• Title, Summary, Keyword: Phoma sp

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Detection of Fungi Associated with Ear Blighting of Rice Plants and Their Effect on Seed Discoloration and Yield (벼 이삭마름병해(病害)에 관여(關與)하는 균류(菌類)의 검출(檢出)과 검출(檢出)된 균류(菌類)가 종자(種子) 변색(變色) 및 수량(收量)에 미치는 영향(影響))

  • Kwon, Jin Sook;Park, Jong Seong;Yu, Seung Hun
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.199-205
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    • 1985
  • 1. Alternaria tenuis, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Curvularia lunata Fusarium semitectum, Gerlachia oryzae, Phoma sp. Trichoconiella padwickii were found associated with ear blighting of rice plants. The frequency of isolation of the fungi was found to be higher from the severely discolored rice grains than that from the brownish spotted grains, but H. oryzae was encounted highly from the latter. 2. Higher counts of Alternaria tenuis, Helminthosporium oryzae, Trichoconiella padwickii, Fusarium moniliforme, Fusarium semitectum were observed under alternating cycles of 12hrs of light and darkness than under complete darkness but G. oryzae was encountered highly under darkness in the blotter. While no difference in the occurrence of the other fungi was recorded under l2hr NUV light-12hr darkness cycles and darkness. 3. A. tenuis and C. cladosporioides were encountered highly at the lower temp. $(15^{\circ}C)$ but Phoma sp. was occurred highly at the higher temp. $(30^{\circ}C)$ when the seeds were incubated in the blotter. 4. Artificial inoculation of the fungi in the ears of rice plants caused severe discoloration of rice grains and reduced 1,000 grain weights and grain ripening percentage.

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Identification of Phoma sp. Detected on Rice Seeds

  • Hong, Sung-Kee;Cho, Weon-Dae;Kim, Woo-Sik;Han, Seong-Sook
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Plant Pathology Conference
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    • pp.132.1-132
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    • 2003
  • A Phoma sp. was detected on rice seeds and was identified as Phoma sorghina (Sacc.) Boerema, Dorenbosch & Van Kesteren based on their morphological and cultural characteristics. On oatmeal agar, pycnidia were abundant, solitary, scattered or gregarious, subglobose to flask-shaped, usually with a distinct neck and ostiole, glabrous, blackish-brown, 55∼185 ${\times}$ 40∼170 $\mu\textrm{m}$ in size. Conidiogenous cells were monophialidic, hyaline, subglobose to ampulliform, 3∼5 $\mu\textrm{m}$ in diameter. Conidia were ovoid to ellipsoidal, hyaline, unicellular and measured 3.5∼6.0 ${\times}$ 1.5 ∼3.0 $\mu\textrm{m}$ (usually 4.0∼5.0 ${\times}$ 2.0∼2.5 $\mu\textrm{m}$) in size. Chylarnydospores were variable, uni- or multicellular, intercalary or terminal, solitary or in chains, dictyosporous or botryoid. NaOH spot test was positive on malt extract agar. This is the first report of P. sorghina identified on rice seeds in Korea.

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Purification and Characterization of an Extracellular ${\beta}$-Glucosidase Produced by Phoma sp. KCTC11825BP Isolated from Rotten Mandarin Peel

  • Choi, Jung-Youn;Park, Ah-Reum;Kim, Yong-Jin;Kim, Jae-Jin;Cha, Chang-Jun;Yoon, Jeong-Jun
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.21 no.5
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    • pp.503-508
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    • 2011
  • A ${\beta}$-glucosidase from Phoma sp. KCTC11825BP isolated from rotten mandarin peel was purified 8.5-fold with a specific activity of 84.5 U/mg protein. The purified enzyme had a molecular mass of 440 kDa with a subunit of 110 kDa. The partial amino acid sequence of the purified ${\beta}$-glucosidase evidenced high homology with the fungal ${\beta}$- glucosidases belonging to glycosyl hydrolase family 3. Its optimal activity was detected at pH 4.5 and $60^{\circ}C$, and the enzyme had a half-life of 53 h at $60^{\circ}C$. The $K_m$ values for p-nitrophenyl-${\beta}$-D-glucopyranoside and cellobiose were 0.3 mM and 3.2 mM, respectively. The enzyme was competitively inhibited by both glucose ($K_i$=1.7 mM) and glucono-${\delta}$-lactone ($K_i$=0.1 mM) when pNPG was used as the substrate. Its activity was inhibited by 41% by 10 mM $Cu^{2+}$ and stimulated by 20% by 10 mM $Mg^{2+}$.

