• Title, Summary, Keyword: Particulate matter

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Management of Cancer Risk Caused by Motor Vehicle in a Large City (대도시 자동차 배출가스의 발암위해 관리 방안)

  • 김강석
    • Environmental health and toxicology
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    • v.13 no.1_2
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    • pp.27-31
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    • 1998
  • Motor vehicle exhaust is the major cause to the air contamination in Seoul. It includes many toxic chemicals to human health such as aidehyde, PAHs, benzene, xylene, toluene, benzo[a]pyrene, nickel, arsenic and cadmium in gasoline exhaust and formaldehyde, PAHs, 1,3-butadiene, benzene and particulate matter in diesel exhaust. Some chemicals out of them are classified as a human carcinogen. Many large diesel vehicles such as buses and trucks are drivened frequently in Seoul so that the air in Seoul is seriously contaminated by diesel exhaust, especially particulate matter. The amounts of particulate matter from large diesel vehicles may be estimated to be more than 50% of small dust in Seoul. The particles of particulate matter are coated with many toxic chemicals and some of these are considered as a human carcinogen. The cancer risk has to be throughly managed because the population density of Seoul is very high. Government should list hazardous air pollutants in Seoul, assess the exposure of people to toxic pollutants, especially carcinogens and manage human health risk.

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Size Distribution Characteristics of Particulate Matter Emitted from Cooking (조리과정에서 생성된 미세먼지의 크기분포 특성)

  • Joo, Sang-Woo;Ji, Jun-Ho
    • Particle and aerosol research
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.9-17
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    • 2020
  • The characteristics of particulate matter made from daily cooking at a Korean residential apartment house with three dwellers had been investigated for about 3 months. All data were recorded by an optical particle counter every minute at the kitchen. Types of cooking such as boiling, frying, and grilling that performed in the house were listed. Boiling only was used in 32% cases among total 234 meals. Frying and grilling were 14% and 11%, respectively. From an initial indoor particulate matter smaller than 10 ㎛ in diameter, the increases due to cooking are reported by size. In case of boiling, PM at 1-10 ㎛ size and under 1 ㎛ size little increased. Normally, particles from oil or combustion in a process of frying or grilling increased indoor PM. In a case of grilling, particle mass concentration in a region of 1-10 ㎛ in diameter increased as much as 295 ㎍/㎥. Mass concentration of particles smaller than 1 ㎛ increased as much as 33 ㎍/㎥.

Particulate Matter Prediction using Multi-Layer Perceptron Network (다층 퍼셉트론 신경망을 이용한 미세먼지 예측)

  • Cho, Kyoung-woo;Jung, Yong-jin;Kang, Chul-gyu;Oh, Chang-heon
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Information and Commucation Sciences Conference
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    • pp.620-622
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    • 2018
  • The need for particulate matter prediction algorithms has increased as social interest in the effects of human on particulate matter increased. Many studies have proposed statistical modelling and machine learning techniques based prediction models using weather data, but it is difficult to accurately set the environment and detailed conditions of the models. In addition, there is a need to design a new prediction model for missing data in domestic weather monitoring station. In this paper, fine dust prediction is performed using multi-layer perceptron network as a previous study for particulate matter prediction. For this purpose, a prediction model is designed based on weather data of three monitoring station and the suitability of the algorithm for particulate matter prediction is evaluated through comparison with actual data.

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Conformity Assessment of Machine Learning Algorithm for Particulate Matter Prediction (미세먼지 예측을 위한 기계 학습 알고리즘의 적합성 평가)

  • Cho, Kyoung-woo;Jung, Yong-jin;Kang, Chul-gyu;Oh, Chang-heon
    • Journal of the Korea Institute of Information and Communication Engineering
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.20-26
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    • 2019
  • Due to the human influence of particulate matter, various studies are being conducted to predict it using past data measured in the atmospheric environment monitoring network. However, it is difficult to precisely set the measurement environment and detailed conditions of the previously designed predictive model, and it is necessary to design a new predictive model based on the existing research results because of the problems such as the missing of the weather data. In this paper, as a previous study for particulate matter prediction, the conformity of the algorithm for particulate matter prediction was evaluated by designing the prediction model through the multiple linear regression and the artificial neural network, which are machine learning algorithms. As a result of the prediction performance comparison through RMSE, 18.13 for the MLR model and 14.31 for the MLP model, and the artificial neural network model was more conformable for predicting the particulate matter concentration.

