This study examines whether any correlation exists amongst participative motivation in an educational fashion training program, participants' program satisfaction and performance. In addition, this study investigates the moderating effect of participants' self-efficacy and job engagement in the influence of participative motivation on program satisfaction. Questionnaire data from 212 employed learners who participated in one or more educational fashion training programs were analyzed. For the data analysis, SPSS 24.0 statistical package was used. The study results were as follows. First, the participative motives of the educational fashion training program were grouped into the following three factors: goal-oriented, learning-oriented, and organizational support. Second, learning-oriented participative motivation positively affected their program satisfaction. Third, higher program satisfaction led better program performance. Fourth, there was a significant difference in the magnitude of the effect of learning-oriented participative motivation on satisfaction according to self-efficacy. Fifth, there was a significant difference in the magnitude of the effect of goal-oriented participative motivation on satisfaction according to vigor. Even if the participative motivation in an educational fashion training program predicts the program satisfaction, the strength is changed by interacting with the self-efficacy and vigor. The results of the study provide various implications for educators or policy makers who are interested in educational fashion training program development.
Journal of Fisheries and Marine Sciences Education
The purpose of the study was to validate the components of practical collaborative competencies by analyzing the perceptions of corporate personnel on practical collaborative competencies. The study reviewed the theories of collaborative intelligence, collective intelligence, cooperative learning, and learning communities. Based on the results of the literature review, the study derived seven categories of participative motivation for group activities, ability to share thinking and consciousness, motivation to share experiences, ability to control emotion, ability to promote interaction, creativity, and collaborative performance as the core competencies. To validate the elements, survey was conducted for 186 corporate personnels. The results showed that the personnels perceived the following elements as important collaborative competencies: participative motivation for group activities, motivation to form participatory atmosphere, ability to manage conflict effectively, ability to form relationships, ability to form positive team atmosphere.
The Journal of Korean Association of Computer Education
The purpose of this study was to explore predicting the factors affecting knowledge sharing behavior in SNS based learning community. Besides, participative motivation, openness to diversity, and knowledge sharing intention were included as predictors for this study. In addition, this study investigated the mediating role of knowledge sharing intention between participative motivation, openness to diversity and knowledge sharing behavior. 81 people in SNS based learning community participated in this study. Data collected were analyzed by correlation analysis, regression analysis and Baron & Kenny's(1986) mediation analysis. Results from this study, knowledge sharing intention and activity-oriented motivation predicted knowledge sharing behavior. In addition, knowledge sharing intention mediated among activity-oriented motivation, openness to diversity and knowledge sharing behavior.
This study is on the effects of lifelong education participative motivation, self-efficacy, and self-directed learning on subjective happiness of middle age adults. Middle age adults 40-64 years old are questionnaire survey target in Incheon and Gyeonggido and total 289 copies among 300 were analyzed through SPSS 21.0. The major findings of this study con be seen as follows: The variables more affected on educational satisfaction of middle age adults are goal-oriented motivation and activity-oriented motivation in lifelong education participative motivation, self-regulated efficacy in self-efficacy, and each personality, recognition and environment in self-directed learning. In conclusion, new paradigm is needed for middle age adults in lifelong learning society. This program should provide them with knowledge and information for adapting the future society, Furthermore, middle age adults can achieve their own self exploration, self-development and self-realization through the lifelong education program. Given a chance of lifelong education, middle age adults should be provided with the specific programs.
It is generally defined that the trust between members are relayed on the belief of ability and support. The purpose of this study is to make sure that participative decision making effects on productivity of group based on that cooperative relationship could bring the productive improvement. As the results, we could figure out that satisfiable rate of performance feedback and open communication are related with the productivity Especially, an administrative group based on the mutual trust, can meet the level of customer's satisfaction and cultural multiplicity. Setting up the mutual trust is to maximize the ability of members and to derive the motivation of working concentration.
