• Title, Summary, Keyword: Phenylalanine Metabolism

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Changes in element accumulation, phenolic metabolism, and antioxidative enzyme activities in the red-skin roots of Panax ginseng

  • Zhou, Ying;Yang, Zhenming;Gao, Lingling;Liu, Wen;Liu, Rongkun;Zhao, Junting;You, Jiangfeng
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.41 no.3
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    • pp.307-315
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    • 2017
  • Background: Red-skin root disease has seriously decreased the quality and production of Panax ginseng (ginseng). Methods: To explore the disease's origin, comparative analysis was performed in different parts of the plant, particularly the epidermis, cortex, and/or fibrous roots of 5-yr-old healthy and diseased red-skin ginseng. The inorganic element composition, phenolic compound concentration, reactive oxidation system, antioxidant concentrations such as ascorbate and glutathione, activities of enzymes related to phenolic metabolism and oxidation, and antioxidative system particularly the ascorbate-glutathione cycle were examined using conventional methods. Results: Aluminum (Al), iron (Fe), magnesium, and phosphorus were increased, whereas manganese was unchanged and calcium was decreased in the epidermis and fibrous root of red-skin ginseng, which also contained higher levels of phenolic compounds, higher activities of the phenolic compound-synthesizing enzyme phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and the phenolic compound oxidation-related enzymes guaiacol peroxidase and polyphenoloxidase. As the substrate of guaiacol peroxidase, higher levels of $H_2O_2$ and correspondingly higher activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase were found in red-skin ginseng. Increased levels of ascorbate and glutathione; increased activities of $\text\tiny L$-galactose 1-dehydrogenase, ascorbate peroxidase, ascorbic acid oxidase, and glutathione reductase; and lower activities of dehydroascorbate reductase, monodehydroascorbate reductase, and glutathione peroxidase were found in red-skin ginseng. Glutathione-S-transferase activity remained constant. Conclusion: Hence, higher element accumulation, particularly Al and Fe, activated multiple enzymes related to accumulation of phenolic compounds and their oxidation. This might contribute to red-skin symptoms in ginseng. It is proposed that antioxidant and antioxidative enzymes, especially those involved in ascorbate-glutathione cycles, are activated to protect against phenolic compound oxidation.

Effects of dietary protein of hog hair on the nutrients metabolism in poultry (돈모 단백질의 급여가 닭의 영양소 대사에 미치는 영향)

  • Oh, Hyun-Min;Park, Noh-Sung;Jo, Chi-Hyun;Kim, Sung-Bok;Lim, Jae-Sam;Lee, Bong-Duk;Lee, Soo-Kee
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.38 no.4
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    • pp.651-657
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    • 2011
  • Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of feeding hog hair protein (HHP) on the nutritional value for poultry. In experiment 1, twenty roosters of Hanhyup-3 strain were alloted, and metabolizability of HHAA was measured. In experiment 2, forty roosters of Hanhyup-3 strain were alloted to 0, 3, 7.6 and 15.1% of HHAA treatments, 10 birds per treatment, and measured feed utilization and blood parameters. In experiment 1, no trend was found in excretion of amino acid, high in glysine and glutelin, low in valine, threonine, and methionine. HHAA metabolizability of serine, phenylalanine, alanine, and isoleucine was more higher than that of lysine, cystine, asparagine, and tyrosine. In experiment 2, as the HHAA level increased, feed intake decreased significantly in 15.1% treatment, but water intake increased significantly in 15.1% traetment. Dry matter and nitrogen metabolizability decreased in 7.6 and 15.1% treatments. Although no significant difference was found among three treatments(0, 3, and 5.7%), as the HHAA level increased, dry matter and nitrogen metabolizability decreased. Serum creatinine level was significantly increased in 15.1% treatment. In conclusion, it is considered that proper level to substitute soybean meal by HHAA was 10%.

