• Title, Summary, Keyword: Penetration of EVs

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The Effects of Penetration of the Electric Vehicles on the Electric Power Grid in the Jeju Island (제주도에서 전기자동차 보급이 전력계통에 미치는 영향)

  • Oh, Seong-Bo;Lee, Gae-Myoung;Hwang, Choong-Gu
    • The Transactions of The Korean Institute of Electrical Engineers
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    • v.63 no.1
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    • pp.10-17
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    • 2014
  • The Jeju Special Self-Government Provincial Government has made the plan penetrating gradually electric vehicles(EVs) in the Jeju Special Self-Government Province(Jejudo). However the effects of EVs penetration on the electrical grid of the Jejudo is not reported. In this paper the yearly electric energy consumed by the EVs was calculated and the effects of the EV penetration on the peak power of the grid were analyzed in the Jejudo for the future 10 years, and we hope that our study results will help the governors realize the EVs penetration plan in the Jejudo. The calculation results show that the rate of the electric energy used by the EVs will become to 2.9% at its maximum at the 2017 year when the penetration rate of EVs in passenger cars becomes 10%, and the rate of the electric energy consumed by the EVs will become to 9.4% at its maximum at the 2020 year when the penetration rate of EVs in passenger cars becomes 30%. The concepts of smart-charging capacity and 100%-valley-filling charging capacity of the grid were defined and calculated for the Jeju Grid, and the grid was analyzed to have the sufficient EV charging capacity until the 2022 year.

Impact of Electric Vehicle Penetration-Based Charging Demand on Load Profile

  • Park, Woo-Jae;Song, Kyung-Bin;Park, Jung-Wook
    • Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.244-251
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    • 2013
  • This paper presents a study the change of the load profile on the power system by the charging impact of electric vehicles (EVs) in 2020. The impact of charging EVs on the load demand is determined not only by the number of EVs in usage pattern, but also by the number of EVs being charged at once. The charging load is determined on an hourly basis using the number of the EVs based on different scenarios considering battery size, model, the use of vehicles, charging at home or work, and the method of charging, which is either fast or slow. Focusing on the impact of future load profile in Korea with EVs reaching up 10 and 20 percentage, increased power demand by EVs charging is analyzed. Also, this paper analyzes the impact of a time-of-use (TOU) tariff system on the charging of EVs in Korea. The results demonstrate how the penetration of EVs increases the load profile and decreases charging demand by TOU tariff system on the future power system.

Analysis and Pattern Deduction of Actual Electric Vehicle Charging Data (실데이터 기반의 전기자동차 충전 데이터 분석 및 충전 패턴 도출)

  • Kim, Jun-Hyeok;Moon, Sang-Keun;Lee, Byung-Sung;Seo, In-Jin;Kim, Chul-Hwan
    • The Transactions of The Korean Institute of Electrical Engineers
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    • v.67 no.11
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    • pp.1455-1462
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    • 2018
  • As the interests in eco-friendly energy has increased, the interests in Electric Vehicles(EVs) are increasing as well. Moreover, due to the government's economic support for EVs, penetration level of it has rapidly increased. These sharp increases, however, induce various problems in distribution system, such as voltage/frequency variations, peak demand increasement, demand control, etc. To minimize these possible matters, lots of research have conducted. Nevertheless, most of it assumed extremely important factors, such as numbers and charging patterns of EVs. It inevitably results in errors in their research, and thus make it difficult to prevent the possible matters from EVs. In this paper, therefore, we use actual EVs charging data from KEPCO, and analysis and deduction of it were conducted. The simulations were carried out for four aspect(season, region, purpose).

Evaluation of Voltage Sag and Unbalance due to the System Connection of Electric Vehicles on Distribution System

  • Lee, Soon-Jeong;Kim, Jun-Hyeok;Kim, Doo-Ung;Go, Hyo-Sang;Kim, Chul-Hwan;Kim, Eung-Sang;Kim, Seul-Ki
    • Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.452-460
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    • 2014
  • Due to increased concerns for rising oil prices and environmental problems, various solutions have been proposed for solving energy problems through tightening environmental regulations such as those regarding $CO_2$ reduction. Among them, Electrical Vehicles (EVs) are evaluated to be the most realistic and effective approach. Accordingly, research and development on EVs and charging infrastructures are mainly proceeding in developed countries. Since EVs operate using electric energy form a battery, they must be connected to the power system to charge the battery. If many EVs are connected during a short time, power quality problems can occur such as voltage sag, voltage unbalance and harmonics which are generated from power electronics devices. Therefore, when EVs are charged, it is necessary to analyze the effect of power quality on the distribution system, because EVs will gradually replace gasoline vehicles, and the number of EVs will be increased. In this paper, a battery for EVs and a PWM converter are modeled using an ElectroMagnetic Transient Program (EMTP). The voltage sag and unbalance are evaluated when EVs are connected to the distribution system of the Korea Electric Power Corporation (KEPCO). The simulation results are compared with IEEE standards.

Impact Analysis of Wind Power on Power System Reliability with Electric Vehicles (풍력발전과 전기자동차가 전력계통의 신뢰도에 미치는 영향 평가)

  • Kim, Dam;Park, Hyeongon;Kwon, Hungyu;Park, Jong-Keun
    • The Transactions of The Korean Institute of Electrical Engineers
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    • v.64 no.11
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    • pp.1535-1542
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    • 2015
  • An increasing number of electric vehicles (EVs) in power system affects its reliability in various aspects. Especially under high EV penetration level, new generating units are required to satisfy system's adequacy criterion. Wind power generation is expected to take the major portion of the new units due to environmental and economic issues. In this paper, the system reliability is analyzed using Loss of Load Expectation (LOLE) and Expected Energy Not Served (EENS) under each and both cases of increasing wind power generation and EVs. A probabilistic multi-state modeling method of wind turbine generator under various power output for adequate reliability evaluation is presented as well. EVs are modeled as loads under charging algorithm with Time-Of-Use (TOU) rates in order to incorporate EVs into hour-to-hour yearly load curve. With the expected load curve, the impact of EVs on the system adequacy is analyzed. Simulations show the reliability evaluation of increasing wind power capacity and number of EVs. With this method, system operator becomes capable of measuring appropriate wind power capacity to meet system reliability standard.

