• Title, Summary, Keyword: Phosphorylation

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Improvement of Functional Properties of Egg White Protein through Glycation and Phosphorylation by Dry-heating

  • Enomoto, Hirofumi;Nagae, Shiho;Hayashi, Yoko;Li, Can-Peng;Ibrahim, Hisham R.;Sugimoto, Yasushi;Aoki, Takayoshi
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.591-597
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    • 2009
  • Egg white protein (EWP) was glycated with maltopentaose (MP) through the Maillard reaction and subsequently phosphorylated by $85^{\circ}C$ dry-heating at pH 4.0 for 1 d in the presence of pyrophosphate. The functional properties of glycated, phosphorylated EWP were compared with those of native EWP and with EWP which was phosphorylated by dry-heating in the presence of pyrophosphate under the same conditions. The phosphorus content of EWP was increased to ~0.60% by phosphorylation, and to ~0.74% by glycation with MP and subsequent phosphorylation. The electrophoretic mobility of EWP increased through phosphorylation. The stability of EWP against heat-induced insolubility at pH 7.0 was considerably improved by phosphorylation alone and further by phosphorylation after glycation. The anti-ovalbumin antibody response was reduced significantly by glycation and phosphorylation, and further reduced by phosphorylation after glycation. The anti-ovomucoid antibody response was reduced significantly by glycation, phosphorylation and phosphorylation after glycation. The calcium phosphate-solubilizing ability of EWP was enhanced by both phosphorylation methods.

Phosphorylation on the PPP2R5D B regulatory subunit modulates the biochemical properties of protein phosphatase 2A

  • Yu, Un-Young;Ahn, Jung-Hyuck
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.43 no.4
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    • pp.263-267
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    • 2010
  • To characterize the biochemical properties of the PP2A regulatory B subunit, PPP2R5D, we analyzed its phosphorylation sites, stoichiometry and effect on holoenzyme activity. PPP2R5D was phosphorylated on Ser-53, Ser-68, Ser-81, and Ser-566 by protein kinase A, and mutations at all four of these sites abolished any significant phosphorylation in vitro. In HEK293 cells, however, the Ser-566 was the major phosphorylation site after PKA activation by forskolin, with marginal phosphorylation on Ser-81. Inhibitory tyrosine phosphorylation on Tyr-307 of the PP2A catalytic C subunit was decreased after forskolin treatment. Kinetic analysis showed that overall PP2A activity was increased with phosphorylation by PPP2R5D phosphorylation. The apparent Km was reduced from $11.25\;{\mu}M$ to $1.175\;{\mu}M$ with PPP2R5D phosphorylation, resulting in an increase in catalytic activity. These data suggest that PKA-mediated activation of PP2A is enabled by PPP2R5D phosphorylation, which modulates the affinity of the PP2A holoenzyme to its physiological substrates.

Role of RNA Polymerase II Carboxy Terminal Domain Phosphorylation in DNA Damage Response

  • Jeong Su-Jin;Kim Hye-Jin;Yang Yong-Jin;Seol Ja-Hwan;Jung Bo-Young;Han Jeong-Whan;Lee Hyang-Woo;Cho Eun-Jung
    • Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.43 no.6
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    • pp.516-522
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    • 2005
  • The phosphorylation of C-terminal domain (CTD) of Rpb1p, the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II plays an important role in transcription and the coupling of various cellular events to transcription. In this study, its role in DNA damage response is closely examined in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, focusing specifically on several transcription factors that mediate or respond to the phosphorylation of the CTD. CTDK-1, the pol II CTD kinase, FCP1, the CTD phosphatase, ESS1, the CTD phosphorylation dependent cis-trans isomerase, and RSP5, the phosphorylation dependent pol II ubiquitinating enzyme, were chosen for the study. We determined that the CTD phosphorylation of CTD, which occurred predominantly at serine 2 within a heptapeptide repeat, was enhanced in response to a variety of sources of DNA damage. This modification was shown to be mediated by CTDK-1. Although mutations in ESS1 or FCP1 caused cells to become quite sensitive to DNA damage, the characteristic pattern of CTD phosphorylation remained unaltered, thereby implying that ESS1 and FCP1 play roles downstream of CTD phosphorylation in response to DNA damage. Our data suggest that the location or extent of CTD phosphorylation might be altered in response to DNA damage, and that the modified CTD, ESS1, and FCP1 all contribute to cellular survival in such conditions.

