• Title, Summary, Keyword: Phenylalanine Metabolism

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A Biostimulant Preparation of Brown Seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum Suppresses Powdery Mildew of Strawberry

  • Bajpai, Sruti;Shukla, Pushp Sheel;Asiedu, Samuel;Pruski, Kris;Prithiviraj, Balakrishnan
    • The Plant Pathology Journal
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    • v.35 no.5
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    • pp.406-416
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    • 2019
  • Strawberry, an important fruit crop, is susceptible to a large number of pathogens that reduce fruit quality and productivity. In this study, the effect of a biostimulant prepared from Ascophyllum nodosum extract (ANE) (0.1%, 0.2%, and 0.3%) was evaluated on powdery mildew progression under greenhouse and field conditions. In the greenhouse, application of 0.2% ANE showed maximum reduction in powdery mildew progression as compared to the control. Forty-eight hour post-inoculation, foliar spray of 0.2% ANE reduced spore germination by 75%. Strawberry leaves sprayed with ANE showed higher total phenolic and flavonoid content in response to powdery mildew infection. Furthermore, application of ANE elicited defense response in strawberry plants by induction of defense-related enzymes, such as phenylalanine ammonia lyase, polyphenol oxidase, and peroxidase activity. In field conditions, foliar spray of 0.2% ANE showed a reduction of 37.2% of natural incidence of powdery mildew infection as compared to the control. ANE sprayed plant also reduces the severity of powdery mildew infection under natural conditions. These results indicate that application of ANE induces the strawberry plant's active defense against powdery mildew infection by induction of secondary metabolism and regulating the activities of defense-related enzymes.

담배의 바이러스 병엽과 건전엽에 있어서의 유이아미노산에 관한 정량적 연구(예보)

  • 이광업
    • Journal of Plant Biology
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.1-4
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    • 1964
  • A comparative study of free amino acid content in healthy and virus diseased tobacco leaves was carried out by author throughout the gorwing season from June to November of 1963. The methods of qualitative analysis of free amino acids applied in this experiment is followed by Moore and Stein. 1,2 Free amino acids determined in this experiment are shown in Fig. Ⅰ, Ⅱ and Table Ⅰ. As the figure and the table are shown, four more amino acids such as a spartic acid, glutamic acid, tyrosine and phenylalanine are detected in the healthy leaves; these four additional amino acids in the healthy leaves are conspicuous. More quantities of asparagine and alanine are detected in the diseased leaves than the healthy leaves and more quantities of tryptophan is detected in the healthy leaves. It is presumed that such amino acids as tyrosine and phenyllanine are decreased by the incooperation of free amino acid to TMV protein in the process of the process of the leaf protein metabolism which is caused by TMV-RNA trapping action in the diseased leaf protoplasm. It is thought that the decrease of asparagine and the increase of asparic acid in the healthy leaves are the results of in incooperaton of NH2, produced by the protein dissimilation in the diseased leaves, to aspartic acid; it's reaction is caused by the respiration of the diseased leaves accelerated by TMV attack. It is presumed, consequently, that the check of the diseased tobacco leave growth is influenced by the reduction of such amino acids as tryptophane and glutamic acid, which reduction may be due to the abnormal protein metabolism and the action of certain enzyme caused by TMV attack on host protoplast.

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Studies on the Cellular Metabolism in Microorganisms as influenced by Gamma-irradiation(I) On environmental effects upon radiosensitivities of Lactobacillus and Saccharmyces cerevisiae. (미생물의 세포생리에 미치는 전이방사선의 영향에 관한 연구 1 (제 1 ) 및 의 전이방사선 에 미치는 의 영향에 관하여)

  • 김종협
    • Korean Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.1-6
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    • 1967
  • The environmental effects on radio-sensitivities of Lactobacillus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were studied; Liquid suspensions of Lactobacillus and yeast were gamma-irradiated under various conditions; temperatures, hydrogen ion concentrations, amino acids and vitamins were treated seperately with variations of concentrations. (shown in figures) It is found that simultaneous heat treatment is effective to sterilize microorganisms than pre after treatment, and concentration of hydrogen ion does not affect the lethalty of yeast but or Lactobacilli was affect at the range of pH. 5.0 to 7.0. Ascorbic acid, thiamin and pyridoxine were protective dependently against lethal action of gamma-ray and its protective effects increase with the increasings of concentrations. Glutamic acid, aspartic acid, tyrosine and phenylalanine were proved to be protective for both strains at 0.1 between 1.0 percent. It can be suggested that industrial sterilizing doses of irradiation by gamma-ray for food should be applied more than those dose of saline or buffer suspension, because natural food stuffs are rich of vitamins and amino acids.

