• Title, Summary, Keyword: Phosphorus Digestibility

Search Result 129, Processing Time 0.036 seconds

The Effect of Calcium Level on Microbial Phytase Activity and Nutrient Balance in Swine

  • Li, Defa;Che, X.R.;Wang, Y.Q.;Qiao, S.Y.;Cao, H.;Johnson, W.;Thacker, P.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.12 no.2
    • /
    • pp.197-202
    • /
    • 1999
  • Three barrows weighing 45.0 kg, fitted with simple T-cannulas in both the duodenum and terminal ileum, were assigned to diets in a $3{\times}3$ Latin Square design experiment to determine the effect of two calcium levels (0.8% vs 0.4%) on phytase activity and nutrient balance in growing pigs. The control diet contained 0.8% calcium, with no added inorganic phosphorus (0.45% total phosphorus) and no added phytase. The two additional experimental diets contained microbial phytase (750 phytase units/kg) and supplied either 0.8% or 0.4% calcium. With added microbial phytase, ileal and total tract digestibility of rotal phosphorus were improved by 20.9 and 13.8 percentage units, respectively (p=0.01). The apparent duodenal and ileal digestibility of phytate phosphorus were increased by 51.8 and 49.7 percentage units (p=0.01). Lowering dietary calcium in the presence of microbial phytase increased the digestibility of phytate phosphorus by an additional 10.9 (p=0.001) and 5.7 percentage units for duodenal and ileal digestibility, respectively. Supplementation with microbial phytase significantly reduced fecal excretion of nitrogen and phosphorus and increased the percentage of these nutrients retained by the pig. Lowering dietary calcium further increased the percentage of dietary phosphorus retained. Overall, reducing dietary calcium appeared to increase the effectiveness of added microbial phytase in degrading phytate phosphorus. As a result, care should be taken to avoid high levels of dietary calcium when supplementing swine diets with microbial phytase.

Standardized Total Tract Digestibility of Phosphorus in Copra Expellers, Palm Kernel Expellers, and Cassava Root Fed to Growing Pigs

  • So, A.R.;Shin, S.Y.;Kim, B.G.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.26 no.11
    • /
    • pp.1609-1613
    • /
    • 2013
  • An experiment was conducted to determine the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of phosphorus (P) in copra expellers (CE), palm kernel expellers (PKE), and cassava root (CR). Eight barrows (initial BW of 40.0 kg, SD = 4.5) were individually housed in metabolism crates. A replicated $4{\times}3$ incomplete Latin square design was employed involving 4 dietary treatments, 3 periods, and 8 animals. Three experimental diets contained 40% CE, PKE or CR as the only source of P. A P-free diet mainly based on corn starch, sucrose, and gelatin was also prepared to estimate the basal endogenous loss of P. The marker-to-marker method was used for fecal collection. Values for the ATTD of P in the CE and PKE were greater than in the CR (46.0 and 39.7 vs -14.0%; p<0.05). However, the STTD of P did not differ greatly among the test ingredients (56.5, 49.0, and 43.2% in the CE, PKE, and CR, respectively). In conclusion, the ATTD of P values in CE and PKE were greater than that in CR, but the STTD of P did not differ greatly among CE, PKE, and CR.

Effects of exogenous phytase and xylanase, individually or in combination, and pelleting on nutrient digestibility, available energy content of wheat and performance of growing pigs fed wheat-based diets