Selection of fungicides to control leaf spot of jujube (Zizyphus jujuba) trees caused by Phoma sp. (Phoma sp.에 의한 대추나무 점무늬병 방제용 살균제 선발)

  • Lee, Bong-Hun;Lim, Tae-Heon;Cha, Byeong-Jin
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.4 no.3
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    • pp.40-46
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    • 2000
  • To select the effective fungicides for the control of leaf spot disease of jujube tree (Zizyphus jujuba) caused by Phoma sp., inhibitory effects of 26 fungicides for mycelial growth were investigated at $250{\mu}g\;a.i./m{\ell}$. In the test, eight fungicides were selected and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for mycelial growth and an inhibitory effect for spore germination were investigated. Among the fungicides, myclobutanil, hexaconazole, and triflumizole were excluded in control effect tests because of their relatively high MICs. MICs were ranged $10-50{\mu}g\;a.i./m{\ell}$ for benomyl, carbendazim + kasugamycin (CK), and thiophanate-methyl. triflumizole (TT), and $50-250{\mu}g\;a.i./m{\ell}$ for iprodione + propineb (IT) and iminoctadine-triacelate (IT). However, benomyl and IP showed very low inhibitory effect on conidial germination. When the fungicides were sprayed on the seedlings before the leaves were inoculated with conidial suspension of Phoma sp., the protective values of CK and TT were around 70% at 1,000 ppm and around 90% at 2,000 ppm. The protective values were around 70% at 2,000 ppm (benomyl), 4,000 ppm (IP), and 8,000 ppm (IT). When the fungicides were sprayed after inoculation, benomyl showed the highest curative values of over 90% at 1,000 ppm and the values of CK and TT ranged $70{\sim}80%$ at 1,000 ppm. However, IP and IT had little or no effect on therapy of the disease. IT caused necrotic phytotoxicity on the leaves of jujube seedlings. As results, the best fungicides for the protection of jujube trees from leaf spot disease were CK (2,000 ppm) and TT (2,000 ppm) and for the remedy of the tree, benomyl (1,000 ppm) was the best. Therefore, alternate application of benomyl and CK or TT will be effective in the disease control.

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Characteristics of Major Diseases causing Eleutherococcus senticosus Max (가시오갈피에서 발생하는 주요 병해충 특성)

  • Lee, Jae-Hong;Jeong, Haet-Nim;Kang, An-Seok;Choi, Kang-Jun
    • Korean Journal of Medicinal Crop Science
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.199-202
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    • 2007
  • This study was carried out to provide pest control information for the cultivation of Eleutherococcus senticosus Max. As a result of investigation of the diseases and insect pests, three pathogens and three insect pests were identified from the field sample, respectively. The identified insects pests were aphids, stinkbugs and Bothrogonia japonica. Occurrenre peaks of aphids were occurred on June and August, and generally young leaves and flower buds were injured mainly. The identified diseases were black ring spot caused by Phoma sp., gray mold caused by Botrytis cinerea and leaf blights caused by Rhizoctonia solani. The black ring spot was the most severe disease and was investigated from the beginning of June, and the incidence of the disease was 30% higher than that on September. As a result of growth test under different temperature conditions on PDA, these pathogens showed the best mycelial growth rate between 25 $^{\circ}$C and 30 $^{\circ}$C, and these results indicate that these diseases occur on hat summer season.