Aberrant phosphorylation in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease

  • Chung, Sul-Hee
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.42 no.8
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    • pp.467-474
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    • 2009
  • The modification of proteins by reversible phosphorylation is a key mechanism in the regulation of various physiological functions. Abnormal protein kinase or phosphatase activity can cause disease by altering the phosphorylation of critical proteins in normal cellular and disease processes. Alzheimer' disease (AD), typically occurring in the elderly, is an irreversible, progressive brain disorder characterized by memory loss and cognitive decline. Accumulating evidence suggests that protein kinase and phosphatase activity are altered in the brain tissue of AD patients. Tau is a highly recognized phosphoprotein that undergoes hyperphosphorylation to form neurofibrillary tangles, a neuropathlogical hallmark with amyloid plaques in AD brains. This study is a brief overview of the altered protein phosphorylation pathways found in AD. Understanding the molecular mechanisms by which the activities of protein kinases and phosphatases are altered as well as the phosphorylation events in AD can potentially reveal novel insights into the role aberrant phosphorylation plays in the pathogenesis of AD, providing support for protein phosphorylation as a potential treatment strategy for AD.

Multiple Regulation of Roundabout (Robo) Phosphorylation in a Heterologous Cell System

  • Park, Hwan-Tae
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.111-115
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    • 2004
  • Roundabout (Robo) is the transmembrane receptor for slit, the neuronal guidance molecule. In this study, the tyrosine phosphorylation of Robo was observed in Robo-transfected human embryonic kidney cells and developing rat brains, and found to be increased by the treatment with protein kinase A activator, forskolin. In contrast, protein kinase C activation by phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate decreased the phosphorylation of Robo. Intracellular calcium was required for the tyrosine phosphorylation. Furthermore, the transfection of an Eph receptor tyrosine kinase dramatically enhanced the tyrosine phosphorylation. These findings indicate that the tyrosine phosphorylation of Robo is regulated by multiple mechanisms, and that Eph receptor kinases may play a role in the regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation of Robo in the rat brain.

Transforming Growth $Factor-{\beta}$ Enhances Tyrosine Phosphorylation of Two Cellular Proteins in HEL Cells

  • Lim, Chang-Su;Chun, Jeong-Seon;Sung, Soo-Kyung;Lee, Kyu-Cheol;Lee, Chan-Hee
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.119-124
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    • 1997
  • Transforming growth $factor-{\beta}\;(TGF-{\beta})$ is a multifunctional polypeptide that exerts biological roles including cell proliferation, differentiation, extracellular matrix deposition and apoptosis in many different cell types. $TGF-{\beta}$, although known as a negative growth regulator, has not been tested in human embryo lung (HEll cells. This study attempts to understand the role of $TGF-{\beta}$ on growth control of HEL cells in relationship to tyrosine phosphorylation pattern of cellular proteins. In density-arrested HEL cells treated with $TGF-{\beta}$, analysis of Western immunoblot showed induction of tyrosine phosphorylation of two major cellular proteins (15 kDa and 45 kDa). In normal proliferating HEL cells with different concentrations of serum, further analysis indicated that the increase in tyrosine phosphorylation of a 45 kDa protein was regulated in serum concentration-dependent manner. However, in proliferating HEL cells treated with $TGF-{\beta}$, tyrosine phosphorylation of 45 kDa was down-regulated. Calcium involvement in the regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation of 45 kDa and 15 kDa proteins was also examined. Tyrosine phosphorylation of 15 kDa protein but not of 45 kDa protein was regulated by exogenous calcium. The level of tyrosine phosphorylation of 15 kDa protein was low at reduced caclium concentration and high at elevated caclium concentration. $TGF-{\beta}$ reversed the pattern of tyrosine phosphorylation of 15 kDa protein. These results suggest that tyrosine phosphorylation of 45 and 15 kDa proteins in HEL cells may be controlled depending on the physiological status of the cells, i.e., low in arrested cells and high in proliferating cells. And the tyrosine phosphorylation of the two proteins appears to be down- or up-regulated by $TGF-{\beta}$.

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Independent Regulation of Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase by Src and Protein Kinase A in Mouse Aorta Endothelial Cells

  • Boo, Yong-Chool
    • Journal of Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.48 no.3
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    • pp.120-126
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    • 2005
  • Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) plays a critical role in vascular biology and pathophysiology. Its activity is regulated by multiple mechanisms such as calcium/calmodulin, protein-protein interactions, sub-cellular locations and phosphorylation at various sites. Phosphorylation of eNOS-Ser1177 (based on mouse sequence) has been identified as an important mechanism of eNOS activation. However, signaling pathway leading to it phosphorylation remains controversial. The regulation of eNOS-Ser1177 phosphorylation by Src and protein kinase A (PKA) was investigated in the present study using cultured mouse aorta endothelial cells. Expression of a constitutively active Src mutant in the cells enhanced phosphorylation of eNOS and protein kinase B (Akt). The Src-stimulated phosphorylation was not attenuated by the expression of a dominant negative PKA regulatory subunit. Neither activation nor inhibition of PKA activity had any significant effect on tyrosine phosphorylation of activation or inactivation site in Src. Based on the results of this study, it is suggested that Src/Akt pathway and PKA signaling may regulate eNOS phosphorylation independently. The existence of multiple mechanisms for eNOS phosphorylation may guarantee endothelial nitric oxide production in various cellular contexts which is essential for maintenance of vascular health.

