• Title, Summary, Keyword: Personal protective equipment (PPE)

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The adverse impact of personal protective equipment on firefighters' cognitive functioning

  • Park, Juyeon
    • The Research Journal of the Costume Culture
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    • v.27 no.1
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    • pp.1-10
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    • 2019
  • Firefighters wear Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) for protection from environmental hazards. However, due to the layers of protective functions, the PPE inevitably adds excessive weight, bulkiness, and thermal stress to firefighters. This study investigated the adverse impact of wearing PPE as an occupational stressor on the firefighter's cognitive functioning. Twenty-three firefighters who had been involved in firefighting at least for 1 year were recruited. The overall changing trend in the firefighter's cognitive functioning (short-term memory, long-term memory, and inductive reasoning) was measured by the scores of three standardized cognitive tests at the baseline and the follow-up, after participating in a moderate-intensity physical activity, wearing a full ensemble of the PPE. The study findings evinced the negative impact of the PPE on the firefighter's cognitive functioning, especially in short-term memory and inductive reasoning. No significant influence was found on the firefighter's long-term memory. The results were consistent when the participant's age and BMI were controlled. The outcomes of the present study will not only fill the gap in the literature, but also provide critical justification to stakeholders, including governments, policymakers, academic communities, and industry, for such efforts to improve human factors of the firefighter's PPE by realizing the negative consequences of the added layers and protective functions on their occupational safety. Study limitations and future directions were also discussed.

Knowledge, Attitudes and Perceptions of Nurses on Personal Protective Equipment: Response to the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (간호사의 개인보호장비에 대한 지식, 태도 및 인식: 메르스 대응을 중심으로)

  • Kim, Kyungnam;Lee, Ogcheol
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Fundamentals of Nursing
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    • v.23 no.4
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    • pp.402-410
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    • 2016
  • Purpose: Personal protective equipment (PPE) is critical to protect healthcare workers from pandemic outbreaks. This study was designed to identify nurses' knowledge, attitude and perceptions on PPE. Methods: Data were collected from 154 nurses working at a tertiary general hospital, where positively diagnosed and suspected patients were accepted and admitted during the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus outbreak in 2015. The PPE tool consists of 20 items for knowledge, and 5 each for attitudes and perceptions. Results: Overall, knowledge for PPE was higher than moderate (76.95/100), but there was a lack for items related to powered air purifying respirator (PAPR). For attitudes, willingness to work in pandemic outbreaks was the most positive (4.04/5.00). Goggles and PAPR were perceived as the most uncomfortable barriers to work. There was no correlation between knowledge, attitude and perceptions, despite a strong positive correlation between attitude and perceptions. PPE training was identified as a factor to improve knowledge and attitudes on PPE. Conclusion: To respond to pandemic influenza, nurses need to expand their knowledge on PPE up to Level C, and be updated through regular training. Study findings suggest that repetitive studies targeting nurses and other healthcare workers at various hospital settings are necessary.

Economic Analysis of Providing Personal Protective Equipment for Residents near Chemical Plants (화학공장 인근 주민의 개인보호장구 지급에 관한 경제성 분석)

  • Han, Don-Hee;Chang, Young-Jae;Park, Min Soo
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.43 no.5
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    • pp.431-437
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    • 2017
  • Objectives: To protect the health and safety of residents during chemical accidents, the governmental authorities need to provide personal protective equipment (PPE) to citizens who desire it. This study aims to investigate residents'awareness of PPE and perform an economic analysis on providing PPE to residents near chemical plants prior to the establishment of a related law. Methods: This study was carried out through a questionnaire completed by 600 residents composed of items such as residents'awareness of PPE, what type of PPE they need, and how to purchase PPE. Economic analysis (cost-benefit analysis) was conducted on providing PPE to residents near chemical plants on basis of the Gumi City hydrogen fluoride accident of 2012. Results: The results of the questionnaire showed that most residents recognized the need for PPE preparedness for chemical accidents, in particular, for respirators. The level of expense that respondents were prepared to shoulder to share the burden was $25. Except for chemicals of hazard level 2, the benefit of all kinds of chemical accident preparedness considerably exceeded costs in the cost-benefit analysis on providing PPE. An estimated government budget of $20 million per year would be required to provide PPE (hood-type mask) for all residents within a one-kilometer radius of chemical plants in Korea, but only $5.8 million when residents share the expenses. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that programs for providing PPE for residents near chemical plants should be established by law.