This study was performed to analyze the relationship between the participative motivation and satisfaction of adolescents participating in Green Camp which was the field centered forest experience camp as analyzing the factor of the participative motivation and its influence on the satisfaction. Also, this study identified the changes in creative personality before and after participation to Green Camp. In results, there were five motivation factors: 'Adventure and Interest', 'Forest Activity', 'Improve Physical Health', 'Rest', 'Suggestion'. When respective factors were analyzed, the mean of 'Interest and adventure' was the highest at 4.303, and then 'Forest activity' at 4.287, 'Rest' at 3.970 followed. In the case of participant satisfaction, 'the teaching materials and tools of the camp' was the highest at 4.530, and then 'contents of the camp' at 4.410, 'lecture performer of the camp' at 4.229, 'the way of progress of the camp' at 4.036, 'the place of the camp' at 3.952, 'the passage time of the camp' at 3.843 followed. It showed that 'Forest activity' factor and satisfaction had a positive relationship (p<0.05). In addition, the means of creative personality before-and after-program participation increased from 3.687 to 3.773 (t=-2.218, p=0.029). Based on the analysis of satisfaction, this study suggested improvements of Green camp. Also, it proved that the participation Green camp had influence on the creative personality. The finding of this study is meaningful in that it proposed the necessity of activation forest education focusing on experience.
Journal of the Korean association of regional geographers
This study aims to examine the effect of tourists' participative motivation of a festival on satisfaction and behavior intention in terms of satisfaction, revisit intention, and recommendation based on Baekjae Cultural Festival. For this study, frequency analysis, reliability analysis, factor analysis, and multiple regression analysis were made. The survey was conducted among 287 samples for the study. The results are as follows: According to the factor analysis, five factors were drawn such as new experience, deviation from daily life, family harmony, amusement & novelty, cultural tour of Baekjae, and sociability. Festival satisfaction was affected by amusement & novelty, new experience & deviation from daily life, and cultural tour of Baekjae, while revisit intention was influenced by cultural tour of Baekjae, amusement & novelty, family harmony, and new experience & deviation from daily life respectively. On the other hand, recommendation was affected by cultural tour of Baekjae, sociability, amusement & novelty, and family harmony respectively.
Franchise businesses in South Korea have contributed to economic growth and job creation, and its growth potential remains very high. However, despite such virtues, domestic franchise businesses face many problems such as the instability of franchisor's business structure and weak financial conditions. To solve these problems, the government enacted legislation and strengthened franchise related laws. However, the strengthening of laws regulating franchisors had many side effects that interrupted the development of the franchise business. For example, legal regulations regarding franchisors have had the effect of suppressing the franchisor's leadership activities (e.g. activities such as the ability to advocate the franchisor's policies and strategies to the franchisees, in order to facilitate change and innovation). One of the main goals of the franchise business is to build cooperation between the franchisor and the franchisee for their combined success. However, franchisees can refuse to follow the franchisor's strategies because of the current state of franchise-related law and government policy. The purpose of this study to explore the effects of franchisor's leadership style on franchisee's commitment in a franchise system. We classified leadership styles according to the path-goal theory (House & Mitchell, 1974), and it was hypothesized and tested that the four leadership styles proposed by the path-goal theory (i.e. directive, supportive, participative and achievement-oriented leadership) have different effects on franchisee's commitment. Another purpose of this study to explore the how the level of franchisee's self-efficacy influences both the franchisor's leadership style and franchisee's commitment in a franchise system. Results of the present study are expected to provide important theoretical and practical implications as to the role of franchisor's leadership style, as restricted by government regulations and the franchisee's self-efficacy, which could be needed to improve the quality of the long-term relationship between the franchisor and franchisee. Quoted by Northouse(2007), one problem regarding the investigation of leadership is that there are almost as many different definitions of leadership as there are people who have tried to define it. But despite the multitude of ways in which leadership has been conceptualized, the following components can be identified as central to the phenomenon: (a) leadership is a process, (b) leadership involves influence, (c) leadership occurs in a group context, and (d) leadership involves goal attainment. Based on these components, in this study leadership is defined as a process whereby franchisor's influences a group of franchisee' to achieve a common