• Title, Summary, Keyword: Particulate matter

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Exposure Assessments of Environmental Contaminants in Ansim Briquette Fuel Complex, Daegu(III) - Contribution and distribution characteristics of air pollutants according to elemental carbon, crystalline silica, and stable isotope ratio - (대구 안심연료단지 환경오염물질 노출 평가(III) - 원소 탄소, 결정형 실리카 및 안정동위원소비를 이용한 오염원 기여율 및 분포특성 -)

  • Jung, Jong-Hyeon;Phee, Young-Gyu;Shon, Byung-Hyun;Bae, Hye-Jeong;Yang, Won-Ho;Kim, Ji-Young;Kim, Geun-Bae;Choi, Jong-Woo;Park, Sung-Jun;Lee, Kwan;Lim, Hyun-Sul
    • Journal of Korean Society of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.392-404
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    • 2015
  • Objectives: This study measured and analyzed the concentrations of crystalline silica, elemental carbon and the contribution ratio of pollutants which influence environmental and respiratory disease around the Ansim Briquette Fuel Complex in Daegu, Korea. Methods: We analyzed the crystalline silica and elemental carbon in the air according to FTIR(Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy) and NIOSH(National Institute of Occupation Safety and Health) method 5040, respectively. In addition, lead stable isotopes, and carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes were analyzed using MC-ICP/MS(Multi Collector-Inductively Coupled Plasma/Mass Spectrometer), and IRMS(Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometer), respectively. Results: The concentration of crystalline silica in the direct exposure area around the Ansim Briquette Fuel Complex was found to be $0.0014{\pm}0.0005mg/Sm^3$, but not to exceed the exposure standards of the ACGIH(American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists). In the case of the autumn, the direct exposure area was found to show a level 2.5 times higher than the reference area, and on the whole, the direct exposure area was found to have a level 1.4 times higher than the reference area. The concentration of elemental carbon in the direct exposure area and in the reference area were found to be $0.0014{\pm}0.0006mg/Sm^3$, and $0.0006{\pm}0.0003mg/Sm^3$, respectively. This study confirmed the contribution ratio of coal raw materials to residentially deposited dusts in the area within 500 meters from the Ansim Briquette Fuel Complex and the surrounding area with a stable isotope ratio of 24.0%(0.7-62.7%) on average in the case of carbon and nitrogen, and 33.9%(26.6-54.1%) on average in the case of lead stable isotopes. Conclusions: This study was able to confirm correlations with coal raw materials used by the Ansim Briquette Fuel Complex and the surrounding area. The concentration of some pollutants, crystalline silica, and elemental carbon emitted to the direct-influence area around the Ansim Briquette Fuel Complex were relatively higher than in the reference area. Therefore, we need to impose continuous and substantive reduction countermeasures in the future to prevent particulate matter and coal raw materials in the study area. It is time for the local government and authorities to prepare active administrative methods such as the relocation of Ansim Briquette Fuel Complex.

Exposure Assessments of Environmental Contaminants in Ansim Briquette Fuel Complex, Daegu(I) - Effect zone of environmental pneumoconiosis and fugitive dust - (대구 안심연료단지 환경오염물질 노출 평가(I) - 환경성 진폐증 및 비산먼지 영향권역 -)

