• Title, Summary, Keyword: Passive Microwave Sensor

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Development of Energy Saving System Using the Microwave Sensor (마이크로웨이브 센서를 이용한 에너지 절약시스템 개발)

  • Jung, Soon-Won;Lee, Jae-Jin;Koo, Kyung-Wan
    • The Transactions of the Korean Institute of Electrical Engineers P
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    • v.57 no.4
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    • pp.404-407
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    • 2008
  • Because of directly receiving the thing in which a microwave is reflected and comparing the frequency, the microwave sensor with doppler effect completely overcomes the problem of the passive infrared sensor. The microwave sensor with doppler effect well operates about a temperature, the dust, and the peripheral noise because of being dull in the most of ambient conditions. The system developed in this research is the electricity saving detection sensor which it senses the real time action of a man as the microwave sensor and automatically turns on the electric lamp and turns off, minimizes the electrical energy consumption. Since the microwave sensor is not influenced in the light, the dust, and the natural element like the ambient temperature, the effectiveness is considered to be superior to the passive infrared sensor being used currently. There was the energy reduction effect more than about 60% in the performed example which established this system. When this was compared with the construction cost, the cost of establishing payback period was about 1-1.5 year. The microwave sensor with doppler effect developed from this research result is convinced in the future to do enough for the electric energy saving.

Abnormal Winter Melting of the Arctic Sea Ice Cap Observed by the Spaceborne Passive Microwave Sensors

  • Lee, Seongsuk;Yi, Yu
    • Journal of Astronomy and Space Sciences
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    • v.33 no.4
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    • pp.305-311
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    • 2016
  • The spatial size and variation of Arctic sea ice play an important role in Earth's climate system. These are affected by conditions in the polar atmosphere and Arctic sea temperatures. The Arctic sea ice concentration is calculated from brightness temperature data derived from the Defense Meteorological Satellite program (DMSP) F13 Special Sensor Microwave/Imagers (SSMI) and the DMSP F17 Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder (SSMIS) sensors. Many previous studies point to significant reductions in sea ice and their causes. We investigated the variability of Arctic sea ice using the daily sea ice concentration data from passive microwave observations to identify the sea ice melting regions near the Arctic polar ice cap. We discovered the abnormal melting of the Arctic sea ice near the North Pole during the summer and the winter. This phenomenon is hard to explain only surface air temperature or solar heating as suggested by recent studies. We propose a hypothesis explaining this phenomenon. The heat from the deep sea in Arctic Ocean ridges and/or the hydrothermal vents might be contributing to the melting of Arctic sea ice. This hypothesis could be verified by the observation of warm water column structure below the melting or thinning arctic sea ice through the project such as Coriolis dataset for reanalysis (CORA).

Design and Implementation of the Small Size Microwave Sensor Receiver for Human Body Detection (인체 감지용 소형 마이크로파 센서 수신기의 설계 및 제작)

  • Son, Hong-Min;Choi, Hyun-Ho
    • The Journal of Korean Institute of Electromagnetic Engineering and Science
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.403-406
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    • 2016
  • This paper presents the design and implementation of the small size receiver to put a passive microwave sensor for human body detection to practical use. The requirements and specifications of the sensor receiver are drawn using the experimental data of human body detection by the existing sensor operated at 5.1 GHz. The small size sensor receiver to satisfy the drawn specifications is designed and implemented. The effectiveness of the fabricated sensor with small size receiver on human body detection is demonstrated experimentally in laboratory. The results show the sensor can detect human body to within 4 m distance from the antenna. The size and power consumption of the small size receiver are decreased to 60 % and 40 % compared to those of the existing receiver, respectively.

A Study on a Human Body Detection Sensor Using Microwave Radiometer Technologies (마이크로파 라디오미터 기술을 응용한 인체 감지 센서에 관한 연구)

  • Son, Hong-Min;Park, Hong-Kyun
    • The Journal of the Korea institute of electronic communication sciences
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    • v.10 no.3
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    • pp.333-340
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    • 2015
  • In this paper, we propose a passive microwave sensor for detecting human body using microwave radiometer technologies. The proposed sensor detects human body by measuring the change of the received radiation power from fixed background object due to human body. A C-band microwave radiometer is designed and implemented. The received radiation power changes due to human body is measured by the C-band microwave radiometer, and the effectiveness of the proposed sensor is evaluated by the measurement result analysis.

