• Title, Summary, Keyword: Phenylalanine Metabolism

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The Study of DNA Mutations of Phenylketonuria in Koreans (한국인에서의 페닐케톤뇨증의 유전자변이에 대한 고찰)

  • Yoo, Su-Jung;Hong, Yong-Hee;Lee, Yong-Wha;Jung, Sung-Chul;Ki, Chang-Seok;Lee, Dong-Hwan
    • Journal of Genetic Medicine
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.26-33
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    • 2008
  • Purpose : Phenylketonuria(PKU) is an inborn error of metabolism and a genetic disorder resulting from a deficiency of phenylalanine hydroxylase(PAH) and decreased activity of tetrahydrobiopterin(BH4).In this study the correlation between the DNA mutation and clinical manifestations was investigated and PAH DNA mutations were compared bewteen Asian and Caucasian populations. Methods : DNA was isolated from peripheral leukocytes. The PAH gene was amplified by Polymerase Chain Reaction(PCR) and the sequence was analyzed with Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification(MLPA). Results : We characterized the PAH gene of 102 independent Korean patients with PKU. PAH nucleotide sequence analysis revealed 44 different mutations, including 10 novel mutations comprising 9 missense mutations(N207D, K95del, A447P, G344D, P69S, S391I, A202T, G103S, and I306L) and 1 novel splice-site variant mutation(IVS10-3C>G). R243Q was the most prevalent mutation in this study. A259T has not previously been reported in Asian populations, but we found that this mutation had a frequency of 10.1% in our study. Furthermore, the genotypes of $BH_4$ responsive patients were analyzed and were divided into two groups: $BH_4$ medication-only group and $BH_4$ medication with diet therapy group. In the $BH_4$ medication-only group and $BH_4$ medication with diet therapy group, R241C was the most common mutation. Conclusion : Novel mutations in the PAH gene of PKU patients are still being discovered. Additional information as to the frequency of mutations in the tetrahydrobiopterine responsive gene is also accumulating. We anticipate that knowledge of these PKU gene mutations will assist the diagnosis, genetic counseling, and therapeutic treatment of PKU patients in future.

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Gene Expression as Related to Ripening in High Temperature during Different Coloration Stages of 'Haryejosaeng' and 'Shiranuhi' Mandarin Fruits (온주밀감 '하례조생'과 '부지화' 과실의 착색 단계별 고온에 의한 성숙 관련 유전자의 발현 변화)

  • Ahn, Soon Young;Kim, Seon Ae;Moon, Young-Eel;Yun, Hae Keun
    • Horticultural Science & Technology
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    • v.34 no.5
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    • pp.665-676
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    • 2016
  • As high temperature during citrus growing season has caused a serious problems including inferior coloration in production of mandarins in Korea, we were to investigate the expression pattern of several genes related with coloration during the ripening in high temperature condition of citrus fruits. The expression of genes related with sugar metabolism, cell wall degradation, and flavonoid synthesis in high temperature conditions was investigated in fruits of 'Haryejosaeng' (Citrus unshiu) and 'Shiranuhi' mandarin (C. reticulata). While the expression of beta-amylase (BMY), phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), chalcone synthase (CHS), and flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H) was differently induced, expression of polygalacturonase (PG) decreased dependently on temperature conditions. In 'Haryejosaeng' mandarin, while the expression of genes related to the skin coloration, such as CHS and F3H genes increased at $25^{\circ}C$, the expression of PAL and stilbene synthase (STS) genes were induced at $30-35^{\circ}C$ in all ripening stages. In 'Shiranuhi' mandarin, the expression of the BMY gene decreased at early time point in all temperature condition and then increased at $30-35^{\circ}C$ than at $25^{\circ}C$ in the ripening stage 2 to 3 of fruits. F3H and STS genes also showed the tendency to decrease at $30-35^{\circ}C$. Although the expression levels of genes in ripening stage 1 and stage 2 of fruits showed similar patterns in both 'Haryejosaeng' and 'Shiranuhi', the expression levels of genes were down-regulated in late ripening stage of 'Shiranuhi' fruits compared to 'Haryejosaeng'. In general, the mRNA levels of seven tested genes were higher in 'Haryejosaeng' than in 'Shiranuhi' mandarin, and expression of genes by high temperature was regulated sensitively in 'Haryejosaeng' compared to 'Shiranuhi' mandarin. Further investigations of expression of various genes based on transcriptome analysis in early ripening stage can provide valuable information about the responses to climatic changes in ripening citrus fruits.

