• Title, Summary, Keyword: Phytoremediation

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An Overview of Phytoremediation Technology and Its Applications to Environmental Pollution Control (식물정화기술의 개요와 환경오염 제어에의 응용 현황)

  • Lee, Jae Heung
    • KSBB Journal
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    • v.27 no.5
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    • pp.281-288
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    • 2012
  • Phytoremediation-the use of plants for the in situ treatment of contaminated soil and water-has recently emerged as an inexpensive and user-friendly alternative to traditional methods of environmental clean-up. The present article outlines the characteristics of phytoremediation based on accumulated research evidence, along with discussions on its advantages and disadvantages. It further reviews various mechanisms involved in the phytoremediation processes: phytoextraction, rhizofiltration, phytostabilization, phytovolatilization and phytodegradation. Along the way, the author summarizes examples of its applications to environmental pollution control. These include wastewater treatment, removal of heavy metals, and hydrocarbons, remediation of recalcitrant contaminants, phytoremediation of radionuclides, and application of transgenic plants for enhanced biodegradation and phytoremediation. The remainder of the article briefly concludes with directions for future research.

Desalinization of Salt-affected Soil by Phytoremediation (간척지 염해토양의 Phytoremediation에 의한 제염)

  • Son, Jae-Kwon;Song, Jae-Do;Shin, Won-Tae;Lee, Su-Hwan;Ryu, Jin-Hee;Cho, Jae-Young
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.583-598
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    • 2016
  • Salted-affected soil is a major environmental constraint with severe negative impacts on agricultural productivity and sustainability in reclaimed tidelands. This review focuses on the phytoremediation of reclaimed tidelands. We address the process of phytoremediation of these soils, comparison of phytoremediation with other amelioration approaches, driving forces contributing to the process, selection of phytoremediation crops, and the role of cropping in securing environmental integrity under salt-affected soils.

Phytoremediation of Heavy Metal Contaminated Soils Using Transgenic Plants (중금속 오염토양의 식물정화 기술과 형질전환 식물의 이용에 관한 최근 연구동향)

  • Ok, Yong-Sik;Kim, Jeong-Gyu;Yang, Jae E.;Kim, Hee-Joung;Yoo, Kyung-Yoal;Park, Chang-Jin;Jeong, Deok-Yeong
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.37 no.6
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    • pp.396-406
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    • 2004
  • Current physical and chemical methodologies, conventionally used to clean up metal contaminated soils, are generally too expensive to apply in large hazardous waste sites including agricultural lands adjacent to closed or abandoned metal mines. Phytoremediation using plants to extract, sequester and detoxify environmental pollutants is one of the cost-effective and aesthetically-pleasing alternatives, compared with environmentally destructive remedial methods currently being practiced. But, phytoremediation has some limitations such as time consuming and low performance: in general, it is seasonally dependent and slower in removing metals than other methods, and metal accumulating plants are slow growers. Improvement of plants for metal tolerance, accumulation, and translocation using genetic engineering techniques recently opened up new possibilities for phytoremediation. In this paper, we have discussed about recent developments in conventional and genetically engineered phytoremediation. For the conventional phytoremediation, focuses are on the natural hyperaccumulator and the chemically assisted phytoremediation. Some pros and cons on the phytoremediation using transgenic plants, coupled with focusing on the mechanistic view points, are also discussed. It might be concluded that the transgenic plants will be effective tools in the practical application of phytoremediation especially for the highly contaminated soils but mechanisms involved should be deeply understood in advance.

Importance of biomass management acts and policies after phytoremediation

  • Song, Uhram;Park, Hun
    • Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.41 no.3
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    • pp.93-98
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    • 2017
  • Background: Although phytoremediation is a promising method for pollution control, biomass produced by the remediation process must be managed; otherwise, it will eventually return to the environment and cause secondary pollution. Therefore, research and policy development for the post-remediation management of biomass are both required. Results: While there are many published studies of phytoremediation, research into post-remediation management is very limited. Therefore, a new study using biomass as a co-composting material was conducted and showed positive effects on soil characteristics and plant performance. However, despite its potential, research and policies to promote this form of management are still lacking. Conclusions: We suggest public engagement in support of "Post-phytoremediation management" legislation that stipulates management of biomass after phytoremediation, promotes recycling of biomass with known environmental risks, and includes specific policies developed for managers. Further research to support and inform such policies and laws is also required.