  • Jung, Jong-Hyeon;Oh, In-Bo;Phee, Young-Gyu;Nam, Mi-Ran;Hwang, Mi-Kyoung;Bang, Jin-Hee;Jeon, Soo-Bin;Lee, Sang-sup;Yu, Seung-do;KimS, Byung-Seok;Yoo, Seok-Ju;Lee, Kwan;Lim, Hyun-Sul
    • Journal of Korean Society of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.366-379
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    • 2015
  • Objectives: The objective of this study is to assess airborne particulate matter(PM) pollution and its effect on health of residents living near Ansim Briquette Fuel Complex in Daegu metropolitan region. Methods: The California Puff(CALPUFF) dispersion model, version 5.8, which can estimate the dispersion direction and range of airborn $PM_{10}$ was used to determine the possible areas affected by $PM_{10}$ pollutants emitted from Ansim briquette fuel complex. The CALPUFF modeling with 200 m grid-cell resolution was performed based on $PM_{10}$ emissions estimated from the amount of coal consumption in the fuel complex for four months in 2012. The Weather Research and Forecasting(WRF) fields were processed using CALMET to produce CALPUFF-ready meteorological inputs. Also, the distance from Ansim Briquette Fuel Complex to the residence of each environmental pneumoconiosis patient was analyzed. In addition, the affecting region of the pollutants emitted from briquette factories in Ansim Briquette Fuel Complex was determined. Results: CALPUFF modeling results showed that the highest concentrations of $PM_{10}$ were found near around the fuel complex. The modeled $PM_{10}$ distributions were characterized by significant decreases in concentration with distance from the complex. Seasonally, the highest concentration of $45{\mu}g/m^3$ was calculated in October which was mostly due to the distinct variation of amount of emission. Additional modeling with the maximum $PM_{10}$ emission of about 88 tons per year in 1986 showed that the highest concentration in October was nearly increased by 8 times than the concentration modeled with emission of 2010. As a result of medical examination and interviews for the residents in Ansim Briquette Fuel Complex and its surroundings, 8 environmental pneumoconiosis patients were found. These patients do not have occupational exposure and history. These patients have lived 0.3~1.1 km area in Ansim Briquette Fuel Complex and its surroundings. Conclusions: Airborne particles emitted from Ansim Briquette Fuel Complex can contribute to significant increase in $PM_{10}$ concentration in residential areas near around the complex. Especially, the residents near fuel complex may exposed to the pollutants emitted from the factories in Ansim Briquette Fuel Complex.

The KALION Automated Aerosol Type Classification and Mass Concentration Calculation Algorithm (한반도 에어로졸 라이다 네트워크(KALION)의 에어로졸 유형 구분 및 질량 농도 산출 알고리즘)

  • Yeo, Huidong;Kim, Sang-Woo;Lee, Chulkyu;Kim, Dukhyeon;Kim, Byung-Gon;Kim, Sewon;Nam, Hyoung-Gu;Noh, Young Min;Park, Soojin;Park, Chan Bong;Seo, Kwangsuk;Choi, Jin-Young;Lee, Myong-In;Lee, Eun hye
    • Korean Journal of Remote Sensing
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.119-131
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    • 2016
  • Descriptions are provided of the automated aerosol-type classification and mass concentration calculation algorithm for real-time data processing and aerosol products in Korea Aerosol Lidar Observation Network (KALION, http://www.kalion.kr). The KALION algorithm provides aerosol-cloud classification and three aerosol types (clean continental, dust, and polluted continental/urban pollution aerosols). It also generates vertically resolved distributions of aerosol extinction coefficient and mass concentration. An extinction-to-backscatter ratio (lidar ratio) of 63.31 sr and aerosol mass extinction efficiency of $3.36m^2g^{-1}$ ($1.39m^2g^{-1}$ for dust), determined from co-located sky radiometer and $PM_{10}$ mass concentration measurements in Seoul from June 2006 to December 2015, are deployed in the algorithm. To assess the robustness of the algorithm, we investigate the pollution and dust events in Seoul on 28-30 March, 2015. The aerosol-type identification, especially for dust particles, is agreed with the official Asian dust report by Korean Meteorological Administration. The lidar-derived mass concentrations also well match with $PM_{10}$ mass concentrations. Mean bias difference between $PM_{10}$ and lidar-derived mass concentrations estimated from June 2006 to December 2015 in Seoul is about $3{\mu}g\;m^{-3}$. Lidar ratio and aerosol mass extinction efficiency for each aerosol types will be developed and implemented into the KALION algorithm. More products, such as ice and water-droplet cloud discrimination, cloud base height, and boundary layer height will be produced by the KALION algorithm.