Characteristics of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) in Industry Accidents (산업재해에서의 개인보호구 특성 분석)

  • Gil, Gukho
    • Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea
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    • v.36 no.6
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    • pp.753-764
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    • 2017
  • Objective: The aim of this study is to understand the industrial accident characteristics related to personal protective equipment (PPE) and to present basic guidelines that can apply to design the PPE and establish safety policy. Background: Although the use of PPE can reduce industrial accidents more than 87% based on KOSHA's industry accident report, there are still high incidence rates (88.9%) of occupational accidents not wearing appropriate PPEs. Furthermore, the incidence rates in 2014 showed larger incidence rates than in 2012 when workers worn PPEs. Therefore, the PPE should be considered carefully in terms of industrial types, accident patterns and causing factors. Method: This study analyzed the data about industrial injuries and deaths of 8,624 workers that have been approved as on-duty industrial accidents in 2014. The characteristics of industrial accidents have been examined by each industrial type, accident patterns and causing factors which have been categorized by PPE worn or not. Results: The characteristics of industrial accidents by types of industry, accident patterns and causing factors showed that there were differences in terms of accident rate between PPE worn and not-worn. The results also showed that there were higher incident rates in construction and manufacturing industries due to falls and impacts as accident patterns. Moreover, there were differences in terms accident rate of PPE worn between 2012 and 2014. Conclusion: PPE is a critical component in the safe workplace of most industry. Since PPE should be the last components to consider in protecting employees from hazards, the industry should first use appropriate engineering and administrative control available to control potential hazards. After applying all these controls, the PPE with ergonomic design to fit and comfort should be considered. Moreover, the safety climate, education and policy for appropriate use of PPEs should be considered in the small sized construction and manufacturing industries. Application: The results of this study can be used as baseline data to establish the PPE guidelines for effectiveness with comfort and policies to supply appropriate PPEs for each industry.

An Analysis of Patent Trends in Research and Development on Personal Protective Equipment in Agriculture (농업분야 개인보호구 연구개발을 위한 관련 특허 동향분석)

  • Kim, Insoo;Kim, Kyung-Ran;Lee, Kyung-Suk;Chae, Hye-Seon
    • The Korean Journal of Community Living Science
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.647-659
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    • 2015
  • This study analyzes current technologies in personal protective equipment (PPE) and mechanisms that can be used in the agricultural field to provide data for research and development on PPE for farmers. There is growing awareness of the importance of PPE as part of efforts to reduce agricultural accidents, but data remain rare for developing PPE tailored to the farm work environment. In this regard, patent data on PPE can provide useful insights for facilitating relevant technologies and research. This study examines patents and utility models classified under the IPC code in Korea and other countries to analyze patented technologies and recent trends for the period from January 2003 to October 2014. Here Korea, the U.S., Japan, and Europe were considered. The results show that the number of patent applications for PPE remained steady without any sharp fluctuations. KIPO applications accounted for 43.5% of all cases, reflecting the highest proportion among the countries considered. Domestic applicants accounted for 94% of all cases. In Korea, patent applications were concentrated in safety gear for the face and eyes, indicating a high level of technology. The highest level of competition was observed for safety goggles in all countries. Some PPE technologies were dominated by a particular manufacturer. The analysis results for farming-related technologies show the current state of technologies and areas lacking technological development. This study analyzes patented technologies for PPE in Korea and other countries and recent research trends as part of the effort to develop PPE for workers in the farming and livestock industry. This study represents an early-stage effort to develop PPE for workers in the farming and livestock industry, and the results are expected to be useful for tailoring PPE to Korea's farming and livestock environment.

