• Title, Summary, Keyword: Phosphate Solubilization

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Application of Immobilization Technology in Solubilization of Rock Phosphate

  • Walpola, Buddhi Charana;Kim, Ah Young;Jeon, Ju Hyeon;Yoon, Min-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.47 no.4
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    • pp.249-253
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    • 2014
  • Phosphates solubilizing bacterial strains belong to Pantoea, Burkholderia and Enterobacter were isolated and employed in assessing their solubilization ability of Ca phosphate and ER phosphate (Eppawala Rock Phosphate). Among the bacterial strains used, PSB-13 (Pantoea rodasii) showed higher Ca-phosphate solubilization ($1100{\mu}g\;ml^{-1}$) as well as rock phosphate solubilization ($168{\mu}g\;ml^{-1}$). The strain was then immobilized in agar to further assess its phosphate solubilization ability. According to the results, agar encapsulated strain solubilized 0.3%, 7.31%, 20.24%, and 20.62% more Ca-phosphate and 11.53%, 15.29%, 28.48%, 36.55% (respectively in 4 cycles) more ER-phosphate than free cells. The reuse efficiency of agar entrapped bacterial cells for Ca-phosphate and ER-phosphate solubilization was greater than that by freely suspended bacterial cells. In conclusion, immobilization could enhance the phosphate solubilization capacity of the strains and thus could be used effectively in enhancing solubilization of ER phosphate.

Influence of Different pH Conditions and Phosphate Sources on Phosphate Solubilization by Pantoea agglomerans DSM3493

  • Walpola, Buddhi Charana;Keum, Mi-Jung;Yoon, Min-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.45 no.6
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    • pp.998-1003
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    • 2012
  • Pantoea agglomerans DSM3493 was isolated from green house soils collected from Chungchugnam-do province, Gongju-Gun area in South Korea and phosphate solubilization and organic acid production of the strain were assessed using three types of insoluble phosphate sources (Ca phosphate, Fe phosphate and Al phosphate) under three different pH conditions (7, 8 and 9). The highest Ca phosphate solubilization ($651{\mu}g\;mL^{-1}$) was recorded at pH 7 followed by pH 8 and 9 (428 and $424{\mu}g\;mL^{-1}$ respectively). The solubilization rate was found to be 80.4, 98.1 and $88.7{\mu}g\;mL^{-1}$ (for Fe phosphate containing medium) and 9.3, 12.1 and $29.8{\mu}g\;mL^{-1}$ (for the Al phosphate containing medium) respectively at pH 7, 8 and 9. Though increasing pH of the medium caused reduction in the rate of solubilization of Ca phosphate, solubilization of Fe and Al phosphates enhanced with increasing pH. By contrast, the highest amount of organic acid was produced with Ca phosphate while the lowest was recorded with the presence of Al phosphate. Among the organic acids, gluconic acid production was found to be the highest, followed by oxalic acid and citric acid regardless the source of phosphate. Results can thus be concluded that the production of organic acids appears to play a significant role in the inorganic phosphate solubilization.

Influence of Carbon and Nitrogen Sources in Solubilization of Hardly Soluble Mineral Phosphates by Penicillium Oxalicum CBPS-Tsa

  • Kim, Eun-Hee;Sundaram, Seshadri;Park, Myoung-Su;Shin, Wan-Sik;Sa, Tong-Min
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.197-202
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    • 2003
  • Phosphorus is one of the major plant growth limiting nutrients, despite being abundant in soils in both inorganic and organic forms. Phosphobioinoculants in the form of microorganisms can help in increasing the availability of accumulated phosphates for plant growth by solubilization. Penicillium oxalicum CBPSTsa, isolated from paddy rhizosphere, was studied for its phosphate solubilization. The influence of various carbon sources like glucose, sucrose, mannitol and sorbitol and nitrogen sources like arginine, sodium nitrate, potassium nitrate, ammonium chloride and ammonium sulphate were evaluated using liquid media with tricalcium phosphate (Ca-P), ferric phosphate (Fe-P) and aluminium phosphate (Al-P). Maximum soluble phosphate of 824 mg/L was found in the amendment of sucrose-sodium nitrate from 5 g/L of Ca-P. Mannitol, sorbitol, and ariginine were poor in phosphate solubilization. While sucrose was better carbon source in solubilization of Ca-P and Al-P, glucose fared better in solubilization of Fe-P. Though all the nitrogen sources enhanced P solubilization, nitrates were better than ammonium In the amendments of ammonium chloride and ammonium sulphate, higher uptake of available phosphates by the fungus was found, and this resulted in depletion of available P in Fe-P amendment Phosphate solubilization was accompanied by acidification of the media, and the highest pH decrease was observed in glucose amendment Among the nitrogen sources, ammonium chloride favored greater pH decrease.

