• Title, Summary, Keyword: Photoresist

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Splitting of Surface Plasmon Resonance Peaks Under TE- and TM-polarized Illumination

  • Yoon, Su-Jin;Hwang, Jeongwoo;Lee, Myeong-Ju;Kang, Sang-Woo;Kim, Jong-Su;Ku, Zahyun;Urbas, Augustine;Lee, Sang Jun
    • Proceedings of the Korean Vacuum Society Conference
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    • pp.296-296
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    • 2014
  • We investigate experimentally and theoretically the splitting of surface plasmon (SP) resonance peaks under TE- and TM-polarized illumination. The SP structure at infrared wavelength is fabricated with a 2-dimensional square periodic array of circular holes penetrating through Au (gold) film. In brief, the processing steps to fabricate the SP structure are as follows. (i) A standard optical lithography was performed to produce to a periodic array of photoresist (PR) circular cylinders. (ii) After the PR pattern, e-beam evaporation was used to deposit a 50-nm thick layer of Au. (iii) A lift-off processing with acetone to remove the PR layer, leading to final structure (pitch, $p=2.2{\mu}m$; aperture size, $d=1.1{\mu}m$) as shown in Fig. 1(a). The transmission is measured using a Nicolet Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) at the incident angle from $0^{\circ}$ to $36^{\circ}$ with a step of $4^{\circ}$ both in TE and TM polarization. Measured first and second order SP resonances at interface between Au and GaAs exhibit the splitting into two branches under TM-polarized light as shown in Fig. 1(b). However, as the incidence angle under TE polarization is increased, the $1^{st}$ order SP resonance peak blue-shifts slightly while the splitting of $2^{nd}$ order SP resonance peak tends to be larger (not shown here). For the purpose of understanding our experimental results qualitatively, SP resonance peak wavelengths can be calculated from momentum matching condition (black circle depicted in Fig. 2(b)), $k_{sp}=k_{\parallel}{\pm}iG_x{\pm}jG_y$, where $k_{sp}$ is the SP wavevector, $k_{\parallel}$ is the in-plane component of incident light wavevector, i and j are SP coupling order, and G is the grating momentum wavevector. Moreover, for better understanding we performed 3D full field electromagnetic simulations of SP structure using a finite integration technique (CST Microwave Studio). Fig. 1(b) shows an excellent agreement between the experimental, calculated and CST-simulated splitting of SP resonance peaks with various incidence angles under TM-polarized illumination (TE results are not shown here). The simulated z-component electric field (Ez) distribution at incident angle, $4^{\circ}$ and $16^{\circ}$ under TM polarization and at the corresponding SP resonance wavelength is shown in Fig. 1(c). The analysis and comparison of theoretical results with experiment indicates a good agreement of the splitting behavior of the surface plasmon resonance modes at oblique incidence both in TE and TM polarization.

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Analysis of Coating Uniformity through Unsteady and Steady State Computer Simulation in Slot Coating (슬롯코팅에서 정상 및 비정상상태 컴퓨터해석을 통한 코팅의 균일성 분석)

  • Woo, Jeong-Woo;Sung, Dal-Je;Lyu, Min-Young
    • Polymer Korea
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    • v.38 no.5
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    • pp.640-644
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    • 2014
  • As a process of plat panel display production, slot coating is widely used for the coating of photoresist on a wide glass substrate. A uniform coating thickness is important, and the coating uniformity is divided into nozzle and machine directions. The machine and nozzle directions coating uniformities are influenced by the operation condition of coater and flow uniformity inside the die, respectively. Non-uniform coating during steady coating process occurs according to those factors, however, non-uniform coating along the machine and nozzle directions has been observed at the beginning of coating by unsteady flow. In this study, steady and unsteady state flow simulations have been performed and compared with experiment to examine the causes of non-uniform coating. Computational results exhibited that it took a time to get a uniform pressure distribution at whole inside the die, and during this period of time edge regions showed lower exit velocity compared with center region. Subsequently edge regions had thinner coated layers than center region. However edge regions showed higher exit velocity than center region after steady state, and this made edge regions had thicker coated layer than center region.