  • Yang, Y.Y.;Fan, Y.F.;Cao, Y.H.;Guo, P.P.;Dong, B.;Ma, Y. X.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.30 no.1
    • /
    • pp.57-63
    • /
    • 2017
  • Objective: Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of adding exogenous phytase and xylanase, individually or in combination, as well as pelleting on nutrient digestibility, available energy content of wheat and the performance of growing pigs fed wheat-based diets. Methods: In Experiment 1, forty-eight barrows with an initial body weight of $35.9{\pm}0.6kg$ were randomly assigned to a $2{\times}4$ factorial experiment with the main effects being feed form (pellet vs meal) and enzyme supplementation (none, 10,000 U/kg phytase, 4,000 U/kg xylanase or 10,000 U/kg phytase plus 4,000 U/kg xylanase). The basal diet contained 97.8% wheat. Pigs were placed in metabolic cages for a 7-d adaptation period followed by a 5-d total collection of feces and urine. Nutrient digestibility and available energy content were determined. Experiment 2 was conducted to evaluate the effects of pelleting and enzymes on performance of wheat for growing pigs. In this experiment, 180 growing pigs ($35.2{\pm}9.0kg\;BW$) were allocated to 1 of 6 treatments according to a $2{\times}3$ factorial treatment arrangement with the main effects being feed form (meal vs pellet) and enzyme supplementation (0, 2,500 or 5,000 U/kg xylanase). Results: In Experiment 1, there were no interactions between feed form and enzyme supplementation. Pelleting reduced the digestibility of acid detergent fiber (ADF) by 6.4 percentage units (p<0.01), increased the digestibility of energy by 0.6 percentage units (p<0.05), and tended to improve the digestibility of crude protein by 0.5 percentage units (p = 0.07) compared with diets in mash form. The addition of phytase improved the digestibility of phosphorus (p<0.01) and calcium (p<0.01) by 6.9 and 7.6 percentage units respectively compared with control group. Adding xylanase tended to increase the digestibility of crude protein by 1.0 percentage units (p = 0.09) and increased the digestibility of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) (p<0.01) compared with control group. Supplementation of the xylanase-phytase combination improved the digestibility of phosphorus (p<0.01) but impaired NDF digestibility (p<0.05) compared with adding xylanase alone. In Experiment 2, adding xylanase increased average daily gain (p<0.01) and linearly improved the feed:gain ratio (p<0.01) compared with control group. Conclusion: Pelleting improved energy digestibility but decreased ADF digestibility. Adding xylanase increased crude protein digestibility and pig performance. Phytase increased the apparent total tract digestibility of phosphorus and calcium. The combination of phytase-xylanase supplementation impaired the effects of xylanase on NDF digestibility.

Effect of Dietary Microbial Phytase on Laying Performance, Egg Quality, Phosphorus Utilization and Nutrient Metabolizability in Laying Hens (산란계에 Microbial Phytase 첨가시 산란율, 계란 품질, 인 이용율 및 영양소 대사율에 미치는 영향)

  • Jang, H.D.;Hyun, Y.;Kim, H.S.;Hwang, I.W.;Yoo, J.S.;Kim, H.J.;Shin, S.O.;Hwang, Y.;Zhou, T.X.;Chen, Y.J.;Cho, J.H.;Kim, I.H.
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
    • /
    • v.35 no.2
    • /
    • pp.115-121
    • /
    • 2008
  • The study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary microbial phytase on egg productivity, egg quality, phosphorus utilization and nutrient digestibility in laying hens. The animals used in the experiment were a total of 120 Hy-Line Brown laying hens (32 weeks old). Dietary treatments included 1) CON (basal diet), 2) LP (low phosphorus diet) 3) NP (low phosphorus diet + 0.03% normal microbial phytase) and 4) CP (low phosphorus diet + 0.03% coated microbial phytase). Six laying hens were allotted to a block (pen) with five replicated. Through the whole period of experiment, egg production was significantly increased in CON and CP treatments compared to LP treatment (P<0.05). CON, CP and NP treatments significantly increased their egg shell breaking strength and egg shell thickness compared to LP treatment (P<0.05). CON, CP and NP treatments resulted higher yolk color and Haugh unit than LP treatment (P<0.05). Calcium and inorganic phosphorus contents in blood were higher in CP treatment compared to LP treatment (P<0.05). Dry matter digestibility and nitrogen digestibility were greater in CP treatment than CON, LP and NP treatments (P<0.05). Crude ash was increased in CON, CP and NP treatments compared to LP treatment (P<0.05). Calcium digestibility and phosphorus digestibility were significantly improved in CP and NP treatments than CON and LP treatments (P<0.05). Calcium retention of CON, CP and NP treatments were higher than LP treatment (P<0.05). Phosphorus retention was increased in CP and NP treatments compared to CON and LP treatments (P<0.05). LP treatment significantly increased their nitrogen, calcium excretion compared to CON, CP and NP treatments (P<0.05). Phosphorus excretion was decreased in LP, CP and NP treatments compared to CON treatment (P<0.05). In conclusion, CP treatment improved egg production, egg quality, inorganic calcium and phosphorus in blood, calcium and phosphorus retention and nutrient digestibility and decreased nitrogen and calcium excretion in laying hens.