Effect of Freshwater Discharge on the Seawater Quality (Nutrients, Organic Materials and Trace Metals) in Cheonsu Bay (여름철 천수만 해수에서 담수 대량 방류에 따른 영양염, 유기물 및 미량금속의 변화)

  • LEE, JI-YOON;CHOI, MAN-SIK;SONG, YUNHO
    • The Sea
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.519-534
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    • 2019
  • When the fresh water from the artificial lakes (Ganwolho and Bunamho) were discharged to Cheonsu Bay in summer to prevent the flood over the reclaimed farmland near the lakes, the impact on water qualities (nutrients, organic matters, trace metals) within the bay was investigated through four surveys (June, July, August and October, 2011). Dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) increased about as much as 3-4 times over the whole water column when the freshwater was discharged. And the main species composition of DIN changed from ammonia to nitrate. Dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP) decreased as much as 2 times in surface waters, but increased as much as 1.5 times in deep waters, and also silicate concentrations increased as much as 3-4 times in deep waters of the inner bay. The N/P ratios in Chunsu bay seawaters were much higher (2 to 7 times) than the Redfield ratio when the freshwaters were discharged, which indicated the phosphorus limiting in the phytoplankton growth. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and nitrogen (DON) increased as much as about 2 times. In addition, particulate organic matters (POC, PON, POP, Bio-Si) increased as much as above 2 times in the surface waters of the inner bay. Trace metals (Fe, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu) increased in the surface waters of the inner bay, but dissolved Cd concentrations decreased as much as 2 times. Therefore, when the contaminated fresh waters from the artificial lakes were discharged into the bay, nutrients, organic matters and trace metals generally increased compared to normal period. Since the phytoplankton bloom occurred in the surface waters of the inner bay, dissolved oxygens at the surface waters were oversaturated and hence hypoxic in the deep waters. Highly enriched nutrients concentrations were found in deep waters of the inner bay, which was accompanied with the hypoxic condition. Finally, the water quality in the inner bay of the Chunsu bay was deteriorated from less than grade 3 in normal periods to grade 5 when the freshwaters from the artificial lakes were discharged in summer.

Effect of Eddy on the Cycle of 210Po and 234 in the central Region of Korean East Sea (동해 중부해역에서 210Po과 234Th의 순환에 대한 소용돌이의 영향)

  • YANG, HAN SOEB;KIM, SOUNG SOO;LEE, JAE CHUL
    • 한국해양학회지
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.279-287
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    • 1995
  • The vertical profiles of natural 210Pb, 210Po and 234Th activities were measured for the upper 100 m of water column at three stations in the middle region of the Korean East Sea during May 1992. And the distribution of these radionuclides was discussed associated with the formation of warm eddy or water mass. The main thermocline was maintained between the depth of 50 and 100 m at the southern station (Sta. A1), and between the depth of 10 to 50 m at the coastal station of Sockcho (Sta. B10). Contrastingly, a main thermocline at Sta. A10, which locates near the center of warm eddy, was observed below 230 m depth. Between 50 and 220 m depth of Sta. A10 is there a relatively homogeneous water mass of 10.1${\pm}$0.5$^{\circ}C$, which is significantly higher in temperature and lower in nutrient than the other two stations. It seems to be due to sinking of the warm surface water in which nutrients were completely consumed. Both 210Pb and 210Po show the highest concentration at Sta. A1 and the lowest at Sta. B10 among the three stations. Also, the 210Pb activity is generally higher in the upper layer than in the lower layer, while 210Po activity represents the reversed pattern at all three stations. At Sta. A1 and Sta. B10, the activities of 210Po relative to its parent 210Pb were deficient in the water column above the main thermocline, but were excess below the thermocline. However, the station near the center of warm eddy(Sta. A10), shows no excess of 210Po in the depths below 50 m, although its defficiency is found in the upper layer like the other stations. At Sta. A1 and b10. 234Th activities are slightly lower in the surface mixed layer than in the deeper region However, at Sta. A10, 234Th activity in the upper 30 m is higher than below 50 m or in the same depth of the other stations, probably because of the high concentration of particulate matter. The residence time of 210Po in the surface mixed layer at Sta. A10 is 0.4 year, much shorter than at the other two stations(about one year). Above 100 m depth, the residence times of 234Th range from 18 to 30 other two stations(about on year). Above 100 m depth, the residence times of 234Th range from 18 to 30 days at all stations, without significant regional variation. The percentages of recycled 210Po within the thermocline are 39% and 92% at Sta. A1 and Sta. B10, respectively. Much higher value at Sta. B10 may be due to a thin thickness of the mixed layer as well as the slower recycling rate of 210Po in the main thermocline.

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