Stability Enhancement of IZOthin Film Transistor Using SU-8 Passivation Layer (SU-8 패시베이션을 이용한 솔루션 IZO-TFT의안정성 향상에 대한 연구)

  • Kim, Sang-Jo;Yi, Moonsuk
    • Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers
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    • v.52 no.7
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    • pp.33-39
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    • 2015
  • In this work, SU-8 passivated IZO thin-film transistors(TFTs) made by solution-processes was investigated for enhancing stability of indium zinc oxide(IZO) TFT. A very viscous negative photoresist SU-8, which has high mechanical and chemical stability, was deposited by spin coating and patterned on top of TFT by photo lithography. To investigate the enhanced electrical performances by using SU-8 passivation layer, the TFT devices were analyzed by X-ray phtoelectron spectroscopy(XPS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy(FTIR). The TFTs with SU-8 passivation layer show good electrical characterestics, such as ${\mu}_{FE}=6.43cm^2/V{\cdot}s$, $V_{th}=7.1V$, $I_{on/off}=10^6$, SS=0.88V/dec, and especially 3.6V of ${\Delta}V_{th}$ under positive bias stress (PBS) for 3600s. On the other hand, without SU-8 passivation, ${\Delta}V_{th}$ was 7.7V. XPS and FTIR analyses results showed that SU-8 passivation layer prevents the oxygen desorption/adsorption processes significantly, and this feature makes the effectiveness of SU-8 passivation layer for PBS.

Evaluation of Water Absorption Phenomena into the Photo-resist Dry Film for PCB Photo-lithography Process (PCB Photo-lithography 공정에 사용되는 Photo-resist인 Dry Film에 대한 물의 확산 침투 현상평가)

  • Lee, Choon Hee;Jeong, Giho;Shin, An Seob
    • Applied Chemistry for Engineering
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    • v.24 no.6
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    • pp.593-598
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    • 2013
  • In this study, we have evaluated the water absorption phenomenon of photoresist dry film, which is commonly used to build circuits on PCB (Printed Circuit Board) by photolithography, by using ATR-FTIR (Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transform Infrared). We have firstly observed significant change in fracture mode of dry film with respect to temperature and humidity, which we assumed the material transition from ductile to brittle. Secondly, we have established the process of absorption test for determining the diffusion coefficients of water into the dry film both with gravimeter and ATR-FTIR. We have successfully calculated the diffusion coefficients for each environmental conditions from the results which we achieved by gravimeter and ATR-FTIR. Compared to the gravimeter which is a conventional method for absorption test, the ATR-FTIR method in this study has been found to be very easy to use and have the same accuracy as gravimeter. Moreover, we are expecting to use the ATR-FTIR as an appropriate method to study the absorption phenomena related to any kinds of solvent and polymer system.

Improvement of Light Extraction Efficiency of GaN-Based Vertical LED with Microlens Structure

  • Kwon, Eunhee;Kang, Eun Kyu;Min, Jung Wook;Lee, Yong Tak
    • Proceedings of the Korean Vacuum Society Conference
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    • pp.221-221
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    • 2013
  • Vertical LED (VLED) has been recognized as a way to obtain the high-power LED due to their advantages [1]. However, approximately 4% of the light generated from the active region is extracted, if the light extraction from side walls and back side is neglected because of Fresnel reflection (FR) and total internal reflection (TIR) [2,3]. In this study, the optical simulation of the VLED with the various microstructures was performed. Among them, the microlens having the diameter of 3 ${\mu}m$ and the height of 1.5 ${\mu}m$ shown the best result was chosen, and then, optimized microlens was formed on a GaN template using conventional semiconductor process. Various microstructures were proposed to improve the light extraction efficiency (LEE) of the VLED for the simulation. The LEE was simulated using LightTools based on a Monte Carlo ray tracing. The microstructures with hemisphere, cone, truncated and cylinder pattern having diameter of 3 ${\mu}m$ were employed on the top layer of the VLED respectively. The improvement of the LEE by using the microstructure is 87% for the hemisphere, 77% for the cone, 53% for the truncated, 21% for the cylinder, compared with the LEE of the flat surface at the reflectance of 85%. The LEE was increased by 88% at the height of 1.5 ${\mu}m$, compared with the LEE of the flat surface. We found that the microlens on the top layer is the most suitable for increasing the LEE. In order to apply the proposed microlens on n-GaN surface, we fabricated microlens on a GaN template. A photoresist array having hexagonal-closed packed microlens was fabricated on the GaN template. Then, optimization of etching the GaN template was performed using a dry etching process with ICP-RIE. The dry etching carried out using a gas mixture of Cl2 and Ar, each having a flow rate of 16 sccm and 10 sccm, respectively with RF power of 50 W, ICP power of 900 W and chamber pressure of 2 mTorr was the optimum etching condition as shown in Fig. 2(a).