Calcium Digestibility and Metabolism in Pigs

  • Gonzalez-Vega, J.C.;Stein, H.H.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.27 no.1
    • /
    • pp.1-9
    • /
    • 2014
  • Calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) are minerals that have important physiological functions in the body. For formulation of diets for pigs, it is necessary to consider an appropriate Ca:P ratio for an adequate absorption and utilization of both minerals. Although both minerals are important, much more research has been conducted on P digestibility than on Ca digestibility. Therefore, this review focuses on aspects that are important for the digestibility of Ca. Only values for apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of Ca have been reported in pigs, whereas values for both ATTD and standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of P in feed ingredients have been reported. To be able to determine STTD values for Ca it is necessary to determine basal endogenous losses of Ca. Although most Ca is absorbed in the small intestine, there are indications that Ca may also be absorbed in the colon under some circumstances, but more research to verify the extent of Ca absorption in different parts of the intestinal tract is needed. Most P in plant ingredients is usually bound to phytate. Therefore, plant ingredients have low digestibility of P due to a lack of phytase secretion by pigs. During the last 2 decades, inclusion of microbial phytase in swine diets has improved P digestibility. However, it has been reported that a high inclusion of Ca reduces the efficacy of microbial phytase. It is possible that formation of insoluble calcium-phytate complexes, or Ca-P complexes, not only may affect the efficacy of phytase, but also the digestibility of P and Ca. Therefore, Ca, P, phytate, and phytase interactions are aspects that need to be considered in Ca digestibility studies.

Studies on Extrusion Procedures of Wheat Bran and Dietary Levels of Phosphorus in Nutrients Availability of Broiler Chicks (육계용 병아리에서 밀기울의 사출과 인의 결여수준이 영양소의 이용성에 미치는 영향)

  • 김인호;김춘수
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
    • /
    • v.17 no.4
    • /
    • pp.284-295
    • /
    • 1990
  • Dietary levels of 0%, 0225%, 0.45% inorganic phosphorus in the form of tricalcium phosphate were included in two different experimental diets, which contains 40% of wheat bran with or without extrusion. It is to examine the effects of extruded wheat bran containing different Bevels of inorganic phosphorus on the performance of broiler chicks, including the nutrient availabilities, compared with that of the diet containing non-extruded wheat bran. The results are as follows; 1. Regardless dietary levels of inorganic phosphorus, the weight gain in general was higher for the groups fed non-extruded wheat bran but little significance was seen between the groups of extruded and the non-extruded. However, the effect of dietary inclusion of inorganic phosphorus on the weight gain was evident and the gain was higher in the groups receiving the higher levies of inorgainc phosphorus but failed to observe the significant difference between the added groups of 0.225% and 0.45% of inorganic phosphorus, suggesting that a considerable amount of phytin phosphorus in wheat bran is available to meet the requirement. 2. For the feed intake, there was a tendency for the groups fed extruded wheat bran consuming more feed, compared with that of the non-extruded but little significance was observed. This was also true between the groups of receiving 0.225% and 0.45% inorganic phosphorus t The feed efficiency was improved by the addition of inorgainc phosphorus, but failed to observe the significance between the added groups. 4. The dry matter digestibility was improved in proportion to increasing the levels of inorganic phosphorus for the both groups of extruded and the non-extruded This indicates that addition of extruded wheat bran has little effects on improving the digestibility. 5. Within the added groups of 0.225% and 0.45% inorganic phosphorus, the protein digestibility was increased with including the extruded wheat bran in the diet However, the effect on body weight gain was not evident. 6. The calcium and phosphorus content of tibia was shown the tendency of increasing with increasing the dietary levels of inorganic phosphorus but close correlation with dietary levels of inorganic phosphorus was not noted in tibia contents of calcium and phosphorus.