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Biochemistry of Salicylic Acid and its Role in Disease Resistance

  • Lee, Hyung-Il;Raskin, Ilya
    • Korean Journal of Plant Tissue Culture
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.233-238
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    • 1997
  • Salicylic acid (SA) is involved in the establishment of systemic acquired resistance (SAR) in many plant including tobacco. Considering the important role of SA in disease resistance, biosynthetic and metabolic pathways of SA in tobacco have been studied extensively: The initial step for biosynthetic pathway of SA is conversion of phenylalanine to trans-cinnamic acid, followed by decarboxylation of trans-cinnamic acid to benzoic acid and ie subsequent ring hydroxylation at the C-2 position to form SA. In TMV inoculated tobacco, most of the newly synthesized SA is glucosylated or methylated. Methyl salicylate has been identified as a biologically active, volatile signal. In contrast, the two glucosylated forms accumulate in the vicinity of lesions and consist of SA glucoside, a major metabolite, and SA glucose ester, a relatively minor from. Two enzymes involved in SA biosynthesis and metabolism have been purified and characterized : benzoic acid 2-hydroxylase which catalyzes conversion of benzoic acid to SA; UDP-Glucose: SA 1-O-D glucosyltransferase which converts SA to SA glucose ester. Further studies of the biosynthetic and metabolic pathways of SA will help to elucidate the SAR signal transduction pathway and provide potential tools for the manipulation of disease resistance.

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Free Amino Acids of Xylem-Pith in Panax ginseng Root. (인삼근동체중심부의 유리아미노산)

  • Lee, Mee-Kyoung;Park, Hoon
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.32-38
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    • 1987
  • Composition of free amino acids (FAA) in the central part (xylem plus piths,of tap root in P. ginseng was investigated in velation to stem status at harvest. The sum of FAA tended to be higher with dead stem than with healthy one but both were not significantly different. The sum of FAA (3.6-4.9% dried weight) was much less than total FAA, suggesting that water soluble nonprotein fraction contained large quantity of ninhydrih positive components except FAA. Pattern of amino acid composition between both stem status was not different. Ten of all 17 amino acids showed increasing tendency with dead stem and two, glutamic acid and cysteine, decreasing. Major FAA were arginine (relative content 58%), glycine (8.2), lysine (5.9), serine (5.7), glutamic acid (4.2) and aspartic acid (3.5). Above facts strongly suggest that the inside white of red ginseng did not closely related with FAA and that early defoliation or stem death did not decrease FAA. The content of arginine was heighest in all cases reported indicating the important role of nitrogen metabolism. Pattern of PAA composition except arginine was not different in present samples but greatly different with other cases reported mainly due to alanine, phenylalanine, glycine and proline.

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Mutational Analysis of Korean Patients with Phenylketonuria

  • Koo, Soo Kyung;Lee, Kwang-Soo;Jung, Sung-Chul;Lee, Jong-Eun;Lee, Dong Hwan
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Inherited Metabolic disease
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.5-12
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    • 2004
  • Purpose Phenylketonuria is an inborn error of metabolism, which is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait. PKU is resulting from deficiency of phenylalanine hydroxylase. PAH gene spans about 90 kb on chromosome 12q and comprises 13 exons. In order to define the genetic basis of PKU and the frequencies and distribution of PAH mutations in the Korean population, we analyzed PAH gene in independent 80 patients with PKU. Methods All 13 exons including exon-intron boundaries and 2 kb of 5' upstream region of the PAH gene were analyzed by PCR-direct sequencing methods. Results PAH gene analysis revealed 39 different mutations including 10 novel mutations. The novel mutations consisted of 9 missense mutations (P69S, G103S, N207D, T278S, P281A, L293M, G332V, S391I and A447P) and a novel splice site variant (IVS10-3C>G). R243Q, IVS4-1G>A, and E6-96A>G were the most relevant mutations and they accounted in the whole for 38% of the mutant alleles identified in this study. We also observed that. $BH_4$ responsibility was. associated with genotype of R241C, R53H and R408Q. Conc1ustion Our present study with 80 participants extends the previous results to more comprehensive understanding of PAH allele distribution and frequency in Koreans. Although Korean mutation profile of PAH is similar to those of the nearest oriental populations (Japanese, Chinese, and Taiwanese), several different characteristic features are revealed. The characterization of the genotype-phenotype relationship was also performed. Our data would be very useful information for diagnosis, genetic counseling and planning of dietary and therapeutic strategies in Korean PAH patients.