Genomics Reveals Traces of Fungal Phenylpropanoid-flavonoid Metabolic Pathway in the Filamentous Fungus Aspergillus oryzae

  • Juvvadi Praveen Rao;Seshime Yasuyo;Kitamoto Katsuhiko
    • Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.43 no.6
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    • pp.475-486
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    • 2005
  • Fungal secondary metabolites constitute a wide variety of compounds which either playa vital role in agricultural, pharmaceutical and industrial contexts, or have devastating effects on agriculture, animal and human affairs by virtue of their toxigenicity. Owing to their beneficial and deleterious characteristics, these complex compounds and the genes responsible for their synthesis have been the subjects of extensive investigation by microbiologists and pharmacologists. A majority of the fungal secondary metabolic genes are classified as type I polyketide synthases (PKS) which are often clustered with other secondary metabolism related genes. In this review we discuss on the significance of our recent discovery of chalcone synthase (CHS) genes belonging to the type III PKS superfamily in an industrially important fungus, Aspergillus oryzae. CHS genes are known to playa vital role in the biosynthesis of flavonoids in plants. A comparative genome analyses revealed the unique character of A. oryzae with four CHS-like genes (csyA, csyB, csyC and csyD) amongst other Aspergilli (Aspergillus nidulans and Aspergillus fumigatus) which contained none of the CHS-like genes. Some other fungi such as Neurospora crassa, Fusarium graminearum, Magnaporthe grisea, Podospora anserina and Phanerochaete chrysosporium also contained putative type III PKSs, with a phylogenic distinction from bacteria and plants. The enzymatically active nature of these newly discovered homologues is expected owing to the conservation in the catalytic residues across the different species of plants and fungi, and also by the fact that a majority of these genes (csyA, csyB and csyD) were expressed in A. oryzae. While this finding brings filamentous fungi closer to plants and bacteria which until recently were the only ones considered to possess the type III PKSs, the presence of putative genes encoding other principal enzymes involved in the phenylpropanoid and flavonoid biosynthesis (viz., phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, cinnamic acid hydroxylase and p-coumarate CoA ligase) in the A. oryzae genome undoubtedly prove the extent of its metabolic diversity. Since many of these genes have not been identified earlier, knowledge on their corresponding products or activities remain undeciphered. In future, it is anticipated that these enzymes may be reasonable targets for metabolic engineering in fungi to produce agriculturally and nutritionally important metabolites.

Studies on the Biological and Chemical Properties of Musty Ginseng Root and its Causal Mechanism (적변삼의 생물.화학적 특성과 그 발생원인에 관하여)

  • 정영륜;오승환
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.24-35
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    • 1985
  • Rusty root of ginseng has been known as one of the limiting factors in ginseng production in Korea. An attempt was, therefore, made to elucidate biological and chemical natures of the rusty root, and the redox Potential of the ginseng cultivated soils were measured and compared with diseased and non-diseased soils. Reddish discoloration was most frequently observed on the epidermis of ginseng root and the pigments were accumulated in all epidermal cells of the diseased lesions. The lower the redox potential of the ginseng cultivated soil was, the more severe the rusty root was observed. Fe content in the diseased epidermis was 3 times higher than that of healthy one. Organic acids such as oxalic, malonic, succinic, and citric acids were also higher in the mss root than in the healthy one. Thin layer chromatogram of phenolic acid fractions obtained from the epidermal cells of the rusty root of ginseng exhibited 3 to 4 unidentified substances not found in the healthy root. Also lignification of the epidermal cells and the activity of phenylalanine ammonia lyase were greater in the rusty root than the healthy root. Colony formation and conidia production of F. solani, And mycelial growth and sclerotium formation of Sclerotinia sp. isolated from ginseng root were suppressed in a nutritionally minimal medium supplemented with water extract of rusty ginseng root epidermis. It is, therefore, suggested that rusty root of ginseng is caused by unfavorable rhizosphere environmental stress or stresses resulting abnormal metabolism in the root as a selfdefence mechanism of non-specific resistance responses.

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Hereditary Tyrosinemia Type I (Hereditary Tyrosinemia Type I 환아의 NTBC 치료 경험)