  • PDF

The Additivity of True or Apparent Phosphorus Digestibility Values in Some Feed Ingredients for Growing Pigs

  • Fang, R.J.;Li, T.J.;Yin, F.G.;Yin, Y.L.;Kong, X.F.;Wang, K.N.;Yuan, Z.;Wu, G.Y.;He, J.H.;Deng, Z.Y.;Fan, M.Z.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.20 no.7
    • /
    • pp.1092-1099
    • /
    • 2007
  • Two experiments were conducted to determine the additivity of apparent or true digestibility of phosphorus (P) in soybean meal (SBM), peas, faba beans, corn, oats, broken rice meal, rough rice meal, buckwheat, and sorghum for growing pigs. Chromic oxide (0.3%) was used as a digestion marker in both experiments. Each experiment lasted for 12 d, which consisted of a 7-d dietary adaptation period followed by a 5-d fecal collection period. Experiment 1 involved 6 diets: the SBM-based control diet; 4 diets with corn, oats, rough rice meal and broken rice meal substituted for SBM; and an additional diet with a representative mixture of the 5 ingredients. In Experiment 2, 6 diets were prepared similarly, except that the tested ingredients besides SBM were faba beans, peas, buckwheat, and sorghum. In each experiment, six barrows with an initial average individual BW of 20.5 kg were fed one of the six diets according to a $6{\times}6$ Latin square design. The apparent and true P digestibility values for the nine tested ingredients were determined by the substitution method. There were no differences (p>0.05) between the determined and the predicted true P digestibility values for the mixture of ingredients in Experiments 1 and 2. However, the determined and the predicted apparent P digestibility values for the mixture of ingredients differed (p = 0.059) in Experiment 1, but not in Experiment 2. These results indicate that true P digestibility values are additive in ingredients containing low levels of phytate phosphorus and anti-nutritional factors, whereas the apparent P digestibility values are not always additive in single feed ingredients for growing pigs.

Effects of Microbial Phytase Replacing Partial Inorganic Phosphorus Supplementation and Xylanase on the Growth Performance and Nutrient Digestibility in Broilers Fed Wheat-based Diets

  • Peng, Y.L.;Guo, Y.M.;Yuan, J.M.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.16 no.2
    • /
    • pp.239-247
    • /
    • 2003
  • Two experiments were conducted with broilers to investigate the feasibility of microbial phytase replacing partial inorganic phosphorus supplementation and the synergistic effects of xylanase (320 FTU/kg) supplementation alone or in combination with phytase (750 U/kg) replacing 0.08% dietary inorganic phosphorus, on the growth performance and utilization of nutrients in broilers fed wheat-based diets. In Experiment 1, 540 broilers were fed five diets for 6 weeks. Diets C0 and C1 were corn-based diets and 0.08% inorganic P supplementation was replaced with 750 U phytase/kg feed in Diet C1. Diets W0, W1 and W2 were wheat-based diets supplemented with microbial phytase 0, 750, 750 U/kg feed and 0, 0.08% and 0.16% dietary inorganic P were replaced, respectively. In Experiment 2, 432 broilers were divided into four treatments to determine the synergistic effects of supplemental xylanase and phytase replacing 0.08% inorganic P. Four experimental diets were arranged according to a $2{\times}2$ factorial design. The results indicated that addition of phytase increased the digestibility of phytic P by 31.0 to 55%, dramatically decreased the excretion of phytic P and total P by 31.6 to 55.0% and 13.8 to 32.9%, respectively (p<0.01). It is feasible to completely replace 0.08% inorganic phosphorus supplementation with microbial phytase 750 U/kg in corn- or wheat-based diets for broilers. Addition of xylanase alone or in combination with phytase replacing 0.08% dietary inorganic P, increased body weight gain and feed utilization efficiency of broilers fed wheat-based diets (p<0.10) and decreased overall mortality (p<0.10). In the groups of birds supplementing xylanase 320 FTU/kg feed, a marked elevation of the dietary AME was observed (p<0.05). Addition of phytase replacing 0.08% dietary inorganic phosphorus, concurrently with xylanase supplementation had additive effects on the apparent digestibility of dietary phytic P and overall feed conversion ratio (p<0.05).