Effect of Fungicides on Phosphate Solubilization by Klebsiella oxytoca and Enterobacter ludwigii

  • Walpola, Buddhi Charana;Keum, Mi-Jung;Yoon, Min-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.46 no.2
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    • pp.112-116
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    • 2013
  • The aim of the present study was to isolate phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) and to assess their potential tolerance to fungicides. Out of thirty PSB, two strains Klebsiella oxytoca and Enterobacter ludwigii were selected on the basis of their tolerance to fungicides. Both strains were assessed for their phosphate solubilizing ability using three different fungicides (difenoconazole, fluazinam and streptomycin) each with the concentrations of 0, 1, 2 or 3 times of the recommended rate. Both strains showed increased phosphate solubilization with difenoconazole at 1, 2 and 3 times of the recommended rate as compared to the phosphate solubilization of the control. The phosphate solubilization in Klebsiella oxytoca was recorded as 326, 538, 518 and 481 ${\mu}g\;mL^{-1}$ at 0, 1, 2 and 3 times of the recommended rate respectively, whereas in Enterobacter ludwigii it was recorded as 395, 499, 529 and 533 ${\mu}g\;mL^{-1}$ respectively at various doses. Based on the present findings, it may be concluded that both strains have the potential to be used as bio-inoculants which can solubilize phosphate even at the higher doses as compared to the recommended rate of fungicides.

Evaluation of Phosphate Solubilizing Potential of Three Burkholderia Species Isolated from Green House Soils

  • Walpola, Buddhi Charana;Song, June-Seob;Keum, Mi-Jung;Yoon, Min-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.45 no.4
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    • pp.602-609
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    • 2012
  • Burkholderia anthina R-4183, Burkholderia diffusa R-15930 and Burkholderia stabilis LMG 14294 isolated from green house soils (Gongju-Gun area, South Korea) were characterized and their phosphate solubilizing ability was assessed. Under in vitro culture conditions, all three species were proved to be effective in solubilizing phosphates in varying degrees. Strain Burkholderia anthina exhibited the highest phosphate solubilization in NBRIP medium ($665{\mu}g\;ml^{-1}$) followed by Burkholderia diffusa ($630{\mu}g\;ml^{-1}$) and Burkholderia stabilis ($578{\mu}g\;ml^{-1}$). However, solubilization of $FePO_4$ and $AlPO_4$ was found to be poor in all the strains. Acidification by means of gluconic and oxalic acids accumulation in the culture medium could be the possible mechanism responsible for phosphate solubilization. Glucose at the rate of 3% was found be the best carbon source for Burkholderia anthina while other two Burkholderia species showed maximum phosphate solubilization at 2% of glucose. In the case of nitrogen sources, ammonium and nitrate were equally effective in solubilizing phosphates by Burkholderia species. Despite a slight decrease in phosphate solubilization observed at increasing temperature, all three Burkholderia species could withstand a temperature of $30-35^{\circ}C$, pH at the range of 7-9 and the presence of NaCl (up to 2.5%) without much compromising the phosphate solubilization. As shown with potted mung bean seedlings, all the three isolates could enhance soil fertility and plant growth indicating their great potential to be used as bio-inoculants.