Effects of Dietary Energy Concentration and Lysine on the Digestible Energy Ratio for Apparent Amino Acid Digestibility in Finishing Barrows

  • Cho, S.B.;Lee, H.J.;Chung, I.B.;Long, H.F.;Lim, J.S.;Kim, Y.Y.;Han, In K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.232-236
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    • 2008
  • This experiment was performed to investigate the effects of two energy levels and four lysine:digestible energy (DE) ratios on the apparent digestibility of nutrients in finishing pigs. The experiment was conducted using a $2{\times}4$ randomized complete block (RCB) design with three replicates. Twenty-four cross-bred finishing barrows ((Landrace${\times}$Yorkshire)${\times}$Duroc) with an average body weight of $64.2{\pm}0.69kg$ were assigned to one of eight treatments. Each barrow was placed in an individual metabolism crate and dietary treatment and water was provided ad libitum. Diets were designed to contain lysine:ME ratios of 1.5, 1.8, 2.1 and 2.4 g/Mcal at 3.35 and 3.6 Mcal/kg of diet in a $4{\times}2$ factorial arrangement. Dry matter (DM), ash, Ca and P digestibility were not affected by energy density or lysine:DE ratios. Crude fat digestibility increased as the energy density increased from 3.35 to 3.6 Mcal of DE/kg. Increasing the lysine:DE ratio also increased crude protein digestibility. There were no interactions between energy density and lysine:DE ratio in terms of nutrient digestibility. Nitrogen excretion via feces was not affected by energy density and lysine:DE ratio, while nitrogen excretion via urine was significantly affected by energy density and lysine:DE ratio. The apparent digestibility of all amino acids except for isoluecine, arginine and aspartic acid as well as average values of essential amino (EAA), non-essential amino acids (NEAA) and total amino acid digestibility (p>0.05) were not affected by energy density. The apparent digestibility of all amino acids except for leucine, proline, alanine and tyrosine, NEAA and total amino acid digestibility were significantly affected by lysine: DE ratio (p<0.05). Interactive effects of energy and lysine:DE ratio also significantly affected amino acid digestibility except for isoleucine, alanine, cystine, leucine, phenylalanine, glutamine and proline (p<0.05). In conclusion, these results suggest that maintaining the appropriate lysine:DE ratio becomes more important as the energy density of the diet increases. Consequently, increasing the lysine:DE ratio can result in increased crude protein digestibility and urinary nitrogen excretion, although apparent protein digestibility and nitrogen excretion were not affected by energy density Furthermore, increasing the lysine:DE ratio also increased the apparent digestibility of essential amino acids, except for leucine, regardless of energy density. The optimum lysine:DE ratio for maximum essential amino acid digestibility of the $64.2{\pm}0.69kg$ pig is approximately 2.4 g of lysine/Mcal of DE.

Comparative energy content and amino acid digestibility of barley obtained from diverse sources fed to growing pigs