The Relationship between Frequency Score of Wearing Personal Protective Equipment and Concentration of Urinary Organophosphorus Pesticide Metabolites in Farmers (일부 농업인의 개인보호구 착용빈도 점수와 요 중 유기인계 농약 대사체 농도와의 연관성)

  • Choi, Jihee;Moon, Sun-In;Roh, Sangchul
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.45 no.6
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    • pp.583-593
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    • 2019
  • Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the frequency score of wearing personal protective equipment (PPE) and concentration of urinary organophosphorus pesticide metabolites in farmers. Methods: The study was conducted in Chungcheongnam-do Province of South Korea. We collected urine samples from 308 farmers from September to December 2017 and May to July 2018. Among them, 17 farmers with urinary creatinine levels outside the normal range were excluded. Information on the frequency of wearing PPE was obtained from the farmers through face-to-face survey. Each frequency of wearing for seven types of PPE was converted into a score and expressed as a total score, which was divided into quartiles. Four types of urinary organophosphorus pesticide metabolites were analyzed using a gas chromatography mass selective detector. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to identify concentrations of urinary organophosphorus pesticide metabolites affected by the frequency of wearing PPE. Results: The average frequency score of wearing PPE was 8.0. The quartiles of frequency score of wearing PPE were divided as follows: 1st quartile (≤1), 2nd quartile (1-6), 3rd quartile (6-12), and 4th quartile (>12). Compared with subjects with a low frequency score of wearing PPE (reference), subjects with a high frequency score of wearing PPE (4th quartile) had lower concentrations of urinary diethyl phosphate (DEP) (p<0.01) and dialkyl phosphate (ΣDAP) (p<0.05), which is the sum of dimethyl phosphate (DMP), DEP, dimethyl thiophosphate (DMTP), and diethyl thiophosphate (DETP). Conclusion: Concentrations of urinary organophosphorus pesticide metabolites were associated with frequency score of wearing PPE. Particularly as the frequency score of wearing PPE increased, concentrations of urinary DMP, DEP, DETP, and ΣDAP significantly decreased. The findings of this study can contribute to the management of health effects among farmers working with pesticides.

Convergence Education Effect of Donning and Doffing Personal Protective Equipment for Non-medical Personnel to the New Infectious Disease (신종감염병 대응 비의료인 전담요원 개인보호구 착탈의 융합 교육 효과)

  • Kim, Ji-Hyun;Kim, Sun-Ae;Jeon, In-Young;Kim, Jong-Im
    • Journal of the Korea Convergence Society
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    • v.11 no.5
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    • pp.353-361
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    • 2020
  • Objectives: This study was attempted to confirm the convergence education effect of donning and doffing Personal Protective Equipment(PPE) for Non-medical Personnel. Method: Three training sessions in 2018 were conducted for 28 dedicated staff who met Level D personal protective equipment. After the training, the scores of PPE donning and doffing were collected. Friedman and Wilcoxon's Signed-Ranks Tests were performed. Results: As the number of training increased, the score of doffing PPE increased significantly. And the differences by frequency, the score of the donning PPE was significantly increased in the 3rd rather than the 1st. However, the score of doff was increased in the first to third cases, but it was not significant. Conclusion: The results of this study found that the effect of doffing PPE education was relatively lower than that of donning practice. so the increase in the number of training sessions or the periodic training is important.