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Characteristics of MHEMT Devices Having T-Shaped Gate Structure for W-Band MMIC (W-Band MMIC를 위한 T-형태 게이트 구조를 갖는 MHMET 소자 특성)

  • Lee, Jong-Min;Min, Byoung-Gue;Chang, Sung-Jae;Chang, Woo-Jin;Yoon, Hyung Sup;Jung, Hyun-Wook;Kim, Seong-Il;Kang, Dong Min;Kim, Wansik;Jung, Jooyong;Kim, Jongpil;Seo, Mihui;Kim, Sosu
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Electrical and Electronic Material Engineers
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    • v.33 no.2
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    • pp.99-104
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    • 2020
  • In this study, we fabricated a metamorphic high-electron-mobility transistor (mHEMT) device with a T-type gate structure for the implementation of W-band monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMICs) and investigated its characteristics. To fabricate the mHEMT device, a recess process for etching of its Schottky layer was applied before gate metal deposition, and an e-beam lithography using a triple photoresist film for the T-gate structure was employed. We measured DC and RF characteristics of the fabricated device to verify the characteristics that can be used in W-band MMIC design. The mHEMT device exhibited DC characteristics such as a drain current density of 747 mA/mm, maximum transconductance of 1.354 S/mm, and pinch-off voltage of -0.42 V. Concerning the frequency characteristics, the device showed a cutoff frequency of 215 GHz and maximum oscillation frequency of 260 GHz, which provide sufficient performance for W-band MMIC design and fabrication. In addition, active and passive modeling was performed and its accuracy was evaluated by comparing the measured results. The developed mHEMT and device models could be used for the fabrication of W-band MMICs.

Dry Etching of Flexible Polycarbonate and PMMA in O2/SF6/CH4 Discharges (O2/SF6/CH4 플라즈마를 이용한 플렉시블 Polycarbonate와 PMMA의 건식 식각)

  • Joo, Y.W.;Park, Y.H.;Noh, H.S.;Kim, J.K.;Lee, J.W.
    • Journal of the Korean Vacuum Society
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.85-91
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    • 2009
  • There has been a rapid progress for flexible polymer-based MEMS(Microelectromechanical Systems) technology. Polycarbonate (PC) and Poly Methyl Methacrylate (PMMA), so-called acrylic, have many advantages for optical, non-toxic and micro-device application. We studied dry etching of PC and PMMA as a function of % gas ratio in the $O_2/SF_6/CH_4$ temary plasma. A photoresist pattern was defined on the polymer samples with a mask using a conventional lithography. Plasma etching was done at 100 W RIE chuck power and 10 sccm total gas flow rate. The etch rates of PMMA were typically 2 times higher than those of PC in the whole experimental range. The result would be related to higher melting point of PC compared to that of PMMA. The highest etch rates of PMMA and PC were found in the $O_2/SF_6$ discharges among $O_2/SF_6$, $O_2/CH_4$ and $SF_6/CH_4$ and $O_2/SF_6/CH_4$ plasma composition (PC: ${\sim}350\;nm/min$ at 5 sccm $O_2/5$ sccm $SF_6$, PMMA: ${\sim}570\;nm/min$ at 2.5 sccm $O_2/7.5$ sccm $SF_6$). PC has smoother surface morphology than PMMA after etching in the $O_2/SF_6/CH_4$ discharges. The surface roughness of PC was in the range of 1.9$\sim$3.88 nm. However, that of PMMA was 17.3$\sim$26.1 nm.