• Title, Summary, Keyword: Pesticide use indicator

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Survey on pesticide usage for the development of pesticide use indicator in fruit vegetables (농약사용 지표개발을 위한 과채류 농약사용실태 조사분석)

  • Oh, Kyeong-Seok;Ihm, Yang-Bin;Oh, Hong-Kyu;Lee, Byung-Moo;Kyung, Kee-Sung;Kim, Nam-Sook;Kim, Baek-Youn;Kim, Jeong-Won;Ryu, Gap-Hee
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.66-73
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    • 2003
  • Actual pesticide usage in fruit vegetable cultivation was surveyed. Usage trend of in of vidual pesticides was evaluated to provide the data for the development of indicators of environmental impact and the production of safe agricultural products. The amount of the pesticides used for fruit vegetables was revealed in order of fungicide> insecticide> herbicide, showing that the portion of fungicide to the total amount used was about 70 to 80%. Main fungicides used on fruit vegetables were mancozeb, thiophanate-methyl propineb, etc while the insecticides were imidacloprid, milbemectin, methomyl, etc. Main formulation types of pesticide were wettable powder and emulsifiable concentrate. By different fruit vegetables and cultivation patterns, pesticide use per unit area was revealed red pepper (field cultivation, 13.2kg/ha), cucumber (field cultivation, 12.4kg/ha), sweet melon (field cultivation, 11.2kg/ha) as high pesticide use crops, meanwhile, water melon (greenhouse cultivation, 1.2kg/ha), sweet melon (greenhouse cultivation, 2.2kg/ha), strawberry (field cultivation, 2.8kg/ha) as low pesticide use crops.

Survey on Pesticide Usage in Paddy Rice for the Establishment of Pesticide Use Indicator (농약사용 지표설정을 위한 수도용 농약사용량 조사분석)

  • Kwon, Oh-Kyung;Hong, Su-Myeong;Choi, Dal-Soon;Seong, Ki-Seog;Ihm, Yang-Bin;Kang, Chung-Kil;Song, Byeong-Hun;Oh, Byung-Youl
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.4 no.4
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    • pp.35-39
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    • 2000
  • In order to develop the indicators of environmental impact of pesticide, its actual usage in paddy rice was surveyed, and usage trends of individual pesticides were evaluated. The tendency of pesticide use indicated insecticide 43%, herbicide 29%, fungicide 27% and top ranking item in insecticide, herbicide and fungicide was carbofuran, molinate + pyrazosulfuran-ethyl, IBP. The usage statistics of formulation types showed GR>DP>WP>EC>FG>SP. Pesticide usage(a.i.) per hectare was 7.13kg and total usage for paddy rice was estimated at 8,387 M/T. In the result of comparison of fact-usage with pesticide consumption reported in 1998, the fitness was 94.7% for fungicide, 84.3% for insecticide, 77.8% for herbicide. The result of monitoring pesticide residue of unpolished-rice sampled from farm house of survey indicated 0.14 ppm(BPMC), 0.16 ppm(Isoprocarb), 0.17 ppm(Isoprothiolane). In case of rice straw, the residue level was 0.27 ppm(Isoprothiolane), 0.28 ppm(IBP), 0.39 ppm(Carbofuran). The residue levels of pesticides were below MRLs.

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Survey on Pesticide Usage in Fruit Crops for the Development of Pesticide Use Indicator (농약사용 지표개발을 위한 과수용 농약사용량 조사분석)

  • Kwon, Oh-Kyung;Hong, Su-Myeong;Choi, Dal-Soon;Park, Chan-Won;Song, Byeong-Hun;Ryu, Gap-Hee;Oh, Byung-Youl
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.5 no.4
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    • pp.40-44
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    • 2001
  • Pesticide actual usage in fruit crop cultivation was surveyed, and usage trends of individual pesticides were evaluated to provide data for the development of indicators of environmental impact. The amount of pesticide used for fruit crops indicated the order of fungicide>insecticide>herbicide unlike the case of paddy rice. The fungicide rate of total usage was 72% in apple cultivation. Top ranking fungicides used on fruits were Mancozeb, Propineb, Thiophanate-methyl and the main insecticides were Mancozeb, Propineb, Thiophanate-methyl. The usuage by formulation types showed the order of WP>EC>SL>SC>SP>WG. Pesticide usage (a.i.) per hectare by different fruits was citrus 48.6kg, apple 27.1kg, pear 18.6kg, persimmon 17.5kg, peach 11.3kg and grape 9.2kg. Comparison of pesticide usage (a.i.,kg/ha) in some fruit crops between Korea and USA indicated that more pesticides were used for citrus, pear and peach in USA than Korea while more pesticides were used in Korea than USA for apple.

