• Title, Summary, Keyword: Percent elongation

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Properties of Biodegradable Films Produced from Rice Bran and Roasted Sesame Meal through Chemical Modifications

  • Bae, Dongho;Kim, Woo Jung;Jang, In Sook
    • Journal of Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.43 no.2
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    • pp.79-85
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    • 2000
  • Biodegradable films were prepared from roasted sesame meal and rice bran. Acetic anhydride, succinic anhydride, and formaldehyde were added to the film-forming solutions, and their effects on tensile strength, percent elongation, water vapor permeability, and water solubility of the films were studied. Roasted sesame meal did not form film without acylation or addition of formaldehyde. Acylated roasted sesame films had higher tensile strength and water-solubility, and lower % elongation than rice bran films. Acylation with acetic and succinic anhydrides increased tensile strength, percent elongation, and water solubility of rice bran films, but decreased water vapor permeability. Treatment with formaldehyde increased tensile strength of roasted sesame and rice bran films and % elongation of rice bran films, while reducing water-solubility of roasted sesame and rice bran films and water vapor permeability of rice bran films.

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Effects of Restricted Oxygen, Nitric oxide, and Mercuric Chloride on the Seed Germination and Early Elongation Growth of Rice

  • Yang Woon-Ho;Kim Je-Kyu;Smucker Alvin J.M.
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.51 no.4
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    • pp.287-294
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    • 2006
  • Germination and early elongation of rice after germination were investigated in anoxic air treatment, nitric oxide gas treatment, and six concentrations of mercuric chloride solutions to determine the effects of limited oxygen environment, nitric oxide, and inhibited water flux through cell membrane in $17^{\circ}C$. Anoxic air treatment affected germination of tested six varieties very little. However root elongation rates were severely inhibited while shoot growth was affected less. Reductions in shoot and root elongations demonstrated genotypic variations. Nitric oxide delayed the germination of rice even though it didn't affect the final percent germination. Elongations of root and shoot were inhibited in nitric oxide treatment. The inhibitor effect of nitric oxide on the shoot elongation of rice was less severe, while nitric oxide completely inhibited the root emergence of rice. Concentrations of $HgCl_2$ greater than $300{\mu}M$ dramatically reduced the rate and percentage of germination when compared to distilled water treatment. The reduced percent germination showed the greatest variation among rice varieties in $500{\mu}M$ solution of mercuric chloride. Ansanbyeo, Jinheung, and Odaebyeo were affected less by $HgCl_2$, Nonganbyeo and Sangmibyeo were intermediate, and the germination of Andabyeo was greatly reduced by $HgCl_2$. Root elongation of germinated rice seedlings was more sensitive to oxygen deficits, nitric oxide, and $HgCl_2$ treatments than germination and shoot elongation. In conclusion, poor seedling establishment of rice sown in flooded paddy soils, in which the oxygen supply to the seeds is restricted, appears to the result of limited root elongation rate.

Germination and Radicle Elongation of Berseem , Subterranean and White Clover as Affected by NaCl and Temperature (NaCl 농도와 온도에 따른 Berseem , Subterranean 및 White Clover의 발아 및 유근신장)

  • 강진호;박진서;박정민
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.80-86
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    • 1995
  • High salinity common in reclaimed soil can reduce germination of crop seeds and aftermath its establishment and production. The experiment was done to measure germination and radicle elongation of berseem, subterranean, white clover and Italian ryegrass as Control under different temperature and NaCl concentrations. Onehundred seeds of berseem (Trifolium ulexandrinum cv. Bigbee). suberranean (T. suhterruneum, cv. Nungarin), white clover (T. repens, cv. Regal) and Italian ryegrass (Lolium mulriflorum, cv. Terafloum) were placed in petri dishes with a sheet of filter paper replaced every two days, and then exposed to 0, 12.5, 25. 50, 100 and 200mh4 of sodium chloride in darkened growth chambers controlled with 10, 15 and $20^{\circ}C$. Percent germination and radicle elongation were measured. Beneem clover showed greatest daily percent germination among the cloven. That of subterranean clover, moreover, was higher than that of white clover till 4 days after imbibition but the reverse result was true thereafter. Although germination of Italian ryegrass was delayed with decreased at 200mM of NaCl of $20^{\circ}C$. at 200mM of under$15^{\circ}C$ , and at higher than lOOmh4 of all level of temperature, respectively. Berseem clover had greatest radicle length under the same concentration of NaCl regardless of temperature treatment while radicle elongation of subterranean and white clover was repressed over 50-100mM of NaC1. The slope of linear regression equation between concentration of NaCl and percent germination declined under all temperature treatment in order of berseem, subterranean and white clover whereas the reverse result was showed in radicle length.

