• 제목, 요약, 키워드: Particulate matter

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미세먼지의 건강영향 (Health effects of particulate matter)

  • 배상혁;홍윤철
    • 대한의사협회지
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    • v.61 no.12
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    • pp.749-755
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    • 2018
  • Particulate matter is an air pollutant emitted from both natural and anthropogenic sources, and its adverse health effects have been well documented in time-series analyses and cohort studies. The effect size of particulate matter exposure-a roughly 0.5% increase in mortality for each $10{\mu}g/m^3$ increment of short-term exposure to particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ${\leq}10{\mu}m$ and approximately a 10% increase for each $10{\mu}g/m^3$ increment of long-term exposure to particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ${\leq}2.5{\mu}m$-is small compared to other risk factors, but the exposure is involuntary and affects the entire population, which makes particulate matter pollution an important public health issue. The World Health Organization and Korean government have both established guidelines for particulate matter concentrations, but the Korean guideline is less stringent than that of the World Health Organization. The annual mean concentration of particulate matter in Korea is decreasing, but the trend seems to be slowing. In addition to policy efforts to reduce particulate matter emission, personal approaches such as the use of face masks and air purifiers have been recommended. Personal approaches may not solve the fundamental problem, but can provide temporary mitigation until efforts to reduce emission make progress.

A Particulate Matter Sensor with Groove Electrode for Real-Time Diesel Engine On-Board Diagnostics

  • Kim, S.;Kim, Y.;Lee, J.;Lim, S.;Min, K.;Chun, K.
    • 센서학회지
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.191-196
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    • 2013
  • A particulate matter sensor fabricated by MEMS process is proposed. It is developed to accommodate Euro6 on-board diagnostics regulation for diesel automobile. In the regulation, emission of diesel particulate matter is restricted to 9 mg/km. Particulate matter sensor is designed to use induced charges by charged particulate matter. To increase sensitivity of the sensor, groove is formed on sensor surface because wider surface area generates more induced charges. Sensitivity of the sensor is measured 10.6 mV/(mg/km) and the sensor shows good linearity up to 15.7 mg/km. Also its minimum detectable range is about 0.25 mg/km. It is suitable to detect failure of a diesel particulate filter which should filter particulate matter more than 9 mg/km. For removing accumulated particulate matter on the sensor which can disturb normal operation, platinum heater is designed on the backside of the sensor. The developed sensor can sense very low amount of particulate matter from exhaust gas in real-time with good linearity.

인공 신경망을 이용한 미세먼지 예측 모델 (Particulate Matter Prediction Model using Artificial Neural Network)

  • 정용진;조경우;강철규;오창헌
    • 한국정보통신학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.623-625
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    • 2018
  • 미세먼지에 대한 이슈가 확산됨에 따라 미세먼지에 대한 정보를 실시간으로 제공하는 서비스가 많아지고 있다. 그러나 미세먼지를 수집하기 위한 센서 노드의 결함이 발생할 경우 해당하는 서비스를 제공하지 못하는 경우가 발생한다. 이러한 문제를 해결하기 위해서는 미세먼지의 예측과 추론이 필요하다. 본 논문에서는 미세먼지를 예측하기 위해 과거의 미세먼지 및 기상 데이터를 기반으로 신경망 알고리즘을 이용하여 미세먼지 예측 모델을 설계한다. 또한 설계된 모델의 입력 데이터를 다양화하여 학습함으로써 예측 결과를 비교한다.

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다층 퍼셉트론 신경망을 이용한 미세먼지 AQI 지수 예측 (Particulate Matter AQI Index Prediction using Multi-Layer Perceptron Network)

  • 조경우;이종성;오창헌
    • 한국정보통신학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.540-542
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    • 2019
  • 미세먼지로 인한 대기오염 및 인체 영향에 대한 많은 발표로 인해 미세먼지 예보는 많은 대중의 관심을 받고 있다. 이로 인해 통계 모델링 기법과 함께 기계학습 기법을 사용하여 미세먼지 예보 정확도를 올리기 위한 다양한 노력이 수행되고 있다. 본 논문에서는 미세먼지 예측을 위해 다층 퍼셉트론 신경망을 활용한 미세먼지 AQI 지수 예측을 수행한다. 이를 위해 다수의 연구에서 공통적으로 사용된 기상 인자와 미세먼지 농도값을 이용하여 예측 모델을 설계하고 4단계의 미세먼지 AQI 예측 정확도를 비교한다.

