• Title, Summary, Keyword: Particulate matter

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An Experimental Study on Thermal Regeneration of Filter Trap by Diesel Engine Performance and Characteristics of Exhaust Pipe (디젤기관의 성능과 배기관 특성에 의한 필터트랩의 열재생에 관한 실험적 연구)

  • 오용석
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Manufacturing Technology Engineers
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.50-55
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    • 1999
  • The exhaust emissions from diesel vehicle are known to be harmful to human health and environment. Recently, one of the most environment problems is particulate matter. In this study, through the actual exper iment and heat transfer of exhaust pipe in light duty diesel engine equipped with the ceramic filter trap of throttling type, following results are obtained. 1. In case of light duty diesel engine equipped with ceramic filter trap of throttling type, Power and torque of engine were decreased about 5%, compared with the case without trap system. It means that was not so much effect on base engine performance.2. If the length of exhaust pipe when equipping with ceramic filter trap is suitably controlled, the range of regeneration will be expand much more.3. Particulate matter reduction efficiency of ceramic filter trap system was about 70%-80%, so it was proved a good system to reduce particulate matter.In experiment, test was conducted to estimate engine emission in 2,476cc light duty diesel engine which was equipped with ceramic filter trap.

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Experimental Study on the Size Distribution of Diesel Particulate Matter (DPM) (디젤 입자상물질의 크기분포 특성에 관한 실험적 연구)

  • 연익준;권순박;이규원
    • Journal of environmental and Sanitary engineering
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.11-17
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    • 2002
  • Diesel particulate matter (DPM) is known to be one of the major harmful emissions produced by diesel engines. The majority of diesel particles are in the range of smaller than $I{\mu}\textrm{m}$. Because of their tiny volume, ultrafine diesel particles contribute very little to the total mass concentration which is currently regulated for automobile emissions. Diesel particles are known to have deleterious effects upon human health because they penetrate human respiratory tract and have negative effects on the health. The measurement of the number distribution of nanometer size particles (nanoparticles) in the diesel exhaust emission is important in order to evaluate their environmental and health impact, and to develop new types of diesel particulate filters. In this study, we directly sampled particulate matters emitted from a diesel truck mounted on the chassis dynamometer by a flow separator and dilution system, and measured the nanoparticles using two types of differential mobility analyzers combined with a Faraday cup electrometer (FCE) and a condensation particle counter (CPC). The particle size distributions were analyzed by changing engine operation condition, i.e. ratio of engine loading. The total number concentration of particles were increased with the engine loading ratio and the nanoparticles (less than 50nm) were affected by hydrocarbon (HC) concentration in the diesel exhaust.

Characteristic comparison of Andersen and total suspended particulate samplers in a particulate matter generation chamber (입자 발생 챔버를 이용한 Andersen과 총분진 시료채취기의 특성 비교)

  • Park, Ju-Myon
    • Journal of Korean Society of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.177-184
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    • 2008
  • The purpose of this study was to compare the performance characteristics of Andersen and total suspended particulate (TSP) samplers in terms of particle size distribution (PSD) and mass sampling efficiency. In the present study, two Andersen and four TSP samplers were selected and tested to quantitatively estimate human exposure to fly ash representing industrial particulate matter (PM) in a carefully controlled chamber. The PSD characteristics, a mass median aerodynamic diameter and a geometric standard deviation, were found from the sampled PM of airborne samplers in the chamber. An Andersen sampler was compared with a TSP sampler quantified by a coulter counter multisizer, as a reference sampler, to describe the correlation of mass sampling efficiencies between two types of samplers. Overall results indicate that Andersen samplers overestimated small PM due to particle bounce phenomena between impaction stages. There was reasonably good correlation ($R^2$ = 0.89 and 0.91) between the mass sampling efficiencies of Andersen and TSP samplers during the two tests. However, the lower values of slope (0.71 and 0.72) in two tests showed that the Andersen sampler underestimated PM (> AD $10.1\;{\mu}m$) with sufficient inertia due to a relatively lower Andersen inlet velocity at 0.8 m/s comparing with the operating air velocity at 2.1 m/s in the sampling zone of a chamber.