Personal Protective Equipment Availability and Utilization Among Interventionalists

  • Rose, Andre;Rae, William Ian Duncombe
    • Safety and Health at Work
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.166-171
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    • 2019
  • Objective: This study explored personal protective equipment (PPE) availability and PPE utilization among interventionalists in the catheterization laboratory, which is a highly contextualized workplace. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study using mixed methods. Participants (108) completed a survey. A hyperlink was sent to the participants, or they were asked to complete a paper-based survey. Purposively selected participants (54) were selected for individual (30) or group (six) interviews. The interviews were conducted at conferences, or appointments were made to see the participants. Logistic regression analysis was performed. The qualitative data were analyzed thematically. Results: Lead glasses were consistently used 10.2% and never used 61.1% of the time. All forms of PPE were inconsistently used by 92.6% of participants. Women were 4.3 times more likely to report that PPE was not available. PPE compliance was related to fit and availability. Conclusions: PPE use was inconsistent and not always available. Improving the culture of radiation protection in catheterization laboratories is essential to improve PPE compliance with the aim of protecting patients and operators. This culture of radiation protection must include all those involved including the users of PPE and the administrators and managers who are responsible for supplying sufficient, appropriate, fitting PPE for all workers requiring such protection.

Requirements of Improvement on Personal Protective Equipment and Experiences Exposed to Accidently High Risk Circumstance while Firefighting: A Questionnaire Study (화재진압 중 소방관의 돌발 고위험상황 노출 경험과 개인보호구 개선요구사항 실태조사)

  • Lee, Hyo-Hyun;Kim, Siyeon;Kim, Do-Hee;Kim, Do-Hyung;Lee, Joo-Young
    • 한국생활환경학회지
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    • v.24 no.5
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    • pp.549-561
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    • 2017
  • We conducted a nationalwide questionnaire to investigate accidental experiences and injuries at flashover or flame-fire for active firefighters in the line of duty. A total of 794 firefighters participated in this survey (764 males, 27 females, and 3 respondents; $39.2{\pm}8.4yr$ in age, $173.7{\pm}5.1cm$ in height, $73.4{\pm}8.6kg$ in body mass). The results showed that high risk circumstances the most frequently experienced while firefighting in Korea was flashover followed by backdraft, rollover and flameover. At the high risk circumstances the most frequently-experienced injuries were bruise, stabs and burns. Firefighters hoped to reduce the total mass of personal protective equipment (PPE), improve the mobility of the PPE and dexterity of protective gloves, so that they could escape from the high risk circumstances as fast as possible. In particular, requirements for improvement on protective gloves were greater than those on other PPE. The present study suggested that the need for improvements on the current firefighters' PPE to cope with emergency high risk situations in terms of PPE mass reduction and mobility.

Fundamental research for the development of personal protective equipment for emergency medical technicians (구급대원용 개인보호복 개발을 위한 기초연구)

  • No, Yoo-Min;Nam, Yun-Ja;Lee, Hye-Rin;Kim, Tae-Han;Kim, Chu-Hyun;Shin, Sang-Do
    • The Korean Journal of Emergency Medical Services
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.83-97
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    • 2018
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study was to provide basic data for the development of personal protective equipment (PPE) for emergency medical technicians (EMTs) during chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, and explosive situations. Methods: Body measurements were obtained for adults aged from 20 to 59 years from the data in the 6 th Size Korea national sizing survey. These data were compared to the sizes of protective clothing currently available in the market. In-depth interviews with active paramedics with experiences of wearing PPE were conducted. Results: Most of the imported protective clothing turned out to be unfit for Korean adults. This showed the urgent need for developing appropriately sized protective clothing for Korean emergency technicians. In total, 55.0% of the respondents indicated that the current protective clothing is unsafe, and 71.0% requested the clothing to have level C protective performance. Regarding the design, many people wanted hooded all-in-one type of clothing. Conclusion: Considering these requirements, most of the wearers wanted their protective clothing to be fundamentally protective of their body, be available in various sizes with adjustable parts, and easy to wear and take off. They also wanted the clothing to be secure in clear sight, while not revealing any parts of their body and not interfringe with their ability to communicate with others.