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Expression of Genes Affecting Skin Coloration and Sugar Accumulation in 'Hongro' Apple Fruits at Ripening Stages in High Temperatures (고온에 의한 변색단계별 '홍로' 사과의 착색 및 당 축적 관련 유전자 발현 분석)

  • Kim, Seon Ae;Ahn, Soon Young;Yun, Hae Keun
    • Protected Horticulture and Plant Factory
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.9-15
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    • 2016
  • High temperature is one of the important environmental factors limiting cultivation of apple (Malus domestica Borkh). The expression of genes related with anthocyanin synthesis and sugar accumulation in response to high temperature was studied in the 'Hongro' apple fruits at different developmental stages in different temperature conditions through real-time PCR. Expression of ${\hat{a}}$-amylase (BMY) and polygalacturonase (PG) genes related with sugar synthesis was higher in late ripening stages than in initial ripening stages. Expression of four genes such as phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), chalcone synthase (CHS), flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H), and malate dehydrogenase (MDH), which were related with fruit skin coloration, increased gradually in apple fruits of the middle and late ripening stages. Interestingly, the expressions of all genes were highly inhibited expressed at $30-35^{\circ}C$ compared to $25^{\circ}C$ in all ripening stages. In the further work, investigation of expression levels of various genes could be conducted in the level of transcriptomics in fruits at the middle ripening stages to get meaningful information of ripening metabolism in apple in high temperatures.

Obesity-Associated Metabolic Signatures Correlate to Clinical and Inflammatory Profiles of Asthma: A Pilot Study

  • Liu, Ying;Zheng, Jing;Zhang, Hong Ping;Zhang, Xin;Wang, Lei;Wood, Lisa;Wang, Gang
    • Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research
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    • v.10 no.6
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    • pp.628-647
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    • 2018
  • Purpose: Obesity is associated with metabolic dysregulation, but the underlying metabolic signatures involving clinical and inflammatory profiles of obese asthma are largely unexplored. We aimed at identifying the metabolic signatures of obese asthma. Methods: Eligible subjects with obese (n = 11) and lean (n = 22) asthma underwent body composition and clinical assessment, sputum induction, and blood sampling. Sputum supernatant was assessed for interleukin $(IL)-1{\beta}$, -4, -5, -6, -13, and tumor necrosis factor $(TNF)-{\alpha}$, and serum was detected for leptin, adiponectin and C-reactive protein. Untargeted gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS)-based metabolic profiles in sputum, serum and peripheral blood monocular cells (PBMCs) were analyzed by orthogonal projections to latent structures-discriminate analysis (OPLS-DA) and pathway topology enrichment analysis. The differential metabolites were further validated by correlation analysis with body composition, and clinical and inflammatory profiles. Results: Body composition, asthma control, and the levels of $IL-1{\beta}$, -4, -13, leptin and adiponectin in obese asthmatics were significantly different from those in lean asthmatics. OPLS-DA analysis revealed 28 differential metabolites that distinguished obese from lean asthmatic subjects. The validation analysis identified 18 potential metabolic signatures (11 in sputum, 4 in serum and 2 in PBMCs) of obese asthmatics. Pathway topology enrichment analysis revealed that cyanoamino acid metabolism, caffeine metabolism, alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolism, phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan biosynthesis, pentose phosphate pathway in sputum, and glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism, glycerolipid metabolism and pentose phosphate pathway in serum are suggested to be significant pathways related to obese asthma. Conclusions: GC-TOF-MS-based metabolomics indicates obese asthma is characterized by a metabolic profile different from lean asthma. The potential metabolic signatures indicated novel immune-metabolic mechanisms in obese asthma with providing more phenotypic and therapeutic implications, which needs further replication and validation.