Characteristics of Particle Size Distributions Generated in the Vicinity of Building Blasting Demolition Sites (발파해체현장에서 발생하는 순간분진의 입경분포 특성)

  • Lee, Kyoung-Hee;Kim, Hyo-Jin;Park, Chan-Gyu;Ko, Kwang-Baik
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.41-47
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    • 2009
  • In building demolition work, major dust-generating activities are blasting concrete and rock. The aim of this study was to find the characteristic of particle size of dusts which were generated during building demolition work using explosion. The DustMate of the Turnkey-Instruments Ltd. was used for particulate size-selective sampling of the four sites. TSP(Total Suspended Particle), PM10(Particle Matter $10{\mu}m$), PM2.5(Particle Matter $2.5{\mu}m$), and PM1.0(Particle Matter $1.0{\mu}m$) were measured during building demolition work using explosion. The large particulate (higher than the diameter $10{\mu}m$) showed to be higher than 50%. The particulate ranged from $10{\mu}m\;to\;2.5{\mu}m$ showed about 30-40%. PM2.5 was not scarcely detected in the samples collected for building demolition work using explosion. We conclude that the dust generated during building demolition work using explosion has not most respirable particulate.

Effects of Upwelling/Downwelling on Suspended Particulate Matter Distributions over Shelf Mud Areas: Numerical Experiments

  • Gao, Shu;Jia, Jian-Jun
    • Journal of the korean society of oceanography
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    • v.37 no.3
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    • pp.178-186
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    • 2002
  • The mud deposit located to the south of Cheju Island, the East China Sea, is characterized by an upwelling system or, on occasions, a combined upwelling-downwelling system. The water mass here is associated with relatively high suspended matter concentrations. In the present study, a vertical I-D model is used to undertake numerical experiments for evaluating the upwelling and downwelling effects on the suspended particulate matter distribution patterns within the water column. The results show that: (1) because the upwelling or downwelling velocity tends to be of the same order of magnitude as the settling velocity of suspended particles, a number of different patterns of suspended matter concentration distribution are possible, depending on the relative importance of the velocities; (2) the presence of upwelling can enhance the suspended particulate matter concentration; and (3) in an upwelling-downwelling system, maximum concentrations may or may not lie in the middle of the water column, depending on, once again, the interrelationships between the opwelling/downwelling velocities and the settling velocity. Hence, the physical processes associated with upwelling/downwelling appear to be relevant to the suspended material distribution over shelf mud areas.

Evaluation of Environmental Mutagens-Complex Mixture in Diesel Exhaust Respirable Particulate Matter

  • Kim, Soung-Ho;Ryu, Byung-Tak;Jang, Hyoung-Seok;Kim, Yun-Hee;Lee, Do-Han;Han, Kyu-Tae;Oh, Seung-Min;Chung, Kyu-Hyuck
    • Proceedings of the Korea Society of Environmental Toocicology Conference
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    • pp.194-194
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    • 2003
  • The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC, 1989) has classified whole diesel exhaust as probably carcinogenic to humans. Diesel exhaust particulate matter (DPM) adsorbs different chemical substances including PAHs and nitroarenes. DPM is emphasized because it is a major component of diesel exhaust, it is suspected of contributing to a health hazard. Diesel exhaust is a complex mixture of carbon particles and associated organics and inorganics, and it is not known what fraction or combination of fractions cause the health effects [cancer effects, noncancer effects (respiratory tract irritation/inflammation and changes in lung function)] that have been observed with exposure to diesel exhaust. In order to identify which chemical classes are responsible for the majority of the observed biological activities, we performed a particular biological/chemical analysis. Respirable particulate matter (PM2.5: <2.5mm) was collected from diesel engine exhaust using a high-volume sampler equipped with a cascade impactor. Particulate oganic matter was extracted by the dichloromethane/sonication method and the crude extract was fractionated according to EPA recommended procedure into seven fractions by acid-base partitioning and silica gel column chromatography. We examined genotoxic potentials of diesel exhaust particulate matter using novel genotoxicity tests, which are rapid, simple and sensitive methods for assessing DNA-damage at the DNA and chromosomal level (comet assay, in vitro MN test and Ames test). Higher genotoxic potency was observed in non polar fractions and several PAHs were detected by GC-MS, such as 1,2,5,6 dibenzanthracene, chrysene, 1,2-benzanthracene, phenanthrene and fluoranthene.

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Distribution of Concentration and Emission of Dust according to Types of Poultry Buildings in Korea (국내 계사(鷄舍) 작업장 유형에 따른 분진 농도 및 발생량 분포)