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대학생의 미세먼지 위험에 대한 인식, 지식, 관리행위에 대한 지각된 장애와 건강 관리행위의 관계 (The Relationships between Particulate Matter Risk Perception, Knowledge, and Health Promoting Behaviors among College Students)

  • 박은선;오현정;김수현;민아리
    • Journal of Korean Biological Nursing Science
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.20-29
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    • 2018
  • Purpose: This study aimed to determine the relationships between particulate matter risk perception, knowledge, and perceived barriers and health-promoting behaviors among college students. Methods: Data for this cross-sectional study were collected from September 1 to 30, 2017. The study sample consisted of 85 students from a university, Seoul. Students not living in the Seoul metropolitan area during the spring 2017 semester were excluded from participation. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to identify relationships among study variables. Results: A significant positive correlation existed between particulate matter risk perception and health-promoting behaviors related to particulate matter (r= .51, p< .001). Among the risk perception subdomains, attention (r= .47, p< .001) and health effect (r= .55, p< .001) showed strong positive relationships with health-promoting behaviors. No significant relationships were found between knowledge (r= .12, p= .288) or perceived barriers (r= -.12, p= .264) and health-promoting behaviors related to particulate matter. Conclusion: Based on the study results, strategies for enhancing particulate matter risk perception are needed to increase the level of health-promoting behaviors related to particulate matter among college students.

국내 산업 및 시도별 대기오염물질 배출량자료를 이용한 미세먼지 형성 가능성 및 인체 호흡기 영향 평가추정 (Assessment and Estimation of Particulate Matter Formation Potential and Respiratory Effects from Air Emission Matters in Industrial Sectors and Cities/Regions)

  • 김준범
    • 대한환경공학회지
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    • v.39 no.4
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    • pp.220-228
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    • 2017
  • 많은 산업 및 도로이동오염원 등으로부터 발생되는 미세먼지는 인간건강과 호흡기에 큰 영향을 미치고 있으며 이에 대한 중요성이 점차 증가하고 있다. 세계보건기구(WHO)에서도 미세먼지($PM_{10}$) 및 초미세먼지$PM_{2.5}$)를 석면 및 비소 등의 물질과 같은 등급인 1급 발암물질로 지정한 이후로 우리나라에서도 지속적인 관심과 연구를 진행해오고 있다. 현재 환경부와 각 지자체별로 미세먼지 및 대기오염정보를 구축하여 제공하고 있지만, 특히 미세먼지 주의보 및 경보발령에 있어서 미세먼지 $PM_{10}$$PM_{2.5}$ 자료만을 활용하고 있고 미세먼지형성에 영향을 주는NOx, SOx, $NH_3$자료는 활용 및 고려를 하지 않고 있다. 또한 국내 산업별 및 지자체별로 세부적인 미세먼지형성 가능성(particulate matter formation potential) 및 발생되는 미세먼지로 인한 인체호흡기 영향평가(respiratory effects)와 관련된 연구는 많이 진행이 되고 있지 않다. 이에 본 연구의 목적은 국내 11개 산업별 및 시도별로 2001년과 2013년 환경부 및 국립환경과학원에서 제시하고 있는 NOx, SOx, $PM_{10}$, $NH_3$ 자료를 활용하여 미세먼지형성(particulate matter formation potential) 평가와 이로 인한 인체 호흡기 영향을 평가 및 산정하여 비교 제시하고자 하였다. 본 연구결과로는 산업별 및 시도별로 미세먼지형성과 인간건강에 영향을 제시하였으며, 향후 미세먼지 관련 연구에 중요하게 활용할 수 있을 것으로 사료된다.

기계학습 군집 알고리즘을 이용한 미세먼지 비선형성 완화방안 (Non-linearity Mitigation Method of Particulate Matter using Machine Learning Clustering Algorithms)

  • 이상권;조경우;오창헌
    • 한국정보통신학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.341-343
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    • 2019
  • 고농도 미세먼지 발생이 증가함에 따라 미세먼지 예측에 많은 관심이 집중되고 있다. 미세먼지는 대기 중에 있는 직경 $10{\mu}m$ 이하의 밀입자 물질을 말하며, 온도, 상대습도, 풍속 등의 기상 변화에 영향을 받는다. 따라서 미세먼지 예측을 위해 기상 정보와의 상관관계를 분석하는 다양한 연구가 진행되었다. 하지만 미세먼지의 비선형적 시계열 분포는 예측 모델의 복잡도를 증가시키고, 부정확한 예측값을 초래할 수 있다. 본 연구에서는 기계학습의 군집 알고리즘 및 분류알고리즘을 이용하여 미세먼지의 비선형적 특성을 완화하고자 한다. 사용된 기계학습 알고리즘은 병합군집, 밀도기반군집이며, 각 알고리즘을 통한 군집결과를 비교, 분석하였다.

