Objectives : The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics of Hwa-Byung(HB) patients, draw the clinical key issue of HB, and provide the data as the basis for development of Clinical Guideline of HB. Methods : The study participants included 151 subjects who thought they have HB in 9 site. For all patients, we used HB epidemiologic study protocol, which include the Korean version of the Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM-IV Diagnosis (SCID-1), diagnostic criteria of HB, symptoms check list, pattern identification tool, psychiastric psychological questionaires, and Framingham coronary risk score(FRS). Results : 1. For all participants, 62 % of subjects were diagnosed with HB. These patients had comorbid DSM-IV diagnoses with depression (65%) and anxiety (27%). But 22% of these patients had only HB. 2. HB patients had various physical symptoms when visiting, were diagnosed as various disease, and undergone medical treatments in the past. Among the diagonsed illness, Gastronitestinal diseases (51.6%), psychiatric disorders(40.9%), endocrine diseases(39.8%) were being the most frequent. The frequent physical symptoms of HB patients reported were chest discomfort, head ache, pallpitation, frequent sigh, amnesia, shoulder pain, dry mouth, eye fatigue etc. 3. HB patients had high scores in psychologic questionares, CES-D, STAI, and STAXI. It means that HB patients might be low-level emotional stability. 4. Participant had negative opinion about the treatment of HB that it would be difficult or impossible (65.7%), but they neglect the need of medical treatment. Conclusions : This result shows that HB is comorbid with various psychiatric disease, but it has different physio-psychological symptoms from others and there were only HB patients. so we identify HB is independent disease. Moreover, there were the wrong perception of HB which blocking treatments. These problems support that the neccesity of development of Clinical Guideline of HB.
Hwang, Ji Hye;Lee, Kwang Ho;Nam, Dong Woo;Yook, Tae-han;Song, Ho Sueb
Korean Journal of Acupuncture
Objectives : The purpose of this study was to investigate the current status of clinical practice for gout in Korean Medicine (KM). Methods : On-line survey was adopted for this study, targeted at KM Doctors who were registered in the Association of Korean Medicine. The questionnaire included the general status of treatment, pattern identification and treatment method according to three stages given: acute, chronic and asymptomatic hyperuricemia stage. Results : Data from a total of 384 respondents was analyzed. Participants who responded most were in their 40s, working in KM clinics located in Seoul. Acupuncture and herbal medicines were the top priority treatments in preparing recommendations in clinical practice guidelines for gout, and where clinical trials were considered essential. As of the past year, the average number of first visits per month was 86.7%, and the average treatment duration was less than 1 month, accounting for 72.9%. As for the diagnostic method used for gout patients, the "diagnosed by clinical pattern" response was the highest, and the "blood and urine test" response was the highest as the diagnostic equipment used. As for the evaluation scale being used, the "VAS/NRS" response was the highest. Regardless of the gout stage, acupuncture was the most commonly used treatment method for gout patients, and bee venom pharmacopuncture was the highest for the pharmacopuncture used. In the case of herbal medicine, it was found that a wider variety of herbal medication uninsured in health insurance and herbal prescription were used for the staged treatment of gout than herbal medication in national health insurance coverage. In clinical practice, "acupuncture treatment three times a week" was the most common, and the "acupoints in the limb" were the most frequently used; LR3 and SP3 were the most frequently used acupoints. Conclusions : It is suggested that this survey should be helpful to develop clinical practice guideline for gout that reflects actual clinical practice.
