• 제목, 요약, 키워드: Phenylalanine Metabolism

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Fungal and Plant Phenylalanine Ammonia-lyase

  • Hyun, Min-Woo;Yun, Yeo-Hong;Kim, Jun-Young;Kim, Seong-Hwan
    • Mycobiology
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    • v.39 no.4
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    • pp.257-265
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    • 2011
  • L-Phenylalanine is one of the essential amino acids that cannot be synthesized in mammals in adequate amounts to meet the requirements for protein synthesis. Fungi and plants are able to synthesize phenylalanine via the shikimic acid pathway. L-Phenylalanine, derived from the shikimic acid pathway, is used directly for protein synthesis in plants or metabolized through the phenylpropanoid pathway. This phenylpropanoid metabolism leads to the biosynthesis of a wide array of phenylpropanoid secondary products. The first step in this metabolic sequence involves the action of phenylalanine ammonialyase (PAL). The discovery of PAL enzyme in fungi and the detection of $^{14}CO_2$ production from $^{14}C$-ring-labeled phenylalanine and cinnamic acid demonstrated that certain fungi can degrade phenylalanine by a pathway involving an initial deamination to cinnamic acid, as happens in plants. In this review, we provide background information on PAL and a recent update on the presence of PAL genes in fungi.

옥수수 깜부기균에 의한 페닐알라닌의 대사적 분해 (Metabolic Fate of Phenylalanine in the Corn Smut Fungus Ustilago maydis)

  • 현민우;김성환
    • 한국균학회지
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    • v.39 no.3
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    • pp.249-253
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    • 2011
  • Ustilago maydis(옥수수깜부기균)에 있어서 동포자 melanin의 구성성분으로 catecol 계 알려진바 이 물질의 전구체인 benzoic acid의 생성 여부와 그 유래 원천을 추적하고자 phenylalanine의 분해 과정을 조사하였다. 방사성 동위원소가 표지된 L-$^{14}C$-phenylalanine 및 $^{14}C$-trans-cinnamic acid를 첨가한 액체배지에서 균체와 배양액을 대상으로 대사산물을 추적 조사한 결과 trans-cinnamic acid, benzoic acid, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid와 hydroxybenzoic acid derivatives 추정되는 물질 등이 검출되었다. 또한 L-$^{14}C$-phenylalanine을 대사하여 매우 천천히 공기 중으로 $^{14}CO_2$를 방출함을 확인하여 phenylalanine을 완전히 분해 할 수 있음을 밝혔다. 결론적으로 본 연구는 옥수수깜부기균이 benzoic acid를 생성하고 그 유래는 phenylalanine의 분해에서 만들어지는 증거를 제시하였다.

Effects of Non-protein Energy Intake on Whole Body Protein Synthesis, Nitrogen Retention and Glucose Turnover in Goats

  • Fujita, Tadahisa;Kajita, Masahiro;Sano, Hiroaki
    • 아세아태평양축산학회지
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.536-542
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    • 2007
  • The responses of whole body protein and glucose kinetics and of nitrogen (N) metabolism to non-protein energy intake (NPEI) were determined using an isotope dilution approach and measurement of N balance in three adult male goats. The diets containing 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 times ME maintenance requirement, with fixed intake of CP (1.5 times maintenance) and percentage of hay (33%), were fed twice daily for each 21 d experimental period. After an adaptation period of 11 d, N balance was determined over 3 d. On day 17, whole body protein synthesis (WBPS) and glucose irreversible loss rate (ILR) were determined during the absorptive state by a primed-continuous infusion of [$^2H_5$]phenylalanine, [$^2H_2$]tyrosine, [$^2H_4$]tyrosine and [$^{13}C_6$]glucose, with simultaneous measurements of plasma concentrations of metabolites and insulin. Ruminal characteristics were also measured at 6 h after feeding over 3 d. Nitrogen retention tended to increase (p<0.10) with increasing NPEI, although digestible N decreased linearly (p<0.05). Increasing NPEI decreased (p<0.01) ammonia N concentration, but increased acetate (p<0.05) and propionate (p<0.05) concentrations in the rumen. Despite decreased plasma urea N concentration (p<0.01), increased plasma tyrosine concentration (p<0.05), and trends toward increased plasma total amino N (p<0.10) and phenylalanine concentrations (p<0.10) were found in response to increasing NPEI. Increasing NPEI increased ILR of both glucose (p<0.01) and phenylalanine (p<0.05), but did not affect ($p{\geq}0.10$) that of tyrosine. Whole body protein synthesis increased (p<0.05) in response to increasing NPEI, resulting from increased utilization rate for protein synthesis (p<0.05) and unchanged hydroxylation rate of phenylalanine ($p{\geq}0.10$). These results suggest that increasing NPEI may enhance WBPS and glucose turnover at the absorptive state and improve the efficiency of digestible N retention in goats, with possibly decreased ammonia and increased amino acid absorption. In addition, simultaneous increases in WBPS and glucose ILR suggest stimulatory effect of glucose availability on WBPS, especially when sufficient amino acid is supplied.