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소형 직화식 커피 로스터 이용 시 발생하는 미세먼지 특성 연구 (Characteristics of Particulate Matter Generated during the Operation of a Small Directly Fired Coffee Roaster)

  • 유다은;김승원
    • 한국산업보건학회지
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.236-248
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    • 2020
  • Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the concentrations of particulate matter generated during coffee roasting and to study various factors affecting the concentrations. Methods: Differences in concentration levels were investigated based on various factors to understand the emission rates of particulate matter over time and to compare the mass and number concentrations according to their size. Sampling was performed in closed laboratories without the operation of air conditioning or ventilation. Optical Particle Sizer(OPS) was used as a measuring device. An OPS measures using a light-scattering method. Sampling was performed for sixty minutes at one-minute intervals. The background concentration was measured for about 30 minutes before starting of coffee roasting. The concentrations of particulate matter generated during coffee roasting were monitored until roasted coffee beans were removed from the roaster and cooled down. Several factors affecting the concentrations of particulate matter were investigated, which includes the origins of green beans, the roasting level, and the input amount of green beans. Results: The results of this study may be summarized as follows: 1) There was no difference in particulate matter concentration levels by the origin of the green beans, but a statistically significant difference in concentration levels by roasting level and the input amount of green beans; The higher the roasting level, the higher was the particulate matter concentration. The more green beans we put in the roaster, the higher were the concentrations; 2) The PM10 mass concentrations increased over time. The average concentration after roasting was higher than the average concentration during roasting; 3) In the distribution of mass and number concentration by particle diameter, the majority of particles was below 2.5 ㎛. Conclusions: Persons who work in roastery cafes can be exposed to high concentrations of particulate matter. Therefore, personal exposure and risk assessment should be conducted for roastery cafe workers.

정기검사 시설기준 개선이 입자상물질(PM10) 배출에 미치는 영향 (Effects of Regular Inspection Facility Standards Improvement on Particulate Matter (PM10) Emissions)

  • 최성규;김용달;이재영;김호경;노기성;박정수
    • 자동차안전학회지
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.36-39
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    • 2019
  • The particulate matter that was emitted always come up by atmospheric environmental problem. Running on the road vehicles must have regular inspection at regular period and make sure the emissions of exhaust gases exceed the legal standards. Emission test for the atmospheric environment, but it is not free from the particulate matter. Currently, emission test of vehicle inspection is divided into regular inspection and close inspection. Regular inspection and close inspection differ not only the method of emission test, but also the facility standards that must have for this inspection. According to the "Regulations on the Implementation of Comprehensive vehicle Inspection, etc.", close inspection must have trapping device that is trap particulate matter by emission test to vehicle. However, regular inspection is different. Regular inspection do not specify any criteria for trapping facilities. Therefore, this study is confirm how to prevent the emission of particulate matter to the atmosphere during the year when mandatory trapping facilities are required to trapped particulate matter in the regular inspection.

미세먼지(霧霾)가 발생하는 질병과 중의학, 한의학의 관리가능성 - 예방과 치료를 중심으로- (The Possibility of Managing Diseases Caused by Particulate Matter(PM10) with Chinese and Korean Medicines - Emphasis on Medical Prevention and Treatment -)

  • 고원준;안정훈;이선동
    • 대한예방한의학회지
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.69-80
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    • 2018
  • Objectives : This paper examines the effects of Particulate Matter on human bodies and the possibility of treating them with Chinese or Korean medicines. Methods : This paper categorizes the diseases caused by Particulate Matter, as well as the causes, pathology, prevention methods, and effectiveness of treatments by Chinese and Korean medicines. Based on these results, it analyzes whether such diseases can be managed by Chinese and Korean medicine. Results : Particulate Matter is known to affect respiratory organs, skin, circulatory system, nervous system, gestational diabetes, and other parts of the human body. While studies show evidence that treatments by Chinese and Korean medicines can reduce symptoms of some diseases and improve bodily functions that are damaged by Particulate Matter, there is no statistically significant evidence that they can provide fundamental treatments nor treat irreversible damages. Conclusion : Currently, there is no definite evidence that Chinese and Korean medicine can treat symptoms and diseases caused by Particulate Matter. Therefore, some Korean medicine doctors' arguments that Korean medicine is effective in treating such diseases are problematic, and thus, there is a need for much research in this field.