The characteristics of Jin's ideas on clinic theory can be arranged as follows. 1. Jin emphasized warming and tonifying[溫補] in treatment and the part that shows this the best is the taking care of[調理] the Vital gate[命門], kidney, liver, and spleen. His ideas were based on his understanding of a human life's origin, and was influenced by Seolgi(薛己), Joheon-ga(趙獻可) and Janggaebin(張介賓)'s Vital gate and source Gi theory(元氣說) so scholastically, he has that in common with them but was later criticized by later doctors such as Oksamjon(玉三尊) as an 'literary doctor(文字醫)' who followed the ideas of "Uigwan(醫貫)". 2. The warming and tonifying school[溫補學派], who were influenced by Taoism, said in their theory of disease outbreak[發病學說] that since one must not hurt one's Yin essence and Yang fire [陰精陽火] there is more deficiency than excess, so that was why they used tonifying methods. Jin was also like them and this point of view is universal in internal medicine, gynecology, pediatric medicine and surgery and so on. 3. Jin, who saw the negative form of pulse diagnosis[診脈] emphasized following symptoms over pulse diagnosis using the spirit of ‘finding truth based on truth[實事求是]' in "Maekgyeolcheonmi(脈訣闡微)", but emphasized 'the combination of pulse and symptoms[脈證合參]'. He understood pulse diagnosis as a defining tool for symptoms, and in "Seoksilbirok(石室秘錄)" simplified pulse diagnosis into 10 methods : floating/sunken(浮沉), slow/fast(遲數), large/fine(大小), vacuous/replete(虛實) and slippery/rough(滑澀). 4. Jin used 'large formulas(大方)' a lot that usually featured a large dose, and in " Bonchosinpyeon(本草新編)" he thought of the seven formulas(七方) and ten preparations(十劑) as the standard when using medicine. He did away with old customs and presented a 'new(新)' and 'extra(奇)' point of view. He especially used a lot of Insam(人蔘) when tonifying Gi and Geumeunhwa(金銀花) when treating sores and ulcers. 5. In the area of surgery Jin gave priority to the early finding and treatment of disease with internal treatment[內治] and was against the overuse of acupuncture. However records of surgical measures in a special situation like lung abscesses(肺癰) and liver abscesses(肝癰), and anesthetic measures using 'Manghyeongju(忘形酒)' and 'Singoiyak(神膏異藥)' and opening the abdomen or skull, and organ transplants using a dog's tongue are important data. 6. Jin stated the diseases of Gi and blood broadly. Especially in the principles of treating blood, blood diseases had to be forwarded[順] and Gi regulation[理氣] was the number one priority and stated the following two treatments. First, in "Jeonggiinhyeolpyeon(精氣引血篇)" of volume 6 of "Oegyeongmieon(外經微言)", for the rules for treating blood he stated the pattern identification of finding Gi in blood and blood in Gi. Second, he emphasized Gi regulation(理氣) in blood diseases and stated that the Gi must be tonifyed after finding the source of the loss of blood.
Background : Eye diseases refer to a wide range of disconveniences from conjunctivitis, pterygium, glaucoma to even blindness. Acupuncture has been widely used in Korea throughout the history and provides an efficient method in the treatment of them. Objectives : Establish a distinctive and efficient acupuncture method for the treatment of eye diseases based in literature research. Method : We reviewed four Korean medical literature, "Guide to Swollen Sore Treatment[治腫指南]", "Treasured Mirror of Eastern Medicine[東醫寶鑑]", "Experiential Prescriptions of Acupuncture and Moxibustion[鍼灸經驗方]", and "Essential Rhymes on Acupuncture and Moxibustion by Master Saam[舍岩鍼法]", and analyzed the therapeutic characteristics in the treatment of eye diseases. Result : 1. According to "Guide to Swollen Sore Treatment[治腫指南]", various methods were applied in the treatment of eye diseases. We can cite salt water washing method after needling, pricking bloodletting method using three-edged needle, surgery method using bent needle and lance needle, or sore treatment using sliced bean-curd and ground Aristolochiae Fructus among others. Acupuncture points like GV20[百會], BL1[睛明], EX-HN5[太陽], GB20[風池], GV24[神庭], GB1[瞳子髎], and GB15[臨泣] were mostly needled. 2. In "Treasured Mirror of Eastern Medicine[東醫寶鑑]", pricking bloodletting method were most frequently used in comparison to single acupuncture or moxibustion methods. Applied points were GV20[百會], BL1[睛明], LI4[合谷], EX-HN5[太陽], GB37[光明], BL18[肝兪], GB20[風池], BL2[攢竹], GB1[瞳子髎], and ST36[三里]. Also selections of adjacent points were considered important. 3. In respect to treatment methods "Experiential Prescriptions of Acupuncture and Moxibustion [鍼灸經驗方]" has some similarity to "Treasured Mirror of Eastern Medicine[東醫寶鑑]" as pricking bloodletting method were mostly used. Also focused on normal Qi flow through meridian. Points like BL18[肝兪], BL1[睛明], LU5[尺澤], EX-HN5[太陽], LI4[合谷] were used. 4. "Essential Rhymes on Acupuncture and Moxibustion by Master Saam[校勘舍岩道人鍼法]" considered visceral pattern identification method fundamental in the diagnosis and treatment of eye diseases. Specifically, Liver, Heart, Stomach, Lung, Kidney identification methods are presented. Combined both corresponding and connecting meridians supplementation and draining methods according to mother-child relation. Also Saam master's own experiential prescriptions are noted. Conclusions : After previous study on stroke, we could also find various efficient methods according to eye diseases, through literature research of korean medical classics. This study will concurrently result in establishing distinctive therapeutic method characteristic of Korea.