Nephrin phosphorylation regulates podocyte adhesion through the PINCH-1-ILK-α-parvin complex

  • Zha, Dongqing;Chen, Cheng;Liang, Wei;Chen, Xinghua;Ma, Tean;Yang, Hongxia;van Goor, Harry;Ding, Guohua
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.46 no.4
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    • pp.230-235
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    • 2013
  • Nephrin, a structural molecule, is also a signaling molecule after phosphorylation. Inhibition of nephrin phosphorylation is correlated with podocyte injury. The PINCH-1-ILK-${\alpha}$-parvin (PIP) complex plays a crucial role in cell adhesion and cytoskeleton formation. We hypothesized that nephrin phosphorylation influenced cytoskeleton and cell adhesion in podocytes by regulating the PIP complex. The nephrin phosphorylation, PIP complex formation, and F-actin in Wistar rats intraperitoneally injected with puromycin aminonucleoside were gradually decreased but increased with time, coinciding with the recovery from glomerular/podocyte injury and proteinuria. In cultured podocytes, PIP complex knockdown resulted in cytoskeleton reorganization and decreased cell adhesion and spreading. Nephrin and its phosphorylation were unaffected after PIP complex knockdown. Furthermore, inhibition of nephrin phosphorylation suppressed PIP complex expression, disorganized podocyte cytoskeleton, and decreased cell adhesion and spreading. These findings indicate that alterations in nephrin phosphorylation disorganize podocyte cytoskeleton and decrease cell adhesion through a PIP complex-dependent mechanism.

Myoplasmic [$Ca^{2+}$], Crossbridge Phosphorylation and Latch in Rabbit Bladder Smooth Muscle

  • Kim, Young-Don;Cho, Min-Hyung;Kwon, Seong-Chun
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.171-177
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    • 2011
  • Tonic smooth muscle exhibit the latch phenomenon: high force at low myosin regulatory light chains (MRLC) phosphorylation, shortening velocity (Vo), and energy consumption. However, the kinetics of MRLC phosphorylation and cellular activation in phasic smooth muscle are unknown. The present study was to determine whether $Ca^{2+}$-stimulated MRLC phosphorylation could suffice to explain the agonist- or high $K^+$-induced contraction in a fast, phasic smooth muscle. We measured myoplasmic [$Ca^{2+}$], MRLC phosphorylation, half-time after step-shortening (a measure of Vo) and contractile stress in rabbit urinary bladder strips. High $K^+$-induced contractions were phasic at both $22^{\circ}C$ and $37^{\circ}C$: myoplasmic [$Ca^{2+}$], MRLC phosphorylation, 1/half-time, and contractile stress increased transiently and then all decreased to intermediate values. Carbachol (CCh)-induced contractions exhibited latch at $37^{\circ}C$: stress was maintained at high levels despite decreasing myoplasmic [$Ca^{2+}$], MRLC phosphorylation, and 1/half-time. At $22^{\circ}C$ CCh induced sustained elevations in all parameters. 1/half-time depended on both myoplasmic [$Ca^{2+}$] and MRLC phosphorylation. The steady-state dependence of stress on MRLC phosphorylation was very steep at $37^{\circ}C$ in the CCh- or $K^+$-depolarized tissue and reduced temperature flattend the dependence of stress on MRLC phosphorylation compared to $37^{\circ}C$. These data suggest that phasic smooth muscle also exhibits latch behavior and latch is less prominent at lower temperature.

Activation of Signal Transduction Pathways Changes Protein Phosphorylation Patterns in the Rat Hvpothalamus (흰쥐 시상하부에서 신호전달계의 활성화에 의한 단백질 인산화의 변화)

  • Lee, Byung-Ju;Sun
    • The Korean Journal of Zoology
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    • v.37 no.1
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    • pp.130-136
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    • 1994
  • Although alteration in protein phosphorylation by specific protein kinases is of importance in transducing cellular signals in a variety of neural/endocrine systems, little is known about protein phosphorylation in the hvpothalamus. The present study aims to explore whether activation of the second messenger-dependent protein kinases affects phosphorylation of specific proteins using a cell free phosphorylation system followed by SDS-polvacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Cytoplasmic fractions derived from hvpothalami of immature rats were used as substrates and several activators and/or inhibitors of CAMP-, phosphatidylinositol- and Ca2+-calmodulin-dependent protein kinases were assessed. Many endogenous proteins were extensively phosphorylated and depending on the signal transduction pathways, phosphorvlation profiles were markedly different. The present data indicate that extracellular signals may affect cellular events through protein phosphorylation by second messengers-protein kinases in the rat hypothalamus.

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