Biosynthesis of Phenylpropanoid Amides by an Endophytic Penicillium brasilianum Found in Root Bark of Melia azedarach

  • Fill, Taicia Pacheco;Silva, Bianca Ferreira Da;Rodrigues-Fo, Edson
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.622-629
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    • 2010
  • Biosynthetic studies on brasiliamides, potently convulsive and bacteriostatic compounds from an endophytic Penicillium brasilianum isolated from Melia azedarach (Meliaceae), confirms their phenylpropanoid origin, which is very uncommon in fungi. Feeding experiments with [$2-^{13}C$]-phenylalanine indicated the incorporation of two units of this amino acid on brasiliamide structures. The first step in the phenylpropanoid pathway to those compounds was evaluated through enzymatic bioassays and confirmed the phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) participation. The metabolism of phenylalanine in this fungus is discussed.

Phenylalanine and valine differentially stimulate milk protein synthetic and energy-mediated pathway in immortalized bovine mammary epithelial cells

  • Kim, Jungeun;Lee, Jeong-Eun;Lee, Jae-Sung;Park, Jin-Seung;Moon, Jun-Ok;Lee, Hong-Gu
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.62 no.2
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    • pp.263-275
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    • 2020
  • Studies on promoting milk protein yield by supplementation of amino acids have been globally conducted. Nevertheless, there is a lack of knowledge of what pathways affected by individual amino acid in mammary epithelial cells that produce milk in practice. Phenylalanine (PHE) and valine (VAL) are essential amino acids for dairy cows, however, researches on mammary cell levels are still lacking. Thus, the aim of this study was conducted to evaluate the effects of PHE and VAL on milk protein synthesis-related and energy-mediated cellular signaling in vitro using immortalized bovine mammary epithelial (MAC-T) cells. To investigate the effects of PHE and VAL, the following concentrations were added to treatment medium: 0, 0.3, 0.6, 0.9, 1.2, and 1.5 mM. The addition of PHE or VAL did not adversely affect cell viability compared to control group. The concentrations of cultured medium reached its maximum at 0.9 mM PHE and 0.6 mM VAL (p < 0.05). Therefore, aforementioned 2 treatments were analyzed for proteomics. Glucose transporter 1 and mammalian target of rapamycin mRNA expression levels were up-regulated by PHE (166% and 138%, respectively) (p < 0.05). Meanwhile, sodium-dependent neutral amino acids transporter type 2 (ASCT2) and β-casein were up-regulated by VAL (173% in ASCT2, 238% in and 218% in β-casein) (p < 0.05). A total of 134, 142, and 133 proteins were detected in control group, PHE treated group, and VAL treated group, respectively. Among significantly fold-changed proteins, proteins involved in translation initiation or energy metabolism were detected, however, expressed differentially between PHE and VAL. Thus, pathway analysis showed different stimulatory effects on energy metabolism and transcriptional pathways. Collectively, these results showed different stimulatory effects of PHE and VAL on protein synthesis-related and energy-mediated cellular signaling in MAC-T cells.

