• Title, Summary, Keyword: Paraspinal Muscles

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The Effects of Different Types of High Heels and Walking Velocity on Muscle Activation of the Paraspinal Muscles

  • Lee, Joong-Sook;Han, Dong-Wook
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Physical Medicine
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    • v.9 no.3
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    • pp.271-278
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    • 2014
  • PURPOSE: This study researched the effects of different types of high heels on the muscles surrounding the cervical spine, the thoracic spine, and the lumbar spine by analyzing muscle activation of the paraspinal muscles during walking while wearing high heels. The high heels were all of the same height: 8cm. METHODS: The 28 subjects in this experiment were females in their 20s with a foot size of 225-230mm. To measure the muscle activation of the paraspinal muscles, EMG electrodes were attached on the paraspinal muscles around C6, T7, and L5. The muscle activation during walking while wearing 8cm high wedge heels, setback heels, and french heels was measured. The measurements were performed 3 times each and the mean value of the result was used for analysis. Two kinds of velocity were used in this study. One of the velocity was 2.5 m/s. The other was 3.5 m/s. RESULTS: The muscle activation of paraspinal muscles increased significantly according to increase of walking velocity. But there was no significant difference according to the heel types. CONCLUSION: In view of the results, the height of heels and the velocity of walking are more convincing variables than the width of the heels on the muscle activation of paraspinal muscles. So wearing high heels is not recommended for those who have pain or functional problem of cervical and lumbar vertebrae.

A Case of Pneumothorax after Needle Electromyography of Cervical Paraspinal Muscles (경추부 척추옆근육의 침근전도 검사 후 발생한 기흉 1예)

  • Lee, Jee-Young;Hong, Yoon Ho
    • Annals of Clinical Neurophysiology
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.88-90
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    • 2006
  • Pneumothorax after needle electromyography is a rare complication, which usually associated with examination of diaphragmatic and intercostal muscles. However, by the literatures, it can also occur with supraspinatus, serratus anterior and paraspinal muscles. We experienced a case of pneumothorax after cervical paraspinal muscle needle electromyography. From the anatomical vulnerability of pneumothorax during needle insertion, we emphasized the importance of avoiding this complication.

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Chronic Paraspinal Muscle Injury Model in Rat

  • Cho, Tack Geun;Park, Seung Won;Kim, Young Baeg
    • Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
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    • v.59 no.5
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    • pp.430-436
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    • 2016
  • Objective : The objective of this study is to establish an animal model of chronic paraspinal muscle injury in rat. Methods : Fifty four Sprague-Dawley male rats were divided into experimental group (n=30), sham (n=15), and normal group (n=9). Incision was done from T7 to L2 and paraspinal muscles were detached from spine and tied at each level. The paraspinal muscles were exposed and untied at 2 weeks after surgery. Sham operation was done by paraspinal muscles dissection at the same levels and wound closure was done without tying. Kyphotic index and thoracolumbar Cobb's angle were measured at preoperative, 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks after the first surgery for all groups. The rats were sacrificed at 4, 8, and 12 weeks after the first surgery, and performed histological examinations. Results : At 4 weeks after surgery, the kyphotic index decreased, but, Cobb's angle increased significantly in the experimental group (p<0.05), and then that were maintained until the end of the experiment. However, there were no significant differences of the kyphotic index and Cobb's angle between sham and normal groups. In histological examinations, necrosis and fibrosis were observed definitely and persisted until 12 weeks after surgery. There were also presences of regenerated muscle cells which nucleus is at the center of cytoplasm, centronucleated myofibers. Conclusion : Our chronic injury model of paraspinal muscles in rats shows necrosis and fibrosis in the muscles for 12 weeks after surgery, which might be useful to study the pathophysiology of the degenerative thoracolumbar kyphosis or degeneration of paraspinal muscles.

Back Muscle Changes after Pedicle Based Dynamic Stabilization

  • Moon, Kyung Yun;Lee, Soo-Eon;Kim, Ki-Jeong;Hyun, Seung-Jae;Kim, Hyun-Jib;Jahng, Tae-Ahn
    • Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
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    • v.53 no.3
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    • pp.174-179
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    • 2013
  • Objective : Many studies have investigated paraspinal muscle changes after posterior lumbar surgery, including lumbar fusion. However, no study has been performed to investigate back muscle changes after pedicle based dynamic stabilization in patients with degenerative lumbar spinal diseases. In this study, the authors compared back muscle cross sectional area (MCSA) changes after non-fusion pedicle based dynamic stabilization. Methods : Thirty-two consecutive patients who underwent non-fusion pedicle based dynamic stabilization (PDS) at the L4-L5 level between February 2005 and January 2008 were included in this retrospective study. In addition, 11 patients who underwent traditional lumbar fusion (LF) during the same period were enrolled for comparative purposes. Preoperative and postoperative MCSAs of the paraspinal (multifidus+longissimus), psoas, and multifidus muscles were measured using computed tomographic axial sections taken at the L4 lower vertebral body level, which best visualize the paraspinal and psoas muscles. Measurements were made preoperatively and at more than 6 months after surgery. Results : Overall, back muscles showed decreases in MCSAs in the PDS and LF groups, and the multifidus was most affected in both groups, but more so in the LF group. The PDS group showed better back muscle preservation than the LF group for all measured muscles. The multifidus MCSA was significantly more preserved when the PDS-paraspinal-Wiltse approach was used. Conclusion : Pedicle based dynamic stabilization shows better preservation of paraspinal muscles than posterior lumbar fusion. Furthermore, the minimally invasive paraspinal Wiltse approach was found to preserve multifidus muscles better than the conventional posterior midline approach in PDS group.