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Insect natural enemies as bioindicators in rice paddies

  • Ueno, Takatoshi
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.39 no.4
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    • pp.545-553
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    • 2012
  • In Asia, including Japan and Korea, rice paddies occupy the largest cultivated area in agricultural land. Rice paddies provide the habitats for many organisms including endemic species, sustaining high biodiversity. Insect natural enemies inhabiting rice paddies have an important function for rice production as agents of 'ecosystem services' because they play a major role in suppressing rice pests. The diversity and abundance of natural enemies can be a good index reflecting the 'healthiness' of agro-ecosystem services in rice paddies. The present study investigates whether insect natural enemies could be good biological indicators for general arthropod biodiversity and agricultural practice. First, the concept of ideal bio-indicators was summarized. The strategy to explore and select such bio-indicators was then proposed. Lastly, field survey was made to evaluate the abundance and biodiversity of natural enemies in Japanese rice paddies where chemical inputs, i.e., insecticide use, were different. The results showed that reduction of chemical inputs led to an increase in species richness or diversity of natural enemies including parasitoids and predators. Then, the data were analyzed to examine suitable indicator species to assess environmental soundness of agricultural practice and biodiversity in rice paddies. The density of several species of natural enemies did respond both to pesticide use and to general arthropod biodiversity. The analyses thus have indicated that natural enemies can be suitable as bio-indicators. Usefulness of indicator species in rice paddies is discussed in the context of ecologically sound agriculture.

The Concentration Distribution and Temperature Dependence of Hexachlorocyclohexane in Rural Atmosphere (교외지역에서 대기 중 Hexachlorocyclohexane의 농도분포 및 온도 의존성)

  • 최민규;여현구;김태욱;천만영;선우영
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.183-192
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    • 2002
  • Concentrations of $\alpha$- and ${\gamma}$-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) were measured in ambient air samples at a two week intervals between July 1999 and February 2000 at Ansung, Kyonggi province. Their concentration levels averaged at 78 ($\alpha$-HCH) and 18 pg/m$^3$(${\gamma}$-HCH). Although the use of HCHs was ceased in South Korea since 1979, their residues are still present in air even after nearly 20 years. Given the composition of the two main HCH pesticide formulation (technical HCH antral lindane), the $\alpha$/${\gamma}$-HCH ratio in air is a useful indicator on the regional scale. The moderately low $\alpha$/${\gamma}$-HCH ration in this study indicates previous usage of both technical HCH and lindane. The relationship of temperature with gas-phase partial pressures was also examined using the Clausius-Clapeyron equation. Slopes generated by linear regression analysis between partial pressure (In P) and 1/T were considerably steep thor HCHs. It is thus suggested that their concentrations are controlled by re-volatilization processes from surfaces in the local surroundings of the sampling site.

Several causes of non virus-induced mosaic symptom on potato leaves and its induction by herbicides (감자 이상모자이크증상의 몇 가지 발생원인 및 제초제에 의한 증상 유기)

  • Kwon, Min;Hahm, Young-Il;Kim, Hyun-Jun;Yiem, Myoung-Soon
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.45-50
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    • 2001
  • In recent, non virus-induced mosaic symptoms(NVMS) on potato leaves were observed in the seed potato fields, and its incidence rate was $5{\sim}20%$ nationwide. It made difficult to rogue out virus-infected plants, and caused much arguments between seed potato production farmers and seed potato inspectors. The objectives of these experiments were to find out the causes of NVMS, and also to induce mosaic symptom(phytotoxicity) on potato plants by treatment of several herbicides. No significant correlations were found between incidence rates of NVMS and values from soil analyses; soil pH, soil EC, organic matter content, and contents of inorganic constituents($P_2O_5,\;NO_3$, Ca, Mg, K) in the soil around the potato planted. The examinations by ELISA, virus indicator plants, and TEM showed that NVMS on potato leaves was not caused by the viruses infection. But, the use of herbicides could induced the NVMS on potato leaves. The incidence rates of potato treated with pendimethalin linuron of 400 mL/10 a, pendimethalin of 200 mL/10 a, pendimethalin.oxadiazon of 300 mL/10 a, and control were 61.1%, 47.2%, 19.4%, and 1.4%, respectively. Based on these results, we confirmed that the treatment of pendimethalin alone and in mixture with other herbicides were the reason of NVMS on potato leaves. The yields among test plots were similar except dicamba treated plot, which decreased by about 23% compared to control plot. When their progenies harvested in 1999 were planted in the following season, no symptoms of mosaic were observed.

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