Determinants of Preventive Behavior Intention to the Particulate Matter: An Application of the Expansion of Health Belief Model (미세먼지 예방행동의도 결정요인: 건강신념모델 확장을 중심으로)

  • Chung, Donghun
    • Journal of Digital Convergence
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    • v.17 no.8
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    • pp.471-479
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    • 2019
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the determinants of preventive behavior intention to the particulate matter. The results based on the survey of 280 university students showed that the perceived susceptibility and barriers to the particulate matter do not have statistically significant effects on the preventive behavior intention. However, perceived severity and benefits, subjective norm, and self-efficacy to the particulate matter had statistically significant positive effects on the preventive behavior intention. The results of this study suggested that communication strategies to increase perceived severity and benefits, subjective norm and self-efficacy should be required to improve the degree of preventive behavior intention to the particulate matter of college students. It is expected to contribute explaining preventive actions against environmental hazards such as air pollution in the future.

Evaluation of Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals-Complex Mixture in Diesel Exhaust Respirable Particulate Matter

  • Ryu, Byung-Tak;Jang, Hyoung-Seok;Kim, Yun-Hee;Kim, Soung-Ho;Lee, Do-Han;Han, Kyu-Tae;Oh, Seung-Min;Chung, Kyu-Hyuck
    • Proceedings of the Korea Society of Environmental Toocicology Conference
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    • pp.195-195
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    • 2003
  • It is well known that diesel exhaust particulate matter contains mutagenic PAHs, such as benzo[${\alpha}$]pyrene, benz[${\alpha}$]anthracene, chrysene, etc. Therefore it is suspected that these chemicals act on estrogen receptor and reveal endocrine-disrupting effects. Recent attention has focused on causative chemicals of endocrine-disrupting effects. We examined the estrogenic activity of respirable diesel exhaust particulate matter derived from diesel powered vehicle. PM2.5 diesel exhaust of vehicle was collected using a high volume sampler equipped with a cascade impactor. Diesel exhaust samples were fractionated according to EPA methods. The presence of estrogenic and antiestrogenic chemicals in PM 2.5 diesel exhaust was determined using E-screen assay. To quantitatively assess the estrogenic and antiestrogenic activities in diesel exhaust particulate matter, estradiol equivalent concentration (bio-EEQ) was calculated by comparing the concentration response curve of the sample with those of the estrogen calibration curve. Weak estrogenic activities and strong antiestrogenic activities were detected in the crude extract and moderately polar fractions. Higher antiestrogenic potency was observed with higher EROD activities in aliphatic and aromatic compounds fraction. In conclusion, estrogenic/antiestrogenic-like activities were present in diesel exhaust particulate matter. However, the health consequences of this observation was unknown, the presence of these activities may contribute to and exacerbate adverse health effect evoked by diesel exhaust particulate matter.

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A Study on the Development of a Modular Multimedia Instruction Materials for the 1.earning of Molecular Unit in Nature Instruction of Elementary School (초등학교 자연과의 분자 단원 학습을 위한 모듈식 멀티미디어 교수학습 자료 개발 연구)

  • 박종욱;김도욱
    • Journal of Korean Elementary Science Education
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.101-112
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    • 2000
  • The purpose of this study was to develop the modular multimedia instructional materials emphasizing the particulate nature on the realm of matter in elementary science classes. Features of the material are as follows: 1 To be in focus on particulate model named 'phenomenal magnifying glasses' in order to change the student's belief system of continuous matter into the belief system of particulate matter . The 'phenomenal magnifying glasses' is a new instructional strategy designed to change into the view of particulate matter through facilitating the reflective thinking resulted from the simultaneous consideration of experimental phenomena(macroscopic world) and particulate model(microscopic world). 2. To introduce modular system into the instructional materials, which was consisted of 14 subunits according to the sequential instruction unit of 'molecule and molecular motion'. Each subunit was composed of 5 types of modules(module 1: motivation, module 2: experimental result, module 3: discussion, module 4: phenomenal magnifying glasses, module 5: related experiment) 3. The multimedia program was composed of 36 kinds of experimental animation and 59 kinds of computer animation materials combined with text resources, photographic materials and sounds.