goal. Focusing on this definition, the path-goal theory is about how leaders motivate subordinates to accomplish designated goals. Drawing heavily from research on what motivates employees, path-goal theory first appeared in the leadership literature in the early 1970s in the works of Evans (1970), House (1971), House and Dessler (1974), and House and Mitchell (1974). The stated goal of this leadership theory is to enhance employee performance and employee satisfaction by focusing on employee motivation. In brief, path-goal theory is designed to explain how leaders can help subordinates along the path to their goals by selecting specific behaviors that are best suited to subordinates' needs and to the situation in which subordinates are working (Northouse, 2007). House & Mitchell(1974) predicted that although many different leadership behaviors could have been selected to be a part of path-goal theory, this approach has so far examined directive, supportive, participative, and achievement-oriented leadership behaviors. And they suggested that leaders may exhibit any or all of these four styles with various subordinates and in different situations. However, due to restrictive government regulations, franchisors are not in a position to change their leadership style to suit their circumstances. In addition, quoted by Northouse(2007), ssubordinate characteristics determine how a leader's behavior is interpreted by subordinates in a given work context. Many researchers have focused on subordinates' needs for affiliation, preferences for structure, desires for control, and self-perceived level of task ability. In this study, we have focused on the self-perceived level of task ability, namely, the franchisee's self-efficacy. According to Bandura (1977), self-efficacy is chiefly defined as the personal attitude of one's ability to accomplish concrete tasks. Therefore, it is not an indicator of one's actual abilities, but an opinion of the extent of how one can use that ability. Thus, the judgment of maintain franchisee's commitment depends on the situation (e.g., government regulation and policy and leadership style of franchisor) and how it affects one's ability to mobilize resources to deal with the task, so even if people possess the same ability, there may be differences in self-efficacy. Figure 1 illustrates the model investigated in this study. In this model, it was hypothesized that leadership styles would affect the franchisee's commitment, and self-efficacy would moderate the relationship between leadership style and franchisee's commitment. Theoretically, quoted by Northouse(2007), the path-goal approach suggests that leaders need to choose a leadership style that best fits the needs of subordinates and the work they are doing. According to House & Mitchell (1974), the theory predicts that a directive style of leadership is best in situations in which subordinates are dogmatic and authoritarian, the task demands are ambiguous, and the organizational rule and procedures are unclear. In these situations, franchisor's directive leadership complements the work by providing guidance and psychological structure for franchisees. For work that is structured, unsatisfying, or frustrating, path-goal theory suggests that leaders should use a supportive style. Franchisor's Supportive leadership offers a sense of human touch for franchisees engaged in mundane, mechanized activity. Franchisor's participative leadership is considered best when a task is ambiguous because participation gives greater clarity to how certain paths lead to certain goals; it helps subordinates learn what actions leads to what outcome. Furthermore, House & Mitchell(1974) predicts that achievement-oriented leadership is most effective in settings in which subordinates are required to perform ambiguous tasks. Marsh and O'Neill (1984) tested the idea that organizational members' anger and decline in performance is caused by deficiencies in their level of effort and found that self-efficacy promotes accomplishment, decreases stress and negative consequences like depression and emotional instability. Based on the extant empirical findings and theoretical reasoning, we posit positive and strong relationships between the franchisor's leadership styles and the franchisee's commitment. Furthermore, the level of franchisee's self-efficacy was thought to maintain their commitment. The questionnaires sent to participants consisted of the following measures; leadership style was assessed using a 20 item 7-point likert scale developed by Indvik (1985), self-efficacy was assessed using a 24 item 6-point likert scale developed by Bandura (1977), and commitment was assessed using a 6 item 5-point likert scale developed by Morgan & Hunt (1994). Questionnaires were distributed to Korean optical franchisees in Seoul. It took about 20 days to complete the data collection. A total number of 140 questionnaires were returned and complete data were available from 137 respondents. Results of multiple regression analyses testing the relationships between the each of the four styles of leadership shown by the franchisor as independent variables and franchisee's commitment as the dependent variable showed that the relationship between supportive leadership style and commitment ($\beta$=.13, p<.001),and the relationship between participative leadership style and commitment ($\beta$=.07, p<.001)were significant. However, when