The Journal of the Society of Stroke on Korean Medicine
Objects : This study propose to compare on general characteristics of acute stroke patients between Fire-Heat group and Deficiency of Yin group. Method : We recruited acute stroke patient within 4 weeks after stroke admitted to Department of Internal Medicine of Kyunghee University Oriental Medicial Center, Dongguk University Ilsan Oriental Medical Center, Kyungwon University Songpa Oriental Medical Centar and Kyungwon University Incheon Oriental Medical Center from April 2007 to August 2009. We investigate age, sex, type of stroke, past history, general characteristics, smoking, drinking alcohol, marriage sasang constitution, etc. Result : It was significant different in sex, smoking, dringking alcohol and marriage between Fire-Heat group and Deficiency Yin group. We need more cases for another result that could associate with diagnosis of stroke. Conclusion : We found that Fire heat group was more associated with lifestyle than deficiency yin group. Further study will be needed to analysis for the diagnosis and the treatments of stroke.
Objectives : The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of Sihogayonggolmoryeo-tang on the anxiety of Hwa-byung. Methods : In this randomized, double blinded, placebo-controlled study, we planned to give Sihogayonggolmoryeo-tang or controlled medication for anxiety of Hwa-byung. Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAM-A) was measured as the 1st evaluative instrument, and Korean State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-K), Likert scale for major symptom of Hwa-byung, Hwa-Byung Scale Score, Korean Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI-K), Korean State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory (STAXI-K), Insomnia severity Index (ISI), Instrument of Oriental Medical Evaluation for Hwa-Byung, WHO Quality of Life Avvreviated (WHOQOL-BREF), genral self-Efficacy Scale (GSES), Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory (SRE) and Heart Rate Variability (HRV) were also measured as the 2nd evaluative instrument before treatment. Results : Clinical characteristics-vital signs and demographic characteristics showed no significant difference between both groups. The characteristics of disease-chief complaint, pattern Identification, period, etiological factor, and etc, also showed similarity of distribution in both groups. The results of Chest PA, EKG and clinicopathologic examination showed no significant difference between both groups. There were no significant difference between both groups in all valuation scales; HAM-A was measured as the first evaluative instrument, and STAI-K, Likert scale for major symptom of Hwa-byung, Hwa-Byung Scale Score, BDI-K, STAXI-K, ISI, Instrument of Oriental Medical Evaluation for Hwa-Byung, WHOQOL-BREF, GSES, SRE and HRV. Conclusions : We considered that establishment of the experimental group and controlled group was objective and worth conducting this research. In addition, this methodology is expected to be applied to the subsequent research. Further, we hope to make up for this study through various study and discussion.
Jung, Kyung Sik;Kim, Yun Young;Baek, Young Hwa;Jang, Eunsu
Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
This study was aimed to reveal that the usual cold or heat state was associated with hypertension and could be a risk. We emailed educational personnel in D university to join this study and 182 subjects participated in from March to December in 2016. The usual cold or heat diagnosis was conducted by two experts who had over 10 years expertise. The blood pressure was measured from the subjected after 10 minute rest with Jawon medical device. The hypertension was diagnosed by the guide of the Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure. The frequency analysis was used in general characteristics, Pearson's Correlation Coefficient analysis was conducted in among continuous variables, and chi-square test was also used between hypertension and cold or heat group. Logistic regression was analyzed to generate the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for hypertension. The cold score was suggested to have negative association with Body mass Index (BMI, -.374, p<.001), systolic blood pressure (-.333, p<.001), and diastolic pressure (-.261, p<.001). The heat score was analyzed to have positive association with Body mass Index (.413, p<.001), systolic blood pressure (.249, p<.001), and diastolic pressure (.156, p<.001). The distribution of the cold group (35.1%) and non-cold group (64.9%) in hypertension was significantly different (p=0.18). The distribution of the heat group (62.2%) and non-heat group (37.8%) was significantly different (p=0.27). The usual cold was associated with decreased ORs (ORs 0.405, 95% CI=0.191-0.857), and usual heat was associated with increased ORs (ORs 2.327, 95% CI=1.108-4.888). However, after adjusting body mass index, sex, and smoking, the association was not significantly different. It is possible that usual cold or heat associate with hypertension. Further study is needed to show that usual heat may be a independent risk factor for hypertension through follow up design.