  • Kim, Ki Youn
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.43 no.3
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    • pp.185-193
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    • 2017
  • Objectives: An on-site study was conducted in order to quantify indoor exposure levels and the emission rate of particulate matter for domestic poultry buildings. Materials and methods: Three types of poultry building (caged layer house, broiler house, and layer house with manure belt) as classified by mode of manure treatment and ventilation were investigated in this study. Nine sites per each poultry building were selected and visited for measuring exposure levels and emission rate of particulate matter. Total dust and respirable dust among the particulate matter were analyzed based on the weight method. Emission rates were estimated by dividing emission amount, which was calculated through multiplying indoor concentration ($mg/m^3$), by the ventilation rate ($m^3/h$), into indoor area ($m^2$) and number of poultry reared in the poultry building. Results: Mean exposure levels for total dust and respirable dust in the poultry buildings were $3.91({\pm}1.99)mg/m^3$ and $1.99({\pm}0.89)mg/m^3$, respectively. The emission rates of particulate matter in the poultry buildings were estimated as $4.75({\pm}1.22)mg\;head^{-1}h^{-1}$ and $64.39({\pm}24.95)g\;m^{-2}h^{-1}$ for total dust and $0.58({\pm}0.23)mg\;head^{-1}h^{-1}$ and $7.52({\pm}2.51)mg\;m^{-2}h^{-1}$ for respirable dust, respectively. The distribution patterns for total dust and respirable dust were similar regardless of poultry building type. Among poultry buildings, broiler house showed the highest exposure level and emission rate of total dust and respirable dust, followed by layer house with manure belt and caged layer house. Conclusions: The finding that the broiler house showed the highest exposure level and emission rate of particulate matter can be attributed to sawdust utilized as bedding material, which can be dispersed into the air by movements of the chickens. Thus, a work environmental management solution for optimally reducing dust concentrations is necessary for broiler houses.

Harmfulness of Particulate Matter in Disease Progression (미세먼지의 질병에 미치는 유해성)

  • Choi, Jong Kyu;Choi, In Soon;Cho, Kwang Keun;Lee, Seung Ho
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.191-201
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    • 2020
  • As society develops rapidly, environmental pollution is becoming a greater risk factor threatening human health. One of the major causes of air pollution that affects human health is particulate matter (PM), which contains a heterogeneous mixture of different particle sizes and chemical compositions. PM is classified by size into general PM (PM10; diameter below 10 ㎛) and fine PM (PM2.5; diameter below 2.5 ㎛). PM2.5 can pass through the respiratory tract into the circulatory system and thence throughout the body. PM2.5 is known to stimulate oxidative stress and inflammatory responses to cells, promoting diseases such as asthma, chronic respiratory disease, cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, and immunological disorders. Although detailed molecular mechanisms for how PM stimulates disease progression still need to be elucidated, together with national efforts to reduce PM production, significant research has been conducted that demonstrates the harmfulness of PM in disease progression through in vitro and in vivo experiments. This review focuses on the harmfulness of PM in disease progression; we also introduce a biological verification method for determining the hazards of PM.

Numerical Study of Impact for Particulate Matter Reduction Device According to Installation of Perforated Plate and Mixer on Marine Diesel Engine (선박용 디젤엔진의 미세먼지저감 장치에 다공판과 믹서의 장착이 미치는 영향에 대한 수치해석적 연구)

  • Yun, Byoungkyu;Cho, Sanghyun;Ryu, Younghyun
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Marine Environment & Safety
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    • v.25 no.7
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    • pp.968-973
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    • 2019
  • This study presents the characteristics of a pressure drop and uniformity index for a particulate matter reduction device with a perforated plate and mixer for marine diesel engines. The perforated plate and mixer equipped on the particulate matter reduction device induce an increase of exhaust gas reduction performance by increasing the uniformity index. Whereas, the perforated plate induces pressure drop increases in the particulate matter reduction device. Therefore to calculate the effect of the uniformity index and pressure drop of the perforated plates and mixer, this study combines several cases using five types of perforated plates and one type of mixer. Consequently, these results were analyzed to determine the optimized type and position of the perforated plate and mixer.

The Forest Experience on Kindergarten Children's Mother's Analysis of Differences in Perception Between Forest and Fine Particulate Matter (유치원 아동 어머니들의 숲체험에 따른 숲과 미세먼지에 대한 인식의 차이 분석)

  • Do, Hyun-Jin;Koo, Chang-Duck
    • Korean Journal of Environment and Ecology
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    • v.32 no.5
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    • pp.541-552
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    • 2018
  • This study investigated for perception about particulate matter in daily lives of mothers who have children aged from three to five years old and the difference of perception after participating in forest experience programs. The data were compiled from 122 mothers of preschoolers composed by 61 mothers who participated in the forest experience and those who did not. 82.8 percent of 122 mothers were concerned with particulate matters, and 84.4 percent frequently checked information on particulate matters. However, they lacked knowledge, countermeasures, and active practice to reduce it. Awareness of forest and fine particulate matter was high among mothers who had participated in the forest experience, with a high positive perception of forest role and forest environment. Therefore, expanding the opportunity for mothers to actively experience forest will contribute not only the forest experience in infants being activated but also to improve harmful environment such as fine particulate matter.