Aminophosphonic Acids 화합물의 생물학적 기능연구 (Study of Synthesis and Biological Function on Aminophosphonic Acids)

  • 김숙희
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.4 no.4
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    • pp.39-46
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    • 1971
  • Iso-butyl bromide의 합성을 시작으로 D.L-1-amino-3-methylbutylphosphonic acid의 합성을, Diethyl phophite의 합성을 시작으로 D.L-1-amino-2-phenyl ethylphosphonic acid의 합성을 하였다. 합성되어진 필수 아미노산인 Isoleucine analogue phosphonic acid는 각각 0.2%, 0.4%를 식이에 첨가했고 Phenylalanine analogue phosphonic acid는 0.35%와 0.7%를 각각 첨가하였으며 Standard-1과 Standard-2군과 비교군인 Isoleucine 0.2%와 0.4% Phenylalanine 0.35%와 0.7%군으로써 총 100마리의 숫쥐로 각 7주씩 14주의 사육 실험을 하였다. 동물 사육 기간내의 뇨채취와 사육후의 각 장기의 채취로써 총 질소와 P, glycogen측정을 시도하였다. 이러한 일련의 실험결과 (1) D.L-1-amino-3-methylbuthylphosphonic acid나D.L-1-amino-2-phenylethylphosphonic acid의 유기 합성에 있어서는 다 수율이 낮고 상당히 높은 융점을 보였으며 ${\alpha}-NH_2$기가 Ninhydrin 반응에 예민했다. (2) Aminophosphonic acid의 첨가군(D.L-1-amino-3-methylbutyl phosphonic acid, D.L-1-amino-2-Phenylethylphosphonic acid)에서나 Amino acid(Isoleucine, Phenylalanine)첨가군에 있어서 모든 장기의 무게, 총체내질소 보유율, 간장내 총단백질량과 인의양, 및 뇨를 통한 인의 배설량에 각각 큰 차이를 보이지 않았다. 이로 보아서 Phenylalanine Aminophosphonic acid나 Isoleucine aminophosphonic acid가 다 보통 아미노산인 Isoleucine이나 Phenylalanine에 못지않게 체내에서 이용됨이 밝혀졌다. (3) 그러나 Phenylalanine aminophosphonic acid 첨가군이 간의 glycogen 함량에 있어서 Phenylalanine 첨가군과 Standard군과 비교해 보았을때 높았으며 이는 통계적인 유의성을 나타냈다.(<0.05) 이는 Phenylalanine Aminophosphonic Acid가 active state로써 간내에서 쉽게 이용되어서 Tricarboxylic cycle의 intermediate로 incorporate되는 경향으로 생각 할 수 있다.

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화분립(花紛粒)의 영양생화학적(營養生化學的) 연구(硏究) -2. 해바라기 화분립(花紛粒)의 아미노산조성(産組成)과 RAT 간(肝) Alcoholdehydrogenase 활성(活性)에 미치는 영향(影響) (Nutritional and Biochemical Studies on the Pollen Loads -2. Amino Acid Composition of Sunflower Pollen Load and Its Effects on the Hepatic Alcohol Dehydrogenase(ADH) Activity in Rat-)

  • 윤수홍;안정임;권정숙
    • 한국식품영양과학회지
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.27-32
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    • 1985
  • 화분립이 alcohol대사에 미치는 영향을 알기 위하여 아미노산을 분석하고, rat에 alcohol과 화분립을 각각 농도별로 투여하여 rat 간(肝) alcoholdehydrogenase (ADH)활성과 간(肝)조직 변화를 실험하였다. 1. 해바라기 화분립의 아미노산 조성을 분석하여 phenylalanine을 비롯한 18종의 아미노산을 정량하였으며, 필수 아미노산중 특히 phenylalanine, leucine, threonine, lysine의 함량이 많았다. 2. 실험동물의 간(肝) ADH활성은 alcohol 투여군이 alcohol농도에 비례하여 대조군 보다 현저히 저하하였으며, 화분립을 alcohol과 함께 투여함으로써, 대조군에는 미치지 않았지만 ADH활성이 증가하였고, alcohol의 농도가 낮을수록 그 증가율이 높았다. 3. 실험동물의 간(肝)조직은 alcohol투여군에서 지방침윤이 나타났으며, 화분립과 alcohol 복합투여군에서는 지방침윤이 현저히 적게 나타났다.