Studies on the Cellular Metabolism in Microorganisms as Influenced by Gamma-irradiation.(III) On the Changes of Protein content and Free Amino acid Pool in Yeast cells irradiated by $\gamma$-ray. (미생물의 세포생리에 미치는 전이방사선의 영향에 관한 연구(제 3보) - 효모균의 단백질함량 및 Free Amino acid Pool 에 대한 $\gamma$-ray 의 영향)

  • 김종협
    • Korean Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.79-85
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    • 1967
  • Kim, Jong Hyup., (Div. of Biology, Atomic Energy Research Institute,Korea.;) Studies on the Cellulor Metabolism in Microorganisms as influenced by Gamma-irradiation(III): On the Changes of Free Amino acid Pool and content of Protein in Yeast clls irradiated by .gamma.-ray. 1. The strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae had been cultured synchronously in aerobic condition and irradiatel by gamma-ray from the source of cobalt-60. Drying in vacuum oven at $90^{\circ}C$ C over 12 hours, then changes of protein content (Kjeldahl) and free amino acid pool have been assayed with use of spectrophotometer. Results obtained were compared with those of unirradiated normal cells. 2. It is proved that amount of protein content in the irradiated cells increases to seven percent more than those of normal cells in the same weight of dried samples. It seems like carbohydrate breakown had been stimulated by irradiation and that relative contents of protein shows higher values than those of normal in the same weight of samples. 3. The amount of free amino acid pool in the irradiated cells shows less value about ten percent than those of normal cells, and rate of decreasing is also weak than those of standard reagent solution of amino acid. We may assume that free amino acid pool would be protected against radiation damage in living cells and more stable than in vitro. 4. The component of free amino acid pool have been assayed on second dimensional paper chromatogram, and the identified amino acids are as follows; aspartic acid, serine, glutamic acid, cystine, lysine, glycine, threonine, histidine, arginine, tyrosine, phenylalanine, valine and leucine. 5. Distributional presence of free amino acids are identical to that of normal cells except arginine, it is cosumable that radiation effect is univerlsal to all amino acid. However it is obvious that there are differences in radiolabilities of amino acids in irradiated cells.

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Simulation of the Effect of Protein Quality at the Different Protein Intake Level on Protein Metabolism (각기 다른 단백질섭취 수준에서 본 식이단백질의 질이 단백질대사에 미치는 영향 -Simulation Model을 이용하여-)

  • 이옥희
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.26 no.9
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    • pp.1033-1048
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    • 1993
  • This study was designed to describe the effect of the protein quality at different intake level of protein on the protein metabolism in the whole body of growing pigs with a simulation model. Varying to the protein level in feeds, four simulations were conducted. The feed protein level, represented as proportions of digestible protein to the metabolic energy (DP/ME, g/MJ), were 6-8, 11-13, 17-19, and 23-25 DP/ME, respectively. Two protein quality and six weeks of growth time were used at each simulation. The objective function for the simulations was protein deposition in the whole body, which was calculated from the experimental results. The parameters in the simulation were determined by the parameter estimation technique. The results obtained from the simulation were as follows: The protein synthesis and breakdown rates(g/day) in the whole body was increased with the increase of protein quality only at lower or required level of protein intake. They showed a parallel behavior in the course of growth, irrespective of quality and level of feed protein intake. The simulated protein deposition and protein synthesis showed a linear relationship between them at different protein quality and level. The affinity parameter showed a linear relationship between them at different protein quality and level. The affinity parameter showed that arginine, tryptophan and isoleucine were more efficient in the stimulation ofbody protein synthesis. Lysine and phenylalanine+tyrosine were less efficient. The oxidation parameter showed that histidine, pheyalanine+tyrosine were less efficient. The oxidation parameter showed that histidine, phenyalanine+tyrosine, and methionine+cystine were oxidized in larger magnitude than lysine and threonine. The oxidation parameter of most amino acids increased with the increase of protein intake beyond the requirement level, but not any more at highest protein intake level. Finally it was found that the improvement of feed protein quality at the lower or required level of protein intake increase protein deposition through a parallel increase of protein synthesis and breakdown.

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