  • Kang, Hyun-Young;Kim, Sook Za;Song, Wung Joo;Chang, Mi-Young
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Inherited Metabolic disease
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.13-17
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    • 2004
  • Hereditary tyrosinemia type I (fiunarylacetoacetate hydrolase deficiency) is an autosomal recessive inborn error of tyrosine metabolism that results in liver failure in infancy or chronic liver disease with cirrhosis, frequently complicated by hepatocellular carcinoma in childhood or early adolescence. Early detection of this condition is very important to early intervention for better prognosis of patients. Neonatal screening test using tandem mass spectrometry (MS-MS) is performed, and this method facilitates detection of the inborn error of tyrosine. For early treatment of tyrosinemia type I, phenylalanine and tyrosine restricted diet and NTBC (2-nitro-4-trifluoromethylbenzoyl-1,3-cyclohexanedione) for inhibition of succinylacetone production are recommended. We studied a 10-month-old Korean boy with tyrosinemia type I whose condition was not discovered earlier through conventional neonatal screening testing available in Korea. The patient presented hyperbilirubinemia, liver failure, bleeding tendency, colicky pain and skin melanin pigmentation in neonatal period. MS-MS made it possible to detect tyrosinemia type I and allowed immediate treatment of the patient. This was the first successful NTBC trial on tyrosinemia type I patient in Korea.

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Antiviral Activity of the Exopolysaccharide Produced by Serratia sp. Strain Gsm01 Against Cucumber Mosaic Virus

  • Ipper, Nagesh S.;Cho, Sae-Youll;Lee, Seon-Hwa;Cho, Jun-Mo;Hur, Jang-Hyun;Lim, Chun-Keun
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.67-73
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    • 2008
  • The potential of the exopolysaccharide (EPS) from a Serratia sp. strain Gsm01 as an antiviral agent against a yellow strain of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV-Y) was evaluated in tobacco plants (Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanthi-nc). The spray treatment of plants using an EPS preparation, 72h before CMV-Y inoculation, protected them against symptom appearance. Fifteen days after challenge inoculation with CMV-Y, 33.33% of plants showed mosaic symptoms in EPS-treated plants compared with 100% in the control plants. The EPS-treated plants, which showed mosaic symptoms, appeared three days later than the controls. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analyses of the leaves of the protected plants revealed that the EPS treatment affected virus accumulation in those plants. Analysis of phenylalanine ammonia lyase, peroxidase, and phenols in protected plants revealed enhanced accumulation of these substances. The pathogenesis-related (PR) genes expression represented by PR-lb was increased in EPS-treated plants. This is the first report of a systemic induction of protection triggered by EPS produced by Serratia sp. against CMV-Y.

Differential Diagnosis of Hyperphenylalaninemias (고페닐알라닌혈증의 진단 및 평가)

  • Lee, Jeongho
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Inherited Metabolic disease
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.110-117
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    • 2015
  • All infants should be screened for phenylketonuria (PKU) within the three days of life, in order to allow timely dietary intervention to protect children with PKU from neurologic damage in Korea. A commonly used cut-off level for diagnosis of PKU is $240{\mu}mol/L$ (4 mg/dL). Up to 2% of cases of hyperphenylalaninemias (HPA) detected by the screening test will account for a disorder of $BH_4$ metabolism. Therefore, analysis of blood or urinary pterins is essential, backed up with measurement of DHPR activity, as this allows differentiation of $BH_4$ disorders. A $BH_4$ loading test and measurement of neurotransmitters in CSF provide further important information to the severity of $BH_4$ deficiency and $BH_4$ loading test can detect patients with $BH_4$ deficiency and $BH_4$ responsive PKU. Several protocols for $BH_4$ loading test have been described, involving treatment with $BH_4$ for periods ranging from 1 day to 1 month, and using doses of $BH_4$ of 10-20 mg/kg. There is general agreement that a reduction on blood phenylalanine of at least 30% in response to $BH_4$ loading indicates a clinically significant effect, although in some tests a lower cut-off value may be defined for individual patients, or no specific cut-off value is proposed. The frequency of $BH_4$ responsiveness is highest in patients with mild HPA and mild to moderate PKU resulting from PAH mutations with residual activity.