Membrane Module for Greenhouse CO2 Supply Removal Effect of Harmful Pathogen (Phoma sp.) (온실 CO2 공급용 Membrane Module의 유해병원균(Phoma sp.)의 제거효과)

  • Kim, Seong-Sik;Kim, Hee-Tae;Jo, Jae-Min;Cho, Won-Jun;Kim, Hyeon-Tae
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society for Agricultural Machinery Conference
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    • pp.33-33
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    • 2017
  • 본 연구는 온실 $CO_2$ 공급용 Membrane Module이 대기 중 $CO_2$를 포집하는 과정에서 유해병원균을 제거할 수 있는지 알아보기 위해 실험을 진행하였다. 본 실험은 Membrane Module과 유해병원균의 유무로 총 4개의 실험구, 포집하는 시간에 따라 1 min, 3 min, 5 min, 각각 3회씩, 총 36회의 실험을 진행하였다. 실험은 경상대학교 내 온실($W{\times}D{\times}H$, $3000{\times}4000{\times}2500mm$)에서 진행하였고, 유해병원균은 잎점무늬병을 일으키는 병원균(Phoma sp.)을 사용하였다. 온실에 Membrane System을 설치하고 Membrane Module을 통해 외부공기 또는 유해병원균이 포함된 공기를 분리하여 온실 내로 공급하고, 공급한 $CO_2$ 내에 유해병원균의 유무는 에어샘플러를 이용하여 온실 내의 공기를 포집 후 배지에 배양하여 확인하였다. 유해병원균은 PDA배지를 이용하여 포집한 뒤 항온항습기(HB-105SG-O, HANBAEK SCIENTIFIC CO., Korea)에 $25^{\circ}C$, 50%로 48시간 배양하였다. PDA배지 내에 배양된 미생물은 Colony Counter(HYC-560, CORETECH, Korea)로 측정하였다. 결과 값을 분석하기 위해서 IBM SPSS Statistics의 이원분산분석(two-way ANOVA)을 이용하여 통계분석 하였다. 결과 값은 유해병원균을 공급하고 Membrane Module을 사용하지 않았을 때, CFU(Colony-Forming Unit)가 가장 높았고, 유해병원균을 공급하고 Membrane Module을 사용했을 때 CFU가 가장 낮았다. 통계분석을 실시한 결과, Membrane Module을 사용하지 않은 실험구에는 유의한 차이가 나타났고, Membrane Module을 사용한 실험구에는 유의한 차이가 나타나지 않았다. 따라서 Membrane Module이 대기 중 $CO_2$를 분리하여 온실에 공급하는 과정에서 공기 중에 포함된 유해병원균을 제거 할 수 있다고 판단된다.

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Biocontrol of Leaf Mustard Powdery Mildew Caused by Erysiphe cruciferarm using Bacillus velezensis YP2 (Bacillus velezensis YP2의 겨자채 흰가루병의 생물적 방제)

  • Lee, Sang Yeob;Weon, Hang Yeon;Kim, Jeong Jun;Han, Ji Hee
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.369-374
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    • 2016
  • Bacillus velezensis YP2 inhibited the mycelial growth of several plant pathogens including Cercespora spp., Septoria sp., Phoma sp., Botrytis cinerea and Sclerotinia scleotiorum occurring in leafy vegetables. Control efficacy for powdery mildew caused by Erysiphe cruciferarm on red leaf mustard and cheong mustard by treatment of spraying with 10-fold diluted Luria-Bertani (LB) broth of B. velezensis YP2 was 91.8% and 80.9%, respectively. When B. velezensis YP2 was treated four times with five-day interval, three times at seven-day interval and two times at ten day interval in the greenhouse test, the control effect of red leaf mustard powdery mildew was 70.6%, 65.0% and 40.9%, respectively. Also B. velezensis YP2 could promote the seed germination and plant growth of led leaf mustard. The results showed that the culture broth of B. velezensis YP2 was very effective to control the powdery mildew of leaf mustard.

Detecting Seed-Borne Fungi of Rice and Transmission of Helminthosporium oruzae in Germinating Seed (벼종자수반진균의 검정 및 종자발아에 따른 깨씨무늬병균의 전염경로)