participants divided into high and low self-efficacy groups, results of multiple regression analyses showed that only the relationship between achievement-oriented leadership style and commitment ($\beta$=.14, p<.001) was significant in the high self-efficacy group. In the low self-efficacy group, the relationship between supportive leadership style and commitment ($\beta$=.17, p<.001),and the relationship between participative leadership style and commitment ($\beta$=.10, p<.001) were significant. The study focused on the franchisee's self-efficacy in order to explore the possibility that regulation, originally intended to protect the franchisee, may not be the most effective method to maintain the relationships in a franchise business. The key results of the data analysis regarding the moderating role of self-efficacy between leadership behavior style as proposed by path-goal and commitment theory were as follows. First, this study proposed that franchisor should apply the appropriate type of leadership behavior to strengthen the franchisees commitment because the results demonstrated that supportive and participative leadership styles by the franchisors have a positive influence on the franchisee's level of commitment. Second, it is desirable for franchisor to validate the franchisee's efforts, since the franchisee's characteristics such as self-efficacy had a substantial, positive effect on the franchisee's commitment as well as being a meaningful moderator between leadership and commitment. Third, the results as a whole imply that the government should provide institutional support, namely to put the franchisor in a position to clearly identify the characteristics of their franchisees and provide reasonable means to administer the franchisees to achieve the company's goal.
KSII Transactions on Internet and Information Systems (TIIS)
The 4th Industrial Revolution (FIR) has already begun. Corporations have to fulfill their social responsibilities to the FIR. This study explores the leadership and attitudes required in the FIR era for companies to fulfill their social responsibilities. In the FIR era, workers should have certain attitudes, such as self-efficacy, expectancy, and acceptance of change. If workers have these attitudes, they will be able to make a difference in the future. This study suggests the leadership styles that are needed to improve these attitudes. Participation, creativity, delegation of leadership, and inspirational motivation of leaders involves organizational change and improvement of organizational performance. This paper demonstrates the kind of leadership that is more important for each attitude through statistical analysis. Furthermore, when workers have these attitudes, not only the future, but also their current performance can be improved. To explain this relationship, the paper describes the effect of attitudes on job satisfaction. If workers have certain attitudes, their current and future performance will improve. As a result of the research, all four leadership styles had positive effects on attitudes toward FIR, and attitudes showed a mediating effect on the relationship between leadership styles and job satisfaction. In addition, it has been proven that the role of participative and delegating leadership, which is more member-oriented leadership, is more important. Leadership will enable workers to have a particular attitude through member-centered leadership, and workers will be able to increase current and future performance. Through these efforts, companies will be able to increase their performance in the current and FIR era, and fulfill their social responsibilities more faithfully. Therefore, in the FIR era, companies will play an important role in the development of society, and create new values.
Journal of The Korean Association of Information Education
This study is an attempt to present a usage of the Web as CAI in the classroom and to give a direction to the future education in the face of information age. Characteristcs of information society, current curriculum, educational and teacher education are first analyzed in this article. The features of internet and 'Web are then summarized to present benefits of usage in the classroom as a CAI tool. The literature shows several characteristics of information society as follows : a technological computer, a provision and sharing of information, multi functional society, a participative democracy', an autonomy, a time value..A problem solving and 4 Cs(e.g., cooperation, copying, communication, creativity) are newly needed in this learning environment. The Internet is a large collection of networks that are tied together so that users can share their vast resources, a wealth of information, and give a key to a successful, efficient. individual study over a time and space. The 'Web increases an academic achievement, a creativity, a problem solving, a cognitive thinking, and a learner's motivation through an easy access to : documents available on the Internet, files containing programs, pictures, movies, and sounds from an FTP site, Usenet newsgroups, WAIS seraches, computers accessible through telnet, hypertext document, Java applets and other multimedia browser enhancements, and much more, In the Web browser will be our primary tool in searching for information on the Internet in this information age.
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