Effects of Seated Exercise of Thoracic and Abdominal Muscles on Upper Extremity Function and Trunk Muscles Activity in Patients with Chronic Stroke

  • Park, Shinjun;Kim, Sangduk
    • Journal of International Academy of Physical Therapy Research
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.2065-2070
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    • 2020
  • Background: Weakness of the abdominal and mid thoracic muscles the lead to thoracic kyphosis of stroke patients. The trunk muscles activity of stroke patients is significantly related to upper extremity. Objectives: To investigate the effect of seated exercise of thoracic and abdominal muscles on upper extremity function and trunk muscles activity in stroke patients. Design: One-group pretest-posttest design. Methods: A total of 27 stroke patients were recruited. All stroke patient were given seated abdominal exercise (posterior pelvic tilt exercises) and thoracic exercise (postural-correction exercise). All exercises were conducted for 30 minutes, three times a week for four weeks. The manual function test (MFT) and electromyography (EMG) were measured, and EMG electrodes were attached to thoracic paraspinal muscles and lower rectus abdominal muscles. EMG signal is expressed as %RVC (reference voluntary contraction). Results: Experimental group showed significant increases in abdominal muscles, paraspinal muscles activity and MFT total score, items of arm motion (forward elevation of the upper extremity, lateral elevation of the upper extremity, touch the occiput with the palm) in MFT after four weeks. Conclusion: These results suggest that, in stroke patients, seated exercise of thoracic and abdominal muscles contribute to improve trunk muscles activity and upper extremity function in stroke patients.

Effects of Mulligan's Mobilization with Sustained Natural Apophyseal Glides on the Paraspinal Muscle Activity of Subjects with Chronic Low Back Pain (Mulligan의 Sustained Natural Apophyseal Glides Mobilization이 만성 요통 환자의 요부근 활성도에 미치는 효과)

  • Kim, Se-Yoon;Kim, Nan-Soo
    • The Journal of Korean Physical Therapy
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.10-15
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    • 2013
  • Purpose: Low back pain occurs and frequently recurs in many people. An imbalance of paraspinal muscle activity can cause low back pain. Mulligan's concept of mobilizations with sustained natural apophyseal glides (SNAG) is a common method for treating low back pain. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of this method on paraspinal muscle activity in patients with chronic low back pain. Methods: Twenty-one patients with low back pain participated in this study. Patients were classified using the Oswestry disability index. The subjects' paraspinal muscles were measured by surface electromyography both before and after the SNAG mobilization. We measured the root mean square value of the paraspinal muscles during lumbar flexion and extension. Results: Paraspinal muscle activity in patients with chronic low back pain was different between the right and left sides. Importantly, paraspinal muscle activity significantly decreased after using the SNAG mobilization method. Conclusion: This study shows a difference between paraspinal muscle activity in chronic low back pain patients and finds that the Mulligan's concept of SNAG mobilization is effective at reducing imbalances in paraspinal muscle activity in low back pain patients.

The Correlation between Cross-sectional Area of Lumbar Paraspinal Muscles and Sponylolisthesis; A Retrospective Study (요추 주변 근육 단면적과 척추전방전위증의 상관성에 대한 후향적 연구)

  • Park, Hye-Sung;Kim, Je-In;Kim, Koh-Woon;Cho, Jae-Heung;Song, Mi-Yeon
    • Journal of Korean Medicine Rehabilitation
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.95-102
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    • 2016
  • Objectives To investigate correlation between slip percentage (SP) of spondylolisthesis and cross-sectional area (CSA) of lumbar paraspinal muscles; psoas major (PM), multifidus (MU) and erector spinae (ES). Methods A retrospective study was carried out in 120 spondylolisthesis patients who had visited the Spine center of Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong and had taken lumbar MRI. CSA of lumbar paraspinal muscles was measured from axial T2-weighted MRI and divided by CSA of vertebral body to avoid weight's influence. SP was also measured from sagittal MRI. Results SP increase has significant correlation with decreased CSA-MU (r=0.37, p<0.01) and increased CSA-ES (r=0.19, p<0.05). There was no significant correlation between SP and CSA-PM. Conclusions MU atrophy and ES hypertrophy have significant correlation with SP of spondylolisthesis. CSA of lumbar paraspinal muscles can be a risk factor of progression of spondylolisthesis and compensation for the instability.