  • LEE Chang Un;CHUNG Hoo Sup
    • Korean journal of applied entomology
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.119-126
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    • 1979
  • From the sample seeds of rice cultivar Palkoeng with the brown spot symptom, Helminthosporium oryzae was detected in $86\~92\%$ of hulls including empty glumes, lemma, palea, and rachilla in five to seven days of incubation. When the seeds were dehulled, the percentage detection decreased to $74\~83\%$ of pericarps. The fungus sporulated on whole surface of the seed and was detected within about ten cell layers deep of endosperm but not detected in embryo. Fusarium moniliforme was found in embryo as well as pericarp and endosperm. The frequency of F. roseum, Trichoconis padwickii, Curvularia spp., Atternaria tenuis, Cladosporium cladosporoides and Phoma sp. was less than three percent of hulls and pericarps. In seven days of incubation, $60\~87\%$ of the germinating seeds showed the symptom of H. oryzae while $13\~40\%$ were apparently healthy. This fungus in hilum of infected rice transmitted through pericarp to plumule shoot and radicle of the germinating seed.

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The Mycobiota of Air Inside and Outside the Meju Fermentation Room and the Origin of Meju Fungi

  • Kim, Dae-Ho;Kim, Sun-Hwa;Kwon, Soon-wo;Lee, Jong-Kyu;Hong, Seung-Beom
    • Mycobiology
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    • v.43 no.3
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    • pp.258-265
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    • 2015
  • The fungi on Meju are known to play an important role as degrader of macromolecule of soybeans. In order to elucidate the origin of fungi on traditional Meju, mycobiota of the air both inside and outside traditional Meju fermentation rooms was examined. From 11 samples of air collected from inside and outside of 7 Meju fermentation rooms, 37 genera and 90 species of fungi were identified. In outside air of the fermentation room, Cladosporium sp. and Cladosporium cladosporioides were the dominant species, followed by Cladosporium tenuissimum, Eurotium sp., Phoma sp., Sistotrema brinkmannii, Alternaria sp., Aspergillus fumigatus, Schizophyllum commune, and Penicillium glabrum. In inside air of the fermentation room, Cladosporium sp., Aspergillus oryzae, Penicillium chrysogenum, Asp. nidulans, Aspergillus sp., Cla. cladosporioides, Eurotium sp., Penicillium sp., Cla. tenuissimum, Asp. niger, Eur. herbariorum, Asp. sydowii, and Eur. repens were collected with high frequency. The concentrations of the genera Aspergillus, Eurotium, and Penicillium were significantly higher in inside air than outside air. From this result and those of previous reports, the origin of fungi present on Meju was inferred. Of the dominant fungal species present on Meju, Lichtheimia ramosa, Mucor circinelloides, Mucor racemosus, and Scopulariopsis brevicaulis are thought to be originated from outside air, because these species are not or are rarely isolated from rice straw and soybean; however, they were detected outside air of fermentation room and are species commonly found in indoor environments. However, Asp. oryzae, Pen. polonicum, Eur. repens, Pen. solitum, and Eur. chevalieri, which are frequently found on Meju, are common in rice straw and could be transferred from rice straw to Meju. The fungi grow and produce abundant spores during Meju fermentation, and after the spores accumulate in the air of fermentation room, they could influence mycobiota of Meju fermentation in the following year. This could explain why concentrations of the genera Aspergillus, Eurotium, and Penicillium are much higher inside than outside of the fermentation rooms.

A Survey on the population of Toxigenic Fungi in Crude Drugs in Seoul (시판 유통중인 한약재에서의 위해성 진균 분포에 관한 연구)

  • Lee Young-Ki;Park Ok-Soon;Oh Young-Hee;Kim Mu-Sang;Kim Young-Soo
    • Journal of environmental and Sanitary engineering
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.29-32
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    • 2005
  • We just carried out this study in order to obtain an appropriate information of the population of toxigenic fungi in crude drugs in seoul. Results of fungal examination on twenty-three kinds crude drugs were described in this report. In 21 crude drugs, colonies of fungi were possible to identify into 7 genera. Predominant genera of fungi in crude drugs were Aspergillus spp. $(14,\;46.6\%)$, Scopulariospsis spp. $(7,\;23.3\%)$, Penicillium spp., Rhizopus spp., Fusarium spp $(2,\;6.6\%,\;respectively)$ and Phoma sp., Chaetomium sp. $(1,\; 3.3\%,\;respectively)$. Mycotoxin producing fungi like Aspergillus spp., Penicillum spp., and Fusarium spp. were 18 colonies$(60\%)$, totally.