Solubilization of Inorganic Phosphates and Plant Growth Promotion by Pantoea Strains

  • Walpola, Buddhi Charana;Kong, Won-Sik;Yoon, Min-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.46 no.6
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    • pp.494-501
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    • 2013
  • Two phosphate solubilizing Pantoea strains (P. agglomerans and P. rodasii) were employed in elucidating their phosphate solubilizing potential under different carbon and nitrogen sources, pH, temperature and salt conditions. Plant growth promoting characteristics such as ACC deaminase activity, indole acetic acid (IAA), HCN, ammonia, and siderophore production of the two strains were assessed in vitro. Potential applicability of the strains as bio-inoculants was also evaluated in pot experiments conducted under green house conditions. Phosphate solubilization measured as the amount of phosphorous released into the medium was recorded as 810 and $788{\mu}g\;ml^{-1}$ respectively by P. agglomerans and P. rodasii. Glucose at the rate of 2% was found be the best carbon source, while $(NH_4)_2SO_4$ was the best nitrogen source for both strains. Despite a slight decrease in phosphate solubilization observed at higher temperature, pH and salt concentrations, both strains could withstand against a range of temperature ($30-35^{\circ}C$), pH (7-9) and the presence of NaCl (up to 5%) without much compromising the phosphate solubilization. Different plant growth promoting traits (ACC deaminase activity, IAA, HCN, ammonia, and siderophore production) of the strains and their ability to promote the growth of green gram seedlings indicate that both strains possess high potential to be used as bio-inoculants.

Phosphate Solubilization and Gene Expression of Phosphate-Solubilizing Bacterium Burkholderia multivorans WS-FJ9 under Different Levels of Soluble Phosphate

  • Zeng, Qingwei;Wu, Xiaoqin;Wang, Jiangchuan;Ding, Xiaolei
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.844-855
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    • 2017
  • Phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) have the ability to dissolve insoluble phosphate and enhance soil fertility. However, the growth and mineral phosphate solubilization of PSB could be affected by exogenous soluble phosphate and the mechanism has not been fully understood. In the present study, the growth and mineral phosphate-solubilizing characteristics of PSB strain Burkholderia multivorans WS-FJ9 were investigated at six levels of exogenous soluble phosphate (0, 0.5, 1, 5, 10, and 20 mM). The WS-FJ9 strain showed better growth at high levels of soluble phosphate. The phosphate-solubilizing activity of WS-FJ9 was reduced as the soluble phosphate concentration increased, as well as the production of pyruvic acid. Transcriptome profiling of WS-FJ9 at three levels of exogenous soluble phosphate (0, 5, and 20 mM) identified 446 differentially expressed genes, among which 44 genes were continuously up-regulated when soluble phosphate concentration was increased and 81 genes were continuously down-regulated. Some genes related to cell growth were continuously up-regulated, which would account for the better growth of WS-FJ9 at high levels of soluble phosphate. Genes involved in glucose metabolism, including glycerate kinase, 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase, and sugar ABC-type transporter, were continuously down-regulated, which indicates that metabolic channeling of glucose towards the phosphorylative pathway was negatively regulated by soluble phosphate. These findings represent an important first step in understanding the molecular mechanisms of soluble phosphate effects on the growth and mineral phosphate solubilization of PSB.

Inorganic Phosphate Solubilization by Immobilized Pantoea agglomerans under in vitro Conditions (고정화된 Pantoea agglomerans에 의한 난용성 인산의 가용화)

  • Kim, Eun-Hee;Park, Sung-Ae;Park, Myoung-Su;Yang, Jin-chul;Madhaiyan, Munusamy;Seshadri, Sundaram;Sa, Tong-Min
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.37 no.1
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    • pp.36-40
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    • 2004
  • It is now widely accepted that immobilized microbial cells can overcome some of the problems associated with microbial survival stability, efficacy, storage, transportation and ease of application in agricultural environments. Pantoea agglomerans, a phosphate solubilizing bacterium, was immobilized in alginate, agar and gelatin carriers. All the three immobilfized carriers with bacterial cells of P. agglomerans were compared for solubilization of tricalcium phosphate in pure liquid cultures. While alginate beads were tested for phosphate solubilization on alternate days up to five days, agar beads and gelatin cubes were subjected for one time phosphate solubilization analysis after seven days. Both alginate and agar immobilized cells of P. agglomerans exhibited higher efficiency in increasing the solubilizaliun of tricalcium phosphate than gelatin immobilized cells. The culture filtrate of alginate bead inoculation treatment registered a rapid increase in soluble phosphate concentration upon incubation. A corresponding decrease in the pH of the medium was also observed in all the treatments.