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Modulation of Phosphoenolpyruvate Metabolism of Anaerobiospirillum succiniciproducens ATCC 29305

  • Yoo, Jin Young;J. Gregory Zeikus
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.43-49
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    • 1996
  • Modulation of the catabolic PEP-pathway of Anaerobiospirillum succiniciproducens was tried using some enzymatic inhibitors such as gases and chemicals in order to enhance succinic acid production. 10$\%$ CO increased the succinic acid/acetic acid (S/A) ratio but inhibited growth as well as production of succinic and acetic acid. Hydrogen gas also increased the S/A ratio and inhibited the synthesis of pyruvate: ferredoxin oxidoreductase when used in mixture with $CO_2$, Catabolic repression by acetic, lactic and formic acid was not recognized and other modulators such as glyoxylate, pyruvate derivatives, arsenic salt, phosphate and sulfate were shown not to be effective. Magesium carbonate was shown effective for repressing acetate production. Palmitic acid, myristic acid and phenylalanine did not affect acetate production but carprylic acid completely inhibited growth.

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Transcriptomic Analysis of Genes Modulated by Cyclo($\small{L}$-Phenylalanine-$\small{L}$-Proline) in Vibrio vulnificus

  • Kim, In Hwang;Son, Jee-Soo;Wen, Yancheng;Jeong, Sang-Min;Min, Ga-Young;Park, Na-Young;Lee, Keun-Woo;Cho, Yong-Joon;Chun, Jongsik;Kim, Kun-Soo
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.23 no.12
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    • pp.1791-1801
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    • 2013
  • Diketopiperazine is produced by various organisms, including bacteria, fungi, and animals, and has been suggested as a novel signal molecule involved in the modulation of genes with various biological functions. Vibrio vulnificus, which causes septicemia in humans, produces cyclo($\small{L}$-phenylalanine-$\small{L}$-proline) (cFP). To understand the biological roles of cFP, the effect of the compound on the expression of the total mRNA in V. vulnificus was assessed by next-generation sequencing. Based on the transcriptomic analysis, we classified the cFP-regulated genes into functional categories and clustered them according to the expression patterns resulted from treatment with cFP. From a total of 4,673 genes, excepting the genes encoding tRNA in V. vulnificus, 356 genes were up-regulated and 602 genes were down-regulated with an RPKM (reads per kilobase per million) value above 3. The genes most highly induced by cFP comprised those associated with the transport and metabolism of inorganic molecules, particularly iron. The genes negatively regulated by cFP included those associated with energy production and conversion, as well as carbohydrate metabolism. Noticeably, numerous genes related with biofilm formation were modulated by cFP. We demonstrated that cFP interferes significantly with the biofilm formation of V. vulnificus.

페파크로마토그라피에 依한 發芽綠豆의 遊離아미노酸代謝의 硏究 (第 1 報${\sim}$第 2 報) (第 1 報) 綠豆發芽에 따르는 遊離아미노酸 及 아미드의 變動에 關하여 (Studies on the Free Amino Acids Metabolism in Germinating Mung Bean by Paper Chromatography. (Part $1{\sim}2$) (Parkt 1). Variation of free Amino acids and Amides contents in germinating Mung Bean)

  • 김태린;송창원
    • 대한화학회지
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.9-14
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    • 1961
  • Ethanol extracts of Mung Bean seeds and seedings were analysed by 2-dimensional and circular paper partion chromatography for Nitrogen compounds as a part of the study on the Amino acids metabolism. In the seeds, 18 ninhydrin positive substances were present, before germination, but the number increased to 21 after germination. There were 3 unknown substances and one of it formed newly after germination. After 2-days germination, the amount of amides, such as Asparagine and Glutamine. where increased very large which were very small amount before it. Those were accumulated more in dark place than in light and the amount of Asparigine were more than that of Glutamine. Through the germination, there were large amount of Glutarmic acid, Aspartic acid and Alanine which seems to be concerned in transamination reaction in seedings. Valine, Leucine, and Phenylalanine increased to considerable amount after germination. This is very remarkable fact as those Amino acids were reported to be concerned in transamination reaction recently. ${\gamma}$-amino butyric acid was detected in both Cotyledon and Embroy through the germination. It seemed that there is no any Nitrogen Metabolism in the unbroken seed even if it is preserved very long period.

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