  • Wang, Hong Liang;Shi, Meng;Xu, Xiao;Ma, Xiao Kang;Liu, Ling;Piao, Xiang Shu
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.30 no.7
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    • pp.999-1005
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    • 2017
  • Objective: Two experiments were conducted to determine the content of digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) as well as the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of crude protein (CP) and amino acids (AA) in barley grains obtained from Australia, France or Canada. Methods: In Exp. 1, 18 growing barrows ($Duroc{\times}Landrace{\times}Yorkshire$; $31.5{\pm}3.2kg$) were individually placed in stainless-steel metabolism crates ($1.4{\times}0.7{\times}0.6m$) and randomly allotted to 1 of 3 test diets. In Exp. 2, eight crossbred pigs ($30.9{\pm}1.8kg$) were allotted to a replicate $3{\times}4$ Youden Square designed experiment with three periods and four diets. Two pigs received each diet during each test period. The diets included one nitrogen-free diet and three test diets. Results: The relative amounts of gross energy (GE), CP, and all AA in the Canadian barley were higher than those in Australian and French barley while higher concentrations of neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, total dietary fiber, insoluble dietary fiber and ${\beta}-glucan$ as well as lower concentrations of GE and ether extract were observed in the French barley compared with the other two barley sources. The DE and ME as well as the SID of histidine, isoleucine, leucine and phenylalanine in Canadian barley were higher (p<0.05) than those in French barley but did not differ from Australian barley. Conclusion: Differences in the chemical composition, energy content and the SID and AID of AA were observed among barley sources obtained from three countries. The feeding value of barley from Canada and Australia was superior to barley obtained from France which is important information in developing feeding systems for growing pigs where imported grains are used.

Mammary Performance of First Lactation Bali Cows (Bibos banteng) Fed Grass-Legume Based Diets in Relation to the Role of Glucose

  • Sukarini, I.A.M.;Sastradipradja, Djokowoerjo;Nusada, N.;Mahardika, I.G.;Kiranadi, B.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.14 no.5
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    • pp.615-623
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    • 2001
  • A study of mammary function in relation to glucose metabolism of first lactation Bali cows on grass-legume diets was carried out using 12 primiparous cows (initial BW $263.79{\pm}21.66kg$) for 16 weeks starting immediately post calving. The animals were randomly allocated into 4 dietary treatment groups R1, R2, R3 and R4, receiving from the last 2 months of pregnancy onwards, rations based on a mixture of locally available grass and legume feed ad libitum. On a DM basis R1 contained 70% elephant grass (PP, Penicetum purpureum) plus 30% Gliricidia sepia leaves (GS), R2 was 30% PP plus 25% GS supplemented with 55% Hibiscus tilliacius leaves (HT, defaunating effect), R3 and R4 were 22.5% PP+41.25% GS+11.25% HT+25% concentrate, with R4 supplemented with zinc-diacetate. TDN, CP and zinc contents of the diets were 58.2%, 12.05% and 18.3 mg/kg respectively for R1, 65.05%, 16.9% and 25.6 mg/kg respectively for R2, 66.03%, 16.71% and 29.02 mg/kg respectively for R3 and 66.03%, 16.71% and 60.47 mg/kg respectively for R4. Milk production and body weights were monitored, an energy and protein balance trial conducted, overall glucose kinetics parameters assessed, mammary blood flow (MBF) and metabolite arteriovenous differences (${\Delta}AVs$) measured to get uptake data and mammary performance relationships. Parameters of glucose kinetics at peak lactation or during dry condition were not affected by ration quality. Glucose pool size, space of distribution and flux increased by 61.77, 62.26 and 82.08%, respectively, during lactation compared to the dry period. Mean glucose flux of lactating Bali cows was $5.52mg/min.kgBW^{0.807}$ which resembles the range of values of temperate dairy cows. Calculation showed that glucose requirements for maintenance, milk lactose and fat-glycerol synthesis, and the formation of NADPH reached 461.69 g for a yield of 1 kg/d or equal to 320.62 mg/min, which was less than the average glucose flux of lactating Bali cows of 481.35 mg/min. Mammary blood flow (MBF) values ranged from 56 to 83 l/h for the different treatments and the ratio MBF per kg milk produced improved from av. 1540 l/kg for R1 to av. 967 l/kg for R4 treated cows. Mammary glucose uptake ranged from 6.27 to 12.03 g/h or 120 to 140 g/kg milk. Glucose uptake was mass-wise 2 to 4 times the amount secreted as lactose, which indicated values less than the calculated mammary glucose needs and that little lactose was synthesized. The excess glucose taken-up was used for other metabolic processes. Linear relationships between metabolite ${\Delta}AVs$ and arterial blood plasma concentration [A] showed that in Bali cows triglycerides (TG), phenylalanine (Phe) and tyrosine (Tyr) have high coefficients of determination, i.e. 0.77, 0.81 and 0.69, respectively. For glucose, the relationship is quadratic with an $R^2$ value of 0.49. It was concluded that lactose synthesis was inadequate, which led to a speculation that milk yield could be improved by increased lactose synthesis.