Improved Apparent Digestibility Coefficient of Protein and Phosphorus by Supplementation of Microbial Phytase in Diets Containing Cottonseed and Soybean Meal for Juvenile Olive Flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus)

  • Pham, Minh Anh;Lee, Kyeong-Jun;Dang, Tuyet Mai;Lim, Se-Jin;Ko, Gyung-Yong;Eo, Jinee;Oh, Dae-Han
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.21 no.9
    • /
    • pp.1367-1375
    • /
    • 2008
  • This study was conducted to investigate the effects of phytase in diets containing cottonseed and soybean meal (CS) on growth performance, feed utilization and digestibility of protein and phosphorus in juvenile olive flounder (initial body weight 2.5 g), Paralichthys olivaceus. Four experimental diets replacing 0%, 30%, 30% and 40% fish meal protein with CS in equal proportion were formulated to be isonitrogenous and isocaloric (designated as CS0, CS30, CS30+P, CS40+P, respectively). Phytase of 1,000 FTU/kg was supplemented in diets CS30+P and CS40+P. Three groups of fish (25 fish per group) were fed one of the experimental diets for 10 weeks. No significant differences were observed in growth performance of fish groups except for the CS40+P diet. Apparent digestibility coefficients of protein and phosphorus in fish fed phytase-containing diets were significantly higher than those of fish fed the CS0 diet. Serum cholesterol was significantly reduced in fish fed the CS-containing diets. Antioxidant activities in the diets and liver of fish were significantly increased with the increment of dietary CS. Gossypol was only detected and found in liver of the fish fed the CS-containing diets. The findings suggest that supplementation of microbial phytase could improve the apparent digestibility of protein and phosphorus in juvenile olive flounder fed the CS-containing diets.

Effects of Dietary Cellulose on the Basal Endogenous Loss of Phosphorus in Growing Pigs

  • Son, A.R.;Kim, B.G.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.28 no.3
    • /
    • pp.369-373
    • /
    • 2015
  • An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of cellulose concentration in diets containing no phosphorus (P) on the basal endogenous loss (BEL) of P in growing pigs. Twelve barrows (an initial mean body weight = $49.6{\pm}3.2kg$) were individually housed in metabolism crates. Pigs were allotted to 4 experimental diets according to a cross-over design with 12 animals and 2 periods. Four P-free diets were mainly based on corn starch, sucrose, and gelatin, and were formulated to contain 0%, 4%, 8%, or 12% cellulose. Each period consisted of a 5-d adaptation and a 5-d collection period. The marker-to-marker method was used for fecal collection. The feed intake (p<0.05, linear and quadratic) and dry feces output (p<0.01, linear and quadratic) were increased with increasing dietary cellulose concentration. However, P concentration in the feces was decreased (p<0.01, linear and quadratic) with increasing dietary cellulose concentration. There was no significant difference in total P output and the BEL of P as mg per kg DMI (ranging from 157 to 214 mg/kg of dry matter intake) among experimental diets. However, values for the apparent total tract digestibility of energy, dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, and calcium were linearly decreased (p<0.01) with increasing cellulose concentration in the diet. In conclusion, dietary cellulose affected the amount of feces and digestibility of energy and nutrients, but did not affect the endogenous loss of P.