Mineral Phosphate Solubilization by Wild Type and Radiation Induced Mutants of Pantoea dispersa and Pantoea terrae

  • Murugesan, Senthilkumar;Lee, Young-Keun;Kim, Jung Hun
    • Journal of Radiation Industry
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.39-45
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    • 2009
  • Three mineral phosphate solubilizing (MPS) bacteria where isolated from rhizosphere soil samples of common bean and weed plants. 16S rDNA analysis indicated that the isolate P2 and P3 are closely related to Pantoea dispersa while isolate P4 is closely related to Pantoea terrae. Isolates P2 and P3 recorded $381.60{\mu}g\;ml^{-1}$ and $356.27{\mu}g\;ml^{-1}$ of tricalcium phosphate (TCP) solubilization respectively on 3 days incubation. Isolate P4 recorded the TCP solubilization of $215.85{\mu}g\;ml^{-1}$ and the pH was dropped to 4.44 on 24 h incubation. Further incubation of P4 sharply decreased the available phosphorous to $28.94{\mu}g\;ml^{-1}$ and pH level was raised to 6.32. Gamma radiation induced mutagenesis was carried out at $LD_{99}$ dose of the wild type strains. The total of 14 mutant clones with enhanced MPS activity and 4 clones with decreased activity were selected based on solubilization index (SI) and phosphate solubilization assay. Mutant P2-M1 recorded the highest P-solubilizing potential among any other wild or mutant clones by releasing $504.21{\mu}g\;ml^{-1}$ of phosphorous i.e. 35% higher than its wild type by the end of day 5. A comparative evaluation of TCP solubilization by wild type isolates of Pantoea and their mutants, led to select three MPS mutant clones such as P2-M1, P3-M2 and P3-M4 with a potential to release >$471.67{\mu}g\;ml^{-1}$ of phosphorous from TCP. These over expressing mutant clones are considered as suitable candidates for biofertilization.

Stress Induced Phosphate Solubilization by Aspergillus awamori bxq33110 Isolated from Waste Mushroom Bed of Agaricus bisporus

  • Walpola, Buddhi Charana;Song, June-Seob;Jang, Kab-Yeul;Yoon, Min-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.45 no.3
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    • pp.428-434
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    • 2012
  • A fungal strain, capable of solubilizing insoluble phosphate under diverse temperature, pH and salt conditions was isolated from Waste Mushroom bed of Agaricus bisporus in South Korea. Based on 18S rRNA analysis, the strain was identified as Aspergillus awamori bxq33110. The strain showed maximum phosphate solubilization in AYG medium (525 ${\mu}g\;mL^{-1}$) followed by NBRIP medium (515 ${\mu}g\;mL^{-1}$). The strain solubilized $Ca_3(PO_4)_2$ to a greater extent and rock phosphate and $FePO_4$ to a certain extent. However $AlPO_4$ solubilizing ability of the strain was found to be very low. Glucose at the rate of 2% ($561{\mu}g\;mL^{-1}$) was found be the best carbon source for Aspergillus awamori bxq33110 to solubilize maximum amount of phosphate. However, no significant difference ($P{\leq}0.05$) in phosphorus solubilization was found between 1% and 2% glucose concentrations. $(NH_4)_2SO_4$ was the best nitrogen source for Aspergillus awamori bxq33110 followed by $NH_4Cl$ and $NH_4NO_3$. At pH 7, temperature $30^{\circ}C$ and 5% salt concentration (674 ${\mu}g\;mL^{-1}$) were found to be the optimal conditions for insoluble phosphate solubilization. However, strain Aspergillus awamori bxq33110 was shown to have the ability to solublize phosphate under different stress conditions at $30-40^{\circ}C$ temperature, pH 7-10 and 0-10% salt concentrations indicating it's potential to be used as bio-inoculants in different environmental conditions.