large gap in run time between the ASIC and software approaches even if we resort to a specialized fuzzy microprocessor. As for design time and cost, these two approaches represent two extremes. An ASIC approach is extremely expensive. It is, therefore, an important research topic to design a specialized computing architecture for fuzzy applications that falls between these two extremes both in run time and design time/cost. TABLEI INFERENCE TIME BY 51 RULES {{{{Time }}{{MIPS R3000 }}{{ASIC }}{{Regular }}{{With min/mix }}{{6000 inference 1 inference FLIPS }}{{125s 20.8ms 48 }}{{49s 8.2ms 122 }}{{0.0038s 6.4㎲ 156,250 }} }}

  • PDF

Real-time Color Recognition Based on Graphic Hardware Acceleration (그래픽 하드웨어 가속을 이용한 실시간 색상 인식)

  • Kim, Ku-Jin;Yoon, Ji-Young;Choi, Yoo-Joo
    • Journal of KIISE:Computing Practices and Letters
    • /
    • v.14 no.1
    • /
    • pp.1-12
    • /
    • 2008
  • In this paper, we present a real-time algorithm for recognizing the vehicle color from the indoor and outdoor vehicle images based on GPU (Graphics Processing Unit) acceleration. In the preprocessing step, we construct feature victors from the sample vehicle images with different colors. Then, we combine the feature vectors for each color and store them as a reference texture that would be used in the GPU. Given an input vehicle image, the CPU constructs its feature Hector, and then the GPU compares it with the sample feature vectors in the reference texture. The similarities between the input feature vector and the sample feature vectors for each color are measured, and then the result is transferred to the CPU to recognize the vehicle color. The output colors are categorized into seven colors that include three achromatic colors: black, silver, and white and four chromatic colors: red, yellow, blue, and green. We construct feature vectors by using the histograms which consist of hue-saturation pairs and hue-intensity pairs. The weight factor is given to the saturation values. Our algorithm shows 94.67% of successful color recognition rate, by using a large number of sample images captured in various environments, by generating feature vectors that distinguish different colors, and by utilizing an appropriate likelihood function. We also accelerate the speed of color recognition by utilizing the parallel computation functionality in the GPU. In the experiments, we constructed a reference texture from 7,168 sample images, where 1,024 images were used for each color. The average time for generating a feature vector is 0.509ms for the $150{\times}113$ resolution image. After the feature vector is constructed, the execution time for GPU-based color recognition is 2.316ms in average, and this is 5.47 times faster than the case when the algorithm is executed in the CPU. Our experiments were limited to the vehicle images only, but our algorithm can be extended to the input images of the general objects.