Development of Simple Structure Microwave Sensor (구조가 간단한 마이크로파 센서 개발)

  • Jung, Soon-Won;Lee, Jae-Jin;Koo, Kyung-Wan
    • The Transactions of the Korean Institute of Electrical Engineers P
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    • v.57 no.3
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    • pp.270-274
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    • 2008
  • The microwave sensor in which the sensitivity was excellent and a structure is simple was developed and it manufactured. And the sensing range that uses the developed product was confirmed. When the developed microwave sensor was set up in the ceiling of a building, we confirmed that the amplitude of the sensitive area increased as the tilting angle was enlarged. The sensitive area became a greatest in case the tilting angle was 65 degree. According to the height of a ceiling, because the sensing range is determined, in case of using in the building in which the height of a ceiling is enough secured it is determined to secure the more wide sensitive area. Moreover, the configuration of the circuit having the simple structure makes the miniaturization of a product, and the light weight possible. It is considered to have the price competitive power which it reduces the manufacturing cost, is sufficient.

Antenna sensor skin for fatigue crack detection and monitoring

  • Deshmukh, Srikar;Xu, Xiang;Mohammad, Irshad;Huang, Haiying
    • Smart Structures and Systems
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.93-105
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    • 2011
  • This paper presents a flexible low-profile antenna sensor for fatigue crack detection and monitoring. The sensor was inspired by the sense of pain in bio-systems as a protection mechanism. Because the antenna sensor does not need wiring for power supply or data transmission, it is an ideal candidate as sensing elements for the implementation of engineering sensor skins with a dense sensor distribution. Based on the principle of microstrip patch antenna, the antenna sensor is essentially an electromagnetic cavity that radiates at certain resonant frequencies. By implementing a metallic structure as the ground plane of the antenna sensor, crack development in the metallic structure due to fatigue loading can be detected from the resonant frequency shift of the antenna sensor. A monostatic microwave radar system was developed to interrogate the antenna sensor remotely. Fabrication and characterization of the antenna sensor for crack monitoring as well as the implementation of the remote interrogation system are presented.

Brightness Temperature Retrieval using Direct Broadcast Data from the Passive Microwave Imager on Aqua Satellite

  • Kim, Seung-Bum;Im, Yong-Jo;Kim, Kum-Lan;Park, Hye-Sook;Park, Sung-Ok
    • Korean Journal of Remote Sensing
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.47-55
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    • 2004
  • We have constructed a level-1 processor to generate brightness temperatures using the direct-broadcast data from the passive microwave radiometer onboard Aqua satellite. Although 50-minute half-orbit data, called a granule, are being routinely produced by global data centers, to our knowledge, this is the first attempt to process 10-minute long direct-broadcast (DB) data. We found that the processor designed for a granule needs modification to apply to the DB data. The modification includes the correction to path number, the selection of land mask and the manipulation of dummy scans. Pixel-to-pixel comparison with a reference indicates the difference in brightness temperature of about 0.2 K rms and less than 0.05 K mean. The difference comes from the different length of data between 50-minute granule and about 10-minute DB data. In detail, due to the short data length, DB data do not always have correct cold sky mirror count. The DB processing system is automated to enable the near-real time generation of brightness temperatures within 5 minutes after downlink. Through this work, we would be able to enhance the use of AMSR-E data, thus serving the objective of direct-broadcast.

Validation of Sea Surface Temperature (SST) from Satellite Passive Microwave Sensor (GPM/GMI) and Causes of SST Errors in the Northwest Pacific

  • Kim, Hee-Young;Park, Kyung-Ae;Chung, Sung-Rae;Baek, Seon-Kyun;Lee, Byung-Il;Shin, In-Chul;Chung, Chu-Yong;Kim, Jae-Gwan;Jung, Won-Chan
    • Korean Journal of Remote Sensing
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    • v.34 no.1
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    • pp.1-15
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    • 2018
  • Passive microwave sea surface temperatures (SST) were validated in the Northwest Pacific using a total of 102,294 collocated matchup data between Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) / GPM Microwave Sensor(GMI) data and oceanic in-situ temperature measurements from March 2014 to December 2016. A root-mean-square (RMS) error and a bias error of the GMI SST measurements were evaluated to $0.93^{\circ}C$ and $0.05^{\circ}C$, respectively. The SST differences between GMI and in-situ measurements were caused by various factors such as wind speed, columnar atmospheric water vapor, land contamination near coastline or islands. The GMI SSTs were found to be higher than the in-situ temperature measurements at low wind speed (<6 m/s) during the daytime. As the wind speed increased at night, SST errors showed positive bias. In addition, other factors, coming from atmospheric water vapor, sensitivity degradation at a low temperature range, and land contamination, also contributed to the errors. One of remarkable characteristics of the errors was their latitudinal dependence with large errors at high latitudes above $30^{\circ}N$. Seasonal characteristics revealed that the errors were most frequently observed in winter with a significant positive deviation. This implies that SST errors tend to be large under conditions of high wind speeds and low SSTs. Understanding of microwave SST errors in this study is anticipated to compensate less temporal capability of Infrared SSTs and to contribute to increase a satellite observation rate with time, especially in SST composite process.