The Journal of Korean Medicine Ophthalmology and Otolaryngology and Dermatology
Background : The varieties of manifestations referred to oral, glottal, labial and dental diseases has been long complicated physicians in the efficient diagnosis and treatment of these diseases. Acupuncture has been widely used in Korea throughout the history and provides an efficient method in the treatment of them Objectives : Establish a distinctive and efficient acupuncture method for the treatment of oral, glottal, labial and dental diseases based in literature research Method : We reviewed four Korean medical literature, "Guide to Swollen Sore Treatment", "Treasured Mirror of Eastern Medicine", "Experiential Prescriptions of Acupuncture and Moxibustion", and "Essential Rhymes on Acupuncture and Moxibustion by Master Sa-am", and analyzed the therapeutic characteristics in the treatment of oral, glottal, labial and dental diseases Result : 1. According to "Guide to Swollen Sore Treatment", we could noted frequent application of blood letting methods in the affected area, then rinse ones mouth with salty water and further application of taro plaster. Also found acupuncture methods utilizing heated mole cricket or silkworm in the sublingual region. Regarding herbal method, Realgar was rubbed in the affected area. Mainly used acupuncture points in the treatment of oral, glottal, labial and dental diseases were GV20, GB20, LU5, and auricular anterior hairline 2. In "Treasured Mirror of Eastern Medicine", blood letting method in the sublingual region and burning needle searing method were the most frequently applied in the treatment of oral, glottal, labial and dental diseases. Moxibustion was also applied in the treatment of labial and dental diseases. Particularly, said to apply 3 moxa cones in ear zones of both sides, when no medicine is effective. This demonstrates how emphasized the importance of moxibustion in this kind of disease. Mainly used acupuncture points were GV16, CV24, LI4, EX-HN12, and EX-HN13 3. In "Experiential Prescriptions of Acupuncture and Moxibustion", no other methods beside wrist. Superstitious methods like applying moxibustion on the tooth picture drawn on the roofing tile need further confirmation. Mainly used acupuncture points were LI4, ST36, and HT7. 4. "Essential Rhymes on Acupuncture and Moxibustion by Master Sa-am", identified the cause of diseases according to visceral pattern identification. Stomach and Spleen in charge of vocal, lingual, and labial disease, Kidney for dental disease, and further scrutinizing identification according to Liver, Heart, Stomach, Lung, and Kidney manifestations. Used supplementation and draining needling methods of self meridians and other correlating meridians. Conclusions : After previous study on stroke and eye diseases, we could also find various efficient methods according to oral, glottal, labial and dental diseases, through literature research of korean medical classics. This study will concurrently result in establishing distinctive therapeutic method characteristic of Korea.
Objectives : Select and analyze the case record of dyspnea and wheezing asthma recorded in Xu Ming Yi Lei An that is the most abundant and wide in contents in existing case records that are systematic, comprehending relatively modern Traditional Chinese Medicine to secure more deep and objective basis of Traditional Chinese Medicine approach for dyspnea and wheezing asthma to analyze and review possibility for clinical application in this study. Methods: The study was conducted with the case records of dyspnea and wheezing asthma in whole Xu Ming Yi Lei An. Pattern identify and classify selected case records and again classified with deficiency syndrome and excess syndrome. Also analyzed prescriptions and herbs used in the case records. Nature of herbs and properties and flavors that were used in the case records were classified and frequency of each nature of herbs were analyzed. Applicable case records were interpreted and suggested prescriptions, pulse feelings, pattern classification were analyzed and described. Results : Among the 5254 case records stated on the complete collection, it is researched that there are 63 case records for the symptom complex of dyspnea as 1.2% of the whole case records, and the case records on the symptom complex of wheezing asthma are 14 as the 0.27% of the total examples. 63 case record examples related with symptom complex of dyspnea were pattern identified and classified. As a result, deficiency syndrome of the Kidney(33 %), deficiency syndrome of the Spleen(26.0%), Wind-Cold(12.3%), phlegm turbidity(12.3%), Heat in the Lung(8.2%), asthenia of the Lung(8.2%) were investigated as above order. 