Reduction of Control Signal Overhead for Electric Vehicle Charging Operation in Smart Grid System

  • Kwon, Ojin;Kim, Pilkee;Yoon, Yong-Jin
    • International Journal of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing-Green Technology
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    • v.4 no.2
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    • pp.191-197
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    • 2017
  • Smart grid systems have been proposed to replace the conventional power distribution system in order to accommodate future market penetration of electric vehicles (EVs). Nevertheless, there are many factors to consider when large numbers of EVs require simultaneous charging in the smart grid. Among various optimization schemes, the most updated schemes proposed charging with coordination to optimize EV charging performance. In this case, huge amount of control signals are involved in the coordinated charging, therefore the charging performance is retarded. In this paper, a new threshold-based charging operation with historical average data of the EV charging system to improve the EV charging performance is proposed by minimizing control signal overhead, instead of maximum power delivery to all EVs. The moving average of historical data for BSOC levels of the EVs can properly approximate the charging profile of the EVs over time thus enabling the development of an optimization algorithm based on the threshold method. Up to 33% of the reduction in the control signal overhead is achieved with slight trade off in the power delivery to the EVs.

Impacts of green technologies in distribution power network

  • Suwanapingkarl, Pasist;Singhasathein, Arnon;Phanthuna, Nattaphong;Boonthienthong, Manat;Srivallop, Kwanchanok;Ketken, Wannipa
    • International Journal of Advanced Culture Technology
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.90-100
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    • 2015
  • Green technologies such as renewable energy resources, Electric Vehicles and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (EVs/PHEVs), electric locomotives, etc. are continually increasing at the existing power network especially distribution levels, which are Medium Voltage (MV) and Low Voltage (LV). It can be noted that the increasing level of green technologies is driven by the reduction emission policies of carbon dioxide ($CO_2$). The green technologies can affect the quality of power, and hence its impacts of are analysed. In practical, the environment such as wind, solar irradiation, temperature etc. are uncontrollable, and therefore the output power of renewable energy in that area can be varied. Moreover, the technology of the EVs/PHEVs is still developed in order to improve the performance of supply and driving systems. This means that these developed can cause harmonic distortion as the control system is mostly used power electronics. Therefore, this paper aims to analyse the voltage variation and harmonic distortion in distribution power network in urban area in Europe due to the combination between wind turbine, hydro turbine, photovoltaic (PV) system and EVs/PHEVs. More realistic penetration levels of SSDGs and EVs/PHEVs as forecasted for 2020 is used to analyse. The dynamic load demands are also taken into account. In order to ensure the accurate of simulation results, the practical parameters of distribution system are used and the international standards such as Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) standards are also complied. The suggestion solutions are also presented. The MATLAB/Simulink software is chosen as it can support complicate modelling and analysis.

Review of Design Components of Recharging Infrastructure for Electrical Vehicles in Apartments (아파트에서의 전기자동차 충전인프라 설계를 위한 요소 고찰)

  • Lee, Ki-Hong;Kee, Ho-Young;Byun, Wan-Hee
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Illuminating and Electrical Installation Engineers
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    • v.26 no.10
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    • pp.111-117
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    • 2012
  • Electric vehicles (EVs) are the most promising alternative substitute to a significant amount of gasoline vehicles for climate friendly transportation. This paper conducted an EV consumer survey through the telephone for 200 residents living in apartments to predict the EV penetration level in the year 2020. The results of EV consumer survey revealed that EV will be penetrated to 10% of the total vehicles in rental apartments and to 23.6% of the total vehicles in apartments for sale(condominium) until 2020. High EV penetration level, however, will lead to an increase of power consumption and over loading of electrical installations. Integrating more electric vehicles, the capacity of transformer related in apartments should be checked to prevent the over loading of the transformer. This paper checked the possibility of over loading at transformer and suggested the load control system as one of the solutions to reduce the over loading of transformers in apartments. Also this paper reviewed other components that should be checked in the designing of EV recharging infrastructure in apartments.

An Adaptive Control of Smart Appliances with Peak Shaving Considering EV Penetration (전기자동차 침투율을 고려한 피크 부하 저감용 스마트 기기의 적응적 제어)

  • Haider, Zunaib Maqsood;Malik, Farhan H.;Rafique, M. Kashif;Lee, Soon-Jeong;Kim, Jun-Hyeok;Mehmood, Khawaja Khalid;Khan, Saad Ullah;Kim, Chul-Hwan
    • The Transactions of The Korean Institute of Electrical Engineers
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    • v.65 no.5
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    • pp.730-737
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    • 2016
  • Electric utilities may face new threats with increase in electric vehicles (EVs) in the personal automobile market. The peak demand will increase which may stress the distribution network equipment. The focus of this paper is on an adaptive control of smart household appliances by using an intelligent load management system (ILMS). The main objectives are to accomplish consumer needs and prevent overloading of power grid. The stress from the network is released by limiting the peak demand of a house when it exceeds a certain point. In the proposed strategy, for each smart appliance, the customers will set its order/rank according to their own preferences and then system will control the household loads intelligently for consumer reliability. The load order can be changed at any time by the customer. The difference between the set and actual value for each load's specific parameter will help the utility to estimate the acceptance of this intelligent load management system by the customers.