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Spatial and Temporal Variations of δ13C and C/N in Suspended Particulate Organic Matter in the Gangneung Namdae Stream, Korea (강릉 남대천 부유입자유기물의 탄소안정동위원소 비와 C/N 비의 시·공간 변동)

  • Kwak, Jung Hyun;Park, Hyun Je
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.29 no.5
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    • pp.531-539
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    • 2020
  • To understand the composition, quantity, and quality of Suspended Particulate Organic Matter (SPOM) in the Gangneung Namdae Stream, Korea, we examined spatiotemporal variations in water temperature, salinity, chlorophlly a (Chl a), Particulate Organic Carbon (POC) and nitrogen (PON), and carbon stable isotope (δ13C) of SPOM at six stations in June (pre-monsoon), July (monsoon), and September (post-monsoon) 2017. With increasing precipitation, the average POC and C/N values increased significantly in July than in June. In September, the values decreased with decreasing precipitation. The δ13C values showed irregular spatiotemporal fluctuations among the stations and periods, thereby suggesting a greater contribution of autochthonous organic matter to the pool of SPOM than that of allochthonous organic matter derived from upstream. In addition, the large and irregular changes in POC, C/N ratio, C:Chl a, and δ13C compared to that of PON were observed for all periods among the stations, indicating a serial discontinuity of the stream. Our results suggest that the Gangneung Namdae Stream is significantly influenced by the increase in freshwater discharge caused by heavy rainfalls during the summer monsoon and post-monsoon periods.

Biogenic Particulate Matter Accumulation in Peter the Great Bay, East Sea (Japan Sea)

  • Hong, Gi-Hoon;Park, Sun-Kyu;Chung, Chang-Soo;Kim, Suk-Hyun;Tkalin, Alexander V.;Lishavskaya, Tatiana S.
    • Journal of the korean society of oceanography
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    • v.31 no.3
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    • pp.134-143
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    • 1996
  • Sediment cores were collected from one site each in Amursky and Ussuriysky Bays in the Peter the great Bay for $^{210}Pb$, org C, N, biogenic Si, ${\delta}^{13}$C and ${\delta}^{15}$N analysis to elucidate the processes of biogenic particulate matter accumulation and early diagenetic change in the upper sediment column. Biogeochemistry at the core sites of both bays shows differences in sedimentation rate, sediment mixing, and diagenetic processes of particulate biogenic matter. Sedimentary organic matter at the core sites in both bays appeared to be largely derived from marine origin. Sedimentation rates are 173 and 118 mg $cm^{-2}$ $yr^{-1}$(0.13 and 0.11 cm $yr^{-1}$) in Amursky and Ussuriysky Bays, respectively. The surface mixed layer in the core top was present in Amursky Bay but not in Ussuriysky Bay. At the core site in Amursky Bay, incorporation of biogenic particulate matter into the sediment from the overlying waters is 236, 19, 142 mmol $cm^{-2}$ $yr^{-1}$ for organic C, N, and biogenic Si, respectively. Of which about 70${\%}$ of organic C and biogenic Si are degraded within the upper 25 cm sediment and the rest are buried at 25 cm sediment horizon. At the core site in Ussuriysky Bay, incorporation of biogenic particulate matter into the sediment from overlying waters is 164, 18, 76 mmol $cm^{-2}$ $yr^{-1}$ for organic C, N, and biogenic Si, respectively. Of which less than 50${\%}$ of organic C and biogenic Si are degraded within the upper 25 cm sediment and the remainder are buried at 25 cm sediment horizon. This large difference of degradation of biogenic matter in the upper 25 cm sediment column appears to be resulted from the difference in sediment mixing rates between the two cores.

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