A Case with Tyrosinemia Type I Detected by Neonatal Screening Test (신생아 대사이상 선별검사 이상으로 진단된 I형 타이로신혈증)

  • Sohn, Young Bae;Lee, Hae-Sang;Lee, Jang Hoon;Hwang, Jin Soon
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Inherited Metabolic disease
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.99-103
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    • 2012
  • Tyrosinemia type I is an autosomal recessive inborn error of tyrosine metabolism that caused a mutation. Clinical symptoms include progressive liver damage with liver failure, coagulopathy, hypophosphataemic rickets, renal tubular dysfunction and a high risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. If left untreated, the affected infants may die from liver failure within the first year of life. PharmacoloIcal therapy with 2-(2-nitro-4-trifluoromethylbenzoyl)-1,3-cyclohexanedione (NTBC) has offered an effective therapeutic option in addition to dietary restriction of tyrosine and phenylalanine. As prognosis of tyrosinemia type I is improving with early diagnosis and early treatments, it meets the criteria for a condition that would benefit from newborn screening. We report a case of tyrosinemia type I diagnosed by newborn screening and successive biochemical analysis of plasma and urine, treated by dietary restriction and NTBC.

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Global prevalence of classic phenylketonuria based on Neonatal Screening Program Data: systematic review and meta-analysis

  • Shoraka, Hamid Reza;Haghdoost, Ali Akbar;Baneshi, Mohammad Reza;Bagherinezhad, Zohre;Zolala, Farzaneh
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.63 no.2
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    • pp.34-43
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    • 2020
  • Phenylketonuria is a disease caused by congenital defects in phenylalanine metabolism that leads to irreversible nerve cell damage. However, its detection in the early days of life can reduce its severity. Thus, many countries have started disease screening programs for neonates. The present study aimed to determine the worldwide prevalence of classic phenylketonuria using the data of neonatal screening studies.The PubMed, Web of Sciences, Sciences Direct, ProQuest, and Scopus databases were searched for related articles. Article quality was evaluated using the Joanna Briggs Institute Critical Appraisal Evaluation Checklist. A random effect was used to calculate the pooled prevalence, and a phenylketonuria prevalence per 100,000 neonates was reported. A total of 53 studies with 119,152,905 participants conducted in 1964-2017 were included in this systematic review. The highest prevalence (38.13) was reported in Turkey, while the lowest (0.3) in Thailand. A total of 46 studies were entered into the meta-analysis for pooled prevalence estimation. The overall worldwide prevalence of the disease is 6.002 per 100,000 neonates (95% confidence interval, 5.07-6.93). The meta-regression test showed high heterogeneity in the worldwide disease prevalence (I2=99%). Heterogeneity in the worldwide prevalence of phenylketonuria is high, possibly due to differences in factors affecting the disease, such as consanguineous marriages and genetic reserves in different countries, study performance, diagnostic tests, cutoff points, and sample size.

Transcriptome profiling of rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) discovers candidate regulators of the cold stress response

  • Gong, Xiao-Xiao;Yan, Bing-Yu;Hu, Jin;Yang, Cui-Ping;Li, Yi-Jian;Liu, Jin-Ping;Liao, Wen-Bin
    • Genes and Genomics
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    • v.40 no.11
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    • pp.1181-1197
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    • 2018
  • Tropical plant rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) is the sole source of commercial natural rubber and low-temperature stress is the most important limiting factor for its cultivation. To characterize the gene expression profiles of H. brasiliensis under the cold stress and discover the key cold stress-induced genes. Three cDNA libraries, CT (control), LT2 (cold treatment at $4^{\circ}C$ for 2 h) and LT24 (cold treatment at $4^{\circ}C$ for 24 h) were constructed for RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) and gene expression profiling. Quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) was conducted to validate the RNA-Seq and gene differentially expression results. A total of 1457 and 2328 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in LT2 and LT24 compared with CT were respectively detected. Most significantly enriched KEGG pathways included flavonoid biosynthesis, phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, plant hormone signal transduction, cutin, suberine and wax biosynthesis, Pentose and glucuronate interconversions, phenylalanine metabolism and starch and sucrose metabolism. A total of 239 transcription factors (TFs) were differentially expressed following 2 h or/and 24 h of cold treatment. Cold-response transcription factor families included ARR-B, B3, BES1, bHLH, C2H, CO-like, Dof, ERF, FAR1, G2-like, GRAS, GRF, HD-ZIP, HSF, LBD, MIKC-MADS, M-type MADS, MYB, MYB-related, NAC, RAV, SRS, TALE, TCP, Trihelix, WOX, WRKY, YABBY and ZF-HD. The genome-wide transcriptional response of rubber tree to the cold treatments were determined and a large number of DEGs were characterized including 239 transcription factors, providing important clues for further elucidation of the mechanisms of cold stress responses in rubber tree.