Severe Paraspinal Muscle Atrophy with Fatty Degeneration in a Young Adult: A Case Report (젊은 성인의 척추주위근에 발생한 지방 변성을 동반한 심한 근위축: 증례보고)

  • Huh, Jae-Won;Yang, Won-Jong;Park, Eunhee;Lee, Jae Eun;Kim, Chul-Hyun
    • Journal of the Korean association of EMG-electrodiagnostic medicine
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.130-134
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    • 2018
  • A 36-year-old male patient developed diffuse low back pain. His past medical history was unremarkable and had no family history of neuromuscular disease. He had no bladder and bowel problems. Creatine kinase was 172 U/L (normal < 170). Other fluid and blood chemistry tests were normal. Manual muscle test grades of extremities and sensory examination were normal. Muscle stretch reflexes were normal. Fasciculations and myotonia were not detected. Straight leg raising test was negative. There was no spinal root compression, spinal stenosis, or signal intensity change of spinal cord on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Fatty change and atrophy of the cervical, thoracic and lumbar paraspinal muscles were noted on MRI. Nerve conduction studies were normal. Electromyography showed 1+ positive sharp waves in the lumbar paraspinal muscles. Electromyography of upper and lower extremity muscles revealed no abnormal spontaneous activity. We report a rare case of severe paraspinal muscle atrophy with fatty degeneration in a Young Adult.

The Findings of Relation between Cross-sectional Area of Lumbar Paraspinal Muscle and Prognosis in Patients of Acute and Chronic Low Back Pain Patients (급성 및 만성 요통환자의 요부주위근 횡단면적과 요통 예후의 상관관계 연구)

  • Nam, Ji Hwan;Lee, Chong Hwan;Lee, Seul Ji;Kim, Kie Won;Lee, Min Jung;Jun, Jae Yun;Lim, Su Jin;Hong, Nam Jung;Song, Ju Hyun
    • Journal of Acupuncture Research
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.45-53
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    • 2013
  • Objectives : The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between cross-sectional areas of the paraspinal and psoas muscles with low back pain. Methods : We assessed the cross-sectional area of the psoas and paraspinal muscles at the superior part of L4 level and vertebral body of L4 of 132 patients who were hospitalized with a chief complaint of low back pain at Jaseng Hospital of Korean Medicine from January 2013 to April 2013. After calculating the mean psoas area, we divided the patients into 2 groups by whether the psoas cross section was larger or smaller than the mean, and compared the admission period, verbal numeric rating scale(NRS) of low back pain(LBP), and improvement of verbal NRS of LBP. We also subcategorized the patients into acute and chronic groups according to the duration period, and compared the cross-sectional area of the psoas and paraspinal muscles. Results : Although analyses of the verbal NRS of LBP, and improvement of verbal NRS of LBP between groups with larger and smaller psoas cross section areas showed no significant difference, the admission period was significantly shorter in the group with larger psoas cross section areas. There was no significant difference in analyses of cross section areas in the acute and chronic groups. Of the possible prognostic variables, improvement of verbal NRS of LBP showed no correlation, while the admission period displayed a significant correlation. The cross-sectional area of the psoas and paraspinal muscles divided by the area of the vertebral body of L4 had a significant negative correlation with age. Conclusions : The cross-sectional area of the psoas and paraspinal muscles were correlated with the admission period in LBP patients, and the cross-sectional area of the surrounding muscles divided by the area of the L4 vertebral body was negatively correlated with age.

Effects of NMES and Horseback Riding Using a Robotic Device on the Trunk Muscle Activity and Gross Motor Function in Children with Spastic Diplegia

  • Park, Shin-Jun;Youn, Pong-Sub
    • The Journal of Korean Physical Therapy
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.123-128
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    • 2018
  • Purpose: This study examined the effects of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) and horseback riding using a robotic device on the trunk muscle activity and gross motor function in children with spastic diplegia. Methods: Children with spastic diplegia were divided into two groups: an experimental group (NMES and horseback riding using a robotic device [n=10]) and a control group (placebo NMES and horseback riding using a robotic device [n=10]). Each group received general physical therapy and occupational therapy. Each intervention involved the administration of NMES for 15 minutes and horseback riding using robotic device therapy for 15 minutes three times a week for 4 weeks. The evaluation included both the rectus abdominis muscles (RA), external oblique muscles (EO), thoracic paraspinal muscles (TP), and lumbar paraspinal muscles (LP) activity and GMFM. Results: The RA, EO, TP, and LP muscle activity, GMFM C, D, and E were increased significantly in the experimental and control groups. A significant increase in both the TP muscle activity and GMFM D was observed in the experimental group compared to the control group. Conclusion: This study showed that horseback riding using a robotic device is an effective intervention for trunk muscle activity and GMFM in children with spastic diplegia. However, if NMES is added to the back muscles, it is possible to further increase the thoracic paraspinal muscle activity and standing ability.