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Graft Polymerization of vinyl monomers onto silk (Vinyl단량체의 silk graft중합)

  • 남중희;마석일;이양후
    • Journal of Sericultural and Entomological Science
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.33-36
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    • 1977
  • Graft polymerization of vinyl monomers onto silk were carried out in aqueous medium using ceric salt as an initiator, and discussed about the mechanical properties of silk. The results obtained are summarized as follows: 1. Percent grafting is greatly enhanced by the increasing of the temperature. 2. Effect of percent grafting is in the order of methyl methacrylate, and vinyl acetate. 3. Strength is decreased in the high grafted silk, and elongation is increased in the low grafted silk.

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Studies on the Shrinkage of Silk Yarn by Neutral Salts (견의 중성염류에 의한 염축에 관한 연구)

  • 이용우;이광길
    • Journal of Sericultural and Entomological Science
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    • v.33 no.2
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    • pp.87-92
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    • 1991
  • The shrinkages and physical properties of silk yarn were studied on the effect of treatment concentration, time and temperature with various neutral salts. The degummed silk yarn was shrunk about 35 percent by highly concentrated solution of Ca(NO3)2 on conditions of S.G.(special gravity) 1.45 at 9$0^{\circ}C$ or S. G. 1.46 at 8$0^{\circ}C$. About 40 percent of silk yarn was contracted in length by the treatment of CaCl2 solution on conditions of S. G. 1.33 at 9$0^{\circ}C$ for 5 mins. or at 85$^{\circ}C$ for 10 mins. By treating the concentrated solution of LiBr the silk yarn showed about 40 percent of shrinkage on a conditions of S. G. 1.38, $25^{\circ}C$ 24hrs. The physical properties of salt-treated silk yarn could be significantly changed with shrinkage variations. There were some differences in shrinkages between different type of salts. However, it was observed that generally the tenacity was decreased and breaking elongation increased as the shrinkage increased. The bulkiness of salt-treated silk yarn was increased by 110 to 120 percent compared with untreated yarn.

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Study on the Anchovy Boat seine- VI The Physical Properties of the Improved Head Rope and Ground rope (기선권현 강의 연구- VI 뜸줄 . 발줄 재료로서 개발된 로우프의 물리적 특성)

  • Lee, Byoung-gee;Sohn, Tae-jun;Roh, Gap-chul
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Fisheries and Ocean Technology
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.23-26
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    • 1980
  • The pure polypropylen rope has been used for the head rope, and the lead cored polypropylen rope for the ground rope in the anchovy boat seine. These ropes revealed the disadvantage that deforms the net shape due to their elongation. Te improve the disadvantage, authors developed the rope of new construction which is cored by wires and wrapped by polypropylene fibers, 20mm in diameter for the head rope and 40tnm for the ground rope. To compare the physical properties of the improved rope with the conventional ones, some factors are valued and the following results are found. 1. The improved ropes rev~al some disadvantages, such as the head rope is heavier, the ground rope lighter, and both of them are stiffer than the conventional ones, contrary to the required condition of ropes) However no special difficulties are found in practical use. 2. The improved ropes display much advantages, such as elongation is 30 percent less, breaking strength is 35 precent greater, and elastic recovery is 10 percent greater than the conventional ones. Thus, it is considered that the improved ropes are more suitable for the head rope and the ground rope of the anchouy boat seine net than the conventional ones.