Amino Acid Biosynthesis and Gene Regulation in Seed (종자내 아미노산 합성 조절 유전자에 관한 연구)

  • ;;;;;Fumio Takaiwa
    • Proceedings of the Botanical Society of Korea Conference
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    • pp.61-74
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    • 1996
  • Human and monogastric animals can not synthesize 10 out of the 20 amino asids and therefor need to obtain these from their diet. The plant seed is a major source of dietary protein. It is particular important in their study to increase nutritional quality of the seed storage proteins. The low contents of lysine, asparagine and threonenein various cereal seeds and of cystein and methionine. In legume seeds is due to the low proportions of these amino acids in the major storage proteins, we have tried to apply the three strategies; (1) mutagenesis and selection of specific amino acid analogue resistance, (2) cloning and expression study of lysine biosynthesis related gene, (3) transfomation of lysine rich soybean glycinin gene. The 5-methyltryptophan (5MT) resistant cell lines, SAR1, SAR2 and SAR3 were selected from anther derived callus of rice (Oryza sativa L. "Sasanishiki"). Among these selected cell lines, two (SAR1 and SAR3) were able to grow stably at 200 mg/L of 5MT. Analysis of the freed amino acids in callus shows that 5MT resistant cells (SAR3) accumulated free tryptophan at least up to 50 times higher than those that of the higher than of SAS. These results indicated that the 5MT resistant cell lines are useful in studies of amino acid biosynthesis. Tr75, a rice (Oryza sativa L., var. Sasanishiki) mutant resistant to 5MT was segregated from the progenies of its initial mutant line, TR1. The 5MT resistant of TR75 was inherited in the M8 generations as a single dominant nuclear gene. The content of free amino acids in the TR75 homozygous seeds increased approximately 1.5 to 2.0 fold compared to wild-type seeds. Especially, the contents of tryptophan, phenylalanine and aspartic acid were 5.0, 5.3 and 2.7 times higher than those of wild-type seeds, respectively. The content of lysine is significantly low in rice. The lysine is synthesized by a complex pathway that is predominantly regulated by feedback inhibition of several enzymes including asparginase, aspatate kinase, dihydrodipicolinat synthase, etc. For understanding the regulation mechanism of lysine synthesis in rice, we try to clone the lysine biosynthetic metabolism related gene, DHPS and asparaginase, from rice. We have isolated a rice DHPS genomic clone which contains an ORF of 1044 nucleotides (347 amino acids, Mr. 38, 381 daltons), an intron of 587 nucleotides and 5'and 3'-flanking regions by screening of rice genomic DNA library. Deduced amino acid sequence of mature peptide domain of GDHPS clone is highly conserved in monocot and dicot plants whereas that of transit peptide domain is extremely different depending on plant specie. Southern blot analysis indicated that GDHPS is located two copy gene in rice genome. The transcripts of a rice GDHPS were expressed in leaves and roots but not detected in callus tissues. The transcription level of GDHPS is much higher in leaves indicating enormous chloroplast development than roots. Genomic DNA clones for asparaginase genes were screened from the rice genomic library by using plaque hybridization technique. Twelve different genomic clones were isolated from first and second screening, and 8 of 12 clones were analyzed by restriction patterns and identified by Southern Blotting, Restriction enzyme digestion patterns and Southern blot analysis of 8 clones show the different pattern for asparaginase gene. Genomic Southern blot analysis from rice were done. It is estimated that rice has at least 2-3 copy of asparaginase gene. One of 8 positive clones was subcloned into the pBluescript SK(+) vector, and was constructed the physical map. For transformation of lysine rich storage protein into tobacco, soybean glycinin genes are transformed into tobacco. To examine whether glycinin could be stably accumulated in endosperm tissue, the glycinin cDNA was transcriptionally fused to an endosperm-specific promotor of the rice storage protein glutelin gene and then introduced into tobacco genomic via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Consequently the glycinin gene was expressed in a seed-and developmentally-specific manner in transgenic tobacco seeds. Glycinin were targeted to vacuole-derived protein bodies in the endosperm tissue and highly accumulated in the matrix region of many transgenic plant (1-4% of total seed proteins). Synthesized glycinin was processed into mature form, and assembled into a hexamer in a similar manner as the glycinin in soybean seed. Modified glycinin, in which 4 contiguous methionine residues were inserted at the variable regions corresponding to the C - teminal regions of the acidic and basic polypeptides, were also found to be accumulated similarly as in the normal glycinin. There was no apparent difference in the expression level, processing and targeting to protein bodies, or accumulation level between normal and modified glycinin. glycinin.