VALIDATION OF SEA ICE MOTION DERIVED FROM AMSR-E AND SSM/I DATA USING MODIS DATA

  • Yaguchi, Ryota;Cho, Ko-Hei
    • Proceedings of the KSRS Conference
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    • pp.301-304
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    • 2008
  • Since longer wavelength microwave radiation can penetrate clouds, satellite passive microwave sensors can observe sea ice of the entire polar region on a daily basis. Thus, it is becoming popular to derive sea ice motion vectors from a pair of satellite passive microwave sensor images observed at one or few day interval. Usually, the accuracies of derived vectors are validated by comparing with the position data of drifting buoys. However, the number of buoys for validation is always quite limited compared to a large number of vectors derived from satellite images. In this study, the sea ice motion vectors automatically derived from pairs of AMSR-E 89GHz images (IFOV = 3.5 ${\times}$ 5.9km) by an image-to-image cross correlation were validated by comparing with sea ice motion vectors manually derived from pairs of cloudless MODIS images (IFOV=250 ${\times}$ 250m). Since AMSR-E and MODIS are both on the same Aqua satellite of NASA, the observation time of both sensors are the same. The relative errors of AMSR-E vectors against MODIS vectors were calculated. The accuracy validation has been conducted for 5 scenes. If we accept relative error of less than 30% as correct vectors, 75% to 92% of AMSR-E vectors derived from one scene were correct. On the other hand, the percentage of correct sea ice vectors derived from a pair of SSM/I 85GHz images (IFOV = 15 ${\times}$ 13km) observed nearly simultaneously with one of the AMSR-E images was 46%. The difference of the accuracy between AMSR-E and SSM/I is reflecting the difference of IFOV. The accuracies of H and V polarization were different from scene to scene, which may reflect the difference of sea ice distributions and their snow cover of each scene.

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Analysis of Sea Route to the Jangbogo Antarctic Research Station by using Passive Microwave Sea Ice Concentration Data (수동 마이크로파 해빙 면적비 자료를 이용한 남극 장보고 과학기지로의 항해경로 분석)

  • Kim, Yeonchun;Ji, Yeonghun;Han, Hyangsun;Lee, Joohan;Lee, Hoonyol
    • Korean Journal of Remote Sensing
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    • v.30 no.5
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    • pp.677-686
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    • 2014
  • Sea ice covers wide area in Terra Nova Bay in East Antarctica where the Jangbogo Antarctic Research Station was built in 2014, which affects greatly on the sailing of an icebreaker research vessel. In this study, we analyzed the optimum sea route and sailable period of the icebreaker to visit the Jangbogo Antarctic Research Station by using sea ice concentration data observed by passive microwave sensors such as Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) and Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder (SSMIS) for the last decade, and by using sea route of the Araon, an icebreaker of Republic of Korea, from 2010 to 2012. It is found that Araon sailed in the route of sea ice concentration up to 78%. Sailing speed of the Araon decreased due to increasing sea ice concentration. However, Araon maintained the speed close to the average speed for the entire sailing period (~11 kn) in the route of sea ice concentration up to 70%. Therefore, we confirm that the Araon can sail typically in the route which shows sea ice concentration below 70%. We derived annually available sailing period in recent 10 years for the sea route of the Araon in 2010, 2011 and 2012, which is defined as the period showing sea ice concentration below 70% through the route. Maximum sailable period was analyzed to be 61 and 62 days for the route of the Araon in 2010 and 2011, respectively. However, the typical sailing in the routes was unavailable in some years because sea ice concentration was higher than 70% through the routes. Meanwhile, the sailable period for the routes of the Araon in 2012 was observed in every year, which was a minimum of 15 days and is a maximum of 89 days. Therefore, we could suggest that optimum route of icebreaker to visit the Jangbogo Antarctic Research Station is the route of the Araon in 2012. High resolution images from SAR or optical sensors are necessary to investigate sea ice condition near shoreline of Jangbogo research station due to several kilometers of low resolution of sea ice concentration.