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A Study on the Abrasion-Resistance of Untreated and Durable Press Finished Cotton Fabrics (미처리와 D.P 가공한 면직물의 내마모성에 관한 연구)

  • 최철호;이찬민
    • Textile Coloration and Finishing
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.35-46
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    • 1989
  • Experiments described in which cotton fabrics at different stages of chemical processing were abraded to different extents on a Stoll Abrasion Tester with three different abradants, namely, a worsted fabric, flax fabric and silicon carbide paper. The four different plain-weave cotton fabrics selected were 1) desized, 2) scoured and bleached, 3) mercerized, 4) resin-treated. The surface abrasive damages of treated fabrics were observed by SAM, and load-elongation percent retentions of abraded samples were measured by Instrong Tester. The result were as follows: 1. The maximum percent retention of load-elongation with three different abradants was exhibited by the scoured and bleached fabrics and the minimum by the resin finished fabric. 2. The electron micrographs of four different cotton fabrics abraded by flax, worsted fabric abradants for 900 rubs showed a large number of criss-crossing stray fibers in fabric structure. It may be the molecular adhesion for frictional resistance to be explained. 3. The electron micrographs of four different cotton fabrics abraded by silicone carbide abradants showed the form of busing or mashing fibers in fabric structure. The above might be on the basis of the ploughing theory.

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Mechanical Properties and Degradability of Modified Starch and Polyethylene Blends (변성전분과 폴리에틸렌 혼합물의 물성 및 분해성 평가)

  • Jang, Si-Hoon;You, Young-Sun;Seo, Jong-Chul;Park, Su-Il
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF PACKAGING SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY
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    • v.16 no.2_3
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    • pp.59-65
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    • 2010
  • Starch was modified with epichlorohydrin(ECH) to improve the miscibility with LDPE and LLDPE. Native starch or epichlorohydrin treated starch was mixed with grycerol and LDPE/LLDPE resin using a kneader and extruded using a single screw extruder to make pallets. The pallets were compression-molded at 145 into composite boards to evaluate their color, oxygen permeation, mechanical and thermal properties, and degradability under UV irradiation. Sheets with epichlorohydrin treated starch generally showed higher L-value than that of native starch blend sheets. The hunter b-values in both native starch blends and epichlorohydrin treated starch blends increased with Increasing starch contents. Tensile strength and percent elongation of sheets decreased with increasing starch contents. Tensile strength and percent elongation of sheets decreased with increasing starch contents. The degradability of blends under UV radiation increased with increasing starch contents in both blend types. The results represents that crosslinking of starch with epichlorohydrin may be a good method to improve miscibility of starch with petroleum-based materials.

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Thermal-and Bio-degradation of Starch-Polyethylene Films Containing High Molecular Weight Oxidized-Polyethylene

  • Kim, Mee-Ra;Pometto, Anthony-L.
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.27-35
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    • 1998
  • Starch-polyethylene films containing high molecular weight(NW) oxidized-polyethylene and prooxidant were prepared , and thermal -and bio-degradability of the films were determined. Increased levels of starch resulted in a corresponding reduction in mechanical strength of the films. However, the addition of high MW oxidized-polyethylene did not significantly reduce the percent elongation of the films. Thefilms containing high MW oxidized-polyethylene andproosicant were degreaded faster than those containing no aadditive during the heat treatment. The films lost their measureable mechanical properties when their weight-average MW(Mw) fell below 50,000. Biodegradability of the films was determined by a pure culture assay with either Streptomyces badius 252.S. setonii 75Vi2 or S. viridosporous T7A, and by an extracellulr enzyme assay using S. setonii 75vi2. The results from pure culture assay indicated that biomass accumulation on the film surface inhibited chemical and biological degradation of the films. The extracellular enzyme assay demonstrated decrease of percent elongation and increase of carbonyl index of the films. Therefore, extracellular enzyme assay could be used as a good method to evaluate biodegradability of the films.

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Radiation Crosslinking and Shrinkable Properties of PVC (PVC의 방사선 가교와 열수축 특성)

  • Nho, Young Chang
    • Applied Chemistry for Engineering
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.341-348
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    • 1992
  • PVC was compounded with various crosslinking agents, plasticizers and acrylonitrile butadiene rubber(NBR) to evaluate their effects on the radiation gel percent, elongation at break, heat distortion and heat shrinkage. Gel yield of PVC increased with increasing unsaturation levels per molecular weight of crosslinking agents while PVC containing NBR was more sensitive to crosslinking than PVC itself regardless of the types of crosslinking agents and plasticizers. It was found that gel percent was increased with increasing radiation dose, while heat distortion was decreased with increasing gel percent. Heat shrinkage was increased with decreasing stretching temperature and increasing annealing temperature.

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