14 case record examples related with wheezing asthma were pattern identified and classified. As a result, phlegm-Heat(26.3%), upper excess and lower deficiency(26.3%), external affections Wind-Cold(15.8%), Dampness-phlegm(10.5%), Lung asthenia(10.5%), Cold phlegm(5.3%), mutual deficiency and detriment of Heart and Kidneys(5.3%) were investigated as above order. Symptom complex of dyspnea has 67.1% of deficiency syndrome, 32.9% of excess syndrome resulting more deficiency syndrome than excess syndrome. Symptom complex of wheezing asthma has 42.1 % of deficiency syndrome and 57.9% of excess syndrome resulting more excess syndrome than deficiency syndrome. In case of symptom complex of dyspnea prescription used in the case record, the order of frequency is as following. Palmijihwang-tang, Bojung-ikgitang, Yungmijihwang-tang, Ijintang, Sojaganggitang, Igongsan. In case of symptom complex of wheezing asthma prescription in the case record, Yungmijihwang-tang, Ohotang, Dodamtang were mostly used. Herbs used in case records of symptom complex of dyspnea are Ginseng Radix, Poria, Glycyrrhizae Radix, Aconiti Iateralis Preparata Radix, Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma, Dioscoreae Rhizoma, Angelicae Gigantis Radix, Rehmanniae Radix Preparat, Pinelliae Rhizoma, Zingiberis Rhizoma Recens are mostly used. Nature of herb properties used for symptom complex of dyspnea and symptom complex of wheezing asthma are herbs that are warm properties. When the symptom complex of dyspnea and the symptom complex of wheezing asthma were treated. if the patient felt tenderness at Pyesu, doctors conducted pricking blood around the opposite Pyesu or Sipseon acupoint. when the patient didn't have tenderness at Pyesu by soft press, pricking blood was performed both sidees, right and left Pyesu. In case of the treatment of symptom complex of dyspnea and symptom complex of wheezing asthma, when they got treatment, when the symptom complex of disease is severe, a doctor cauterized the opposite Pyesu while the other Pyesu felt tenderness, and decided how the above treatment is performed whether the degree of the symptom compolex of disease is severe or not. In case of the treatment of symptom complex of dyspnea and symptom complex of wheezing asthma, if the person felt tenderness at Pyesu and is caught by the Wind-Cold pathogen, slight acupuncture is treated at relevant Pyesu with Fire needling. When patient with symptom complex of dyspnea and symptom complex of wheezing asthma cannot hawk sputum up from the oral and laryngopharynx, suction method is treated. Conclusion : With this study, actual traditional and clinical pattern identification form and characteristics of symptom complex of dyspnea and symptom complex of wheezing asthma were recognized. Modern case report utilizing in clinical application need to be secured and an incurable disease asthma need to be diagnosed and improvement for treatments have to be searched through other case records.
1. Purpose of study There are many Constitution theories. But, In the Sasang Constitutional medicine, the theory and the practice are connected systematically. So it has been used in Korea popularly. Lee Je-Ma suggested that the external form, the mind, the symptom are the criteria of Sasang constitution diagnosis at the Discourse on the Four Principle and the Discourse on the Identifying Four Constitutions. But The clinical importance study of three diagnostic criteria - the external form, the mind, the symptom - has never been studied. Therefore, there are many obstacles of using the three diagnostic criteria totally. And I think that it needs a study which we apply the three diagnostic criteria to practice and approve the clinical importance of one another. I classify and investigate the previous methods of Sasang constitution diagnosis by the three diagnostic criteria in this study. 2. Method of study I investigate the previous methods of Sasang constitution diagnosis bibliographically by Dongyi Soose Bowon, Journal of Constitutional medicine and other books. 3. Result of study (1) Study of the external form The Study of Ki-sang(氣像) and Sa-ki(詞氣) by experience and intuition was done previously, and study of imaginay formulation of each constitution by measuring Chae-hyung(體形) and yong-mo(容貌) has being done recently. (2) Study of the mind For the objectification of study and diagnosis, self-reporting questionnaire has been used. The ideal choice to determine an indivisual constitution, as far as questionnaire go, is to take results from both the modified version Sasang Pattern Identification Questionnaire and QSCCII. (3) Study of the symptom For the study of the symptom - constitution symptom and constitution symptom of disease - the study of principles, the clinical study of the type of disease and symptom, the study which the pathologic view of Oriental medicine apply the view of Sasang Constitutional medicine have been done. We must try to objectfy Sasang Constitutional disease.
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