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Studies on the Physiological Chemistry of Flower Organ and Seed in Ginseng Plant. IV. Variation of Free Amino Acids in the Flower and Seeds of the $F_1$ Plants of the Combinations Panax ginseng ${\times}$ Panax quinquefolium and Panax ginseng ${\times}$ Panax japonicus. (인삼종자형성에 대한 생리화학적 연구 IV. 고려인삼과 미국인삼 및 고려인삼과 죽절인삼 $F_1$의 화기 및 종자 형성과정에 있어서의 유리아미노산의 소장)

  • Jong-Kyu Hwang;Hee-Chun Yang
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.14
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    • pp.165-172
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    • 1973
  • The sterile phenomenon is frequently found in the inter-species hybrids of ginseng as in other plants. It is known that among the hybrids between Panax Ginseng (PG) and Panax Quinquefolium (PQ), and between Panax Ginseng and Paxax Japonicus (PI), PG${\times}$PI is fertile only very rarely, while PG ${\times}$ PQ is always sterile. Therefore, in order to clarify the relationship between this sterility phenomenon and the metabolism of free amino acids, the changes of free amino acids through the formation of the flower organs and seeds of two hybrids, PG ${\times}$ PQ and PG ${\times}$ PI were investigated by thin layer chromatography. The results are summarized as follows: 1. Distinct differences in the quantity and number of free amino acids were recognized between PG ${\times}$ PQ, PG ${\times}$ PI and their parent plants. From the hybrid PG ${\times}$ PQ, 19 kinds of ninhyrin sensitive substances were detected in all. They were (1) 17 amino acids: alanine, valine, leucine, phenylalanine, proline, hydroxy-proline, serine, threonine, tyrosine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, lysine, arginine, ${\gamma}$-amino butyric acid, ${\beta}$-alanine, cysteic acid and tryptophan, and (2) two amides: asparagine and glutamine. From the hybrid PG ${\times}$ PI, in addition to the above 19 substances, methionine and one unknown substance were detected. 2. Generally, alanine, as partie acid, glutamic acid, cysteic acid and asparagine were detected in large amounts in the two hybrids as in PG, PG and PJ but it was a noticeable fact concerning these two hybrids that the largest quantity of asparagine was found at microspore satge and pollen mature stage. 3. The decrease of cysteic acid in the two hybrids at the red ripened stage was the same as in PQ and PJ but opposite to the change in PG. The detection of methionine in PG ${\times}$ PJ was worthy of notice. 4. The change of proline was conspicuously different from that in their parent plants. It was detected as a trace of color at the micros pore stage while asparagine was detected in the greatest amount at that time. It is well known that the quantity of proline is closely related to the sterility of plant. This fact was also found true in the formation of ginseng seeds. It was reported as well that asparagine accumulated when proline decreased. 5. The deficiency of proline seemed to be closely related with the sterility of hybrids and with the degradation of pollen in anther. 6. The difference in the changes of free amino acids between the selfed lines of PG, PQ and PJ, and their hybrids seemed to be caused by the transformation of gene-action system by hybridization. On these phenomena along with proline metabolim and its physiological role in seed formation further studies are required.

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