The Removal Efficacy of Heavy Metals and Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons from Contaminated Soils by Integrated Bio-phytoremediation

  • Lai, Wen-Liang;Lee, Fang-Yin;Chen, Colin S.;Hseu, Zeng-Yei;Kuo, Yau-Lun
    • Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment
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    • v.19 no.5
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    • pp.35-44
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    • 2014
  • In this study, the bio-phytoremediation and phytoremediation technologies were applied to the soils contaminated with total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and heavy metals to evaluate the remediation efficacy from May 2012 to December 2013. Poplar (Populus bonatii Levl.) and Sun Hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.) were selected and planted in phytoremediation practice. These plants were also utilized in the bio-phytoremediation practice, with the addition of earthworm (Eisenia fetida) and petroleum-degrading bacteria (Pseudomonos sp. NKNU01). Furthermore, physiological characteristics, such as photosynthesis rate and maximal photochemical yield, of all testing plants were also measured in order to assess their health conditions and tolerance levels in adverse environment. After 20 months of remedial practice, the results showed that bio-phytoremediation practice had a higher rate of TPH removal efficacy at 30-60 cm depth soil than that of phytoremediation. However, inconsistent results were discovered while analyzing the soil at 100 cm depth. The study also showed that the removal efficiency of heavy metals was lower than that of TPH after remediation treatment. The results from test field tissue sample analysis revealed that more Zinc than Chromium was absorbed and accumulated by the tested plants. Plant height measurements of Poplar and Sun Hemp showed that there were insignificant differences of growth between the plants in remediation plots and those in the control plot. Physiological data of Poplar also suggested it has higher tolerance level toward the contaminated soils. These results indicated that the two testing plants were healthy and suitable for this remediation study.

Phytoremediation of Contaminated Soils (오염 토양의 phytoremediation)

  • Young-Gyun Cho;Sung-Keun Rhee;Sung-Taik Lee
    • Journal of Korea Soil Environment Society
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.3-12
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    • 1997
  • Phytoremediation, using plants to remediate toxic organic and inorganic pollutants in contaminated soils, is an emerging technology for environmental cleanup. Three strategies of this technology are applicable to the remediation of toxic heavy metals, radionuclides, and toxic organic pollutants: They are (1) phytoextraction, in which plants anumulate the contaminants and are harvested for the downstream processing; (2) phytodegradation, in which plant-released enzymes or plant-associated microorganisms convert toxic pollutants into non-toxic materials; and (3) phytostabilization, in which toxic pollutants are precipitated from solution or absorbed in either the plant tissue or the soil matrix. Phytoremediation is more effective and less expensive than other current treatment technologies.

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Phytoremediation and Bioremediation of Land Contaminated by Hydrocarbons: Modeling and Field Applications

  • Sung, Kijune;Corapcioglu, M.Yavuz
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Soil and Groundwater Environment Conference
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    • pp.18-21
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    • 2002
  • Phytoremediation which uses plants to enhance the bioremediation through stimulation of microbial activity and root uptake, has been a topic of increasing interest. Mathematical model were developed that can be applied to various bioremediation methods in the unsaturated zone, especially phytoremediation, for simulating the fate and transport of contaminants under field conditions. A 2-year field study was conducted using 72 (1.5m long and 0.1 m diameter) column lysimeters with four treatments: Johnsongrass; wild rye grass; a rotation of Johnsongrass and wild rye grass; and unplanted fallow conditions. The developed model represented the fate and transport of contaminant both in vegetated and unplanted soils satisfactorily for field applications. Parameters related to the contaminant concentration in the water phase were the main parameters determining the contaminant fate in the vadose zone and indicated that the bioavailability can be the most important factor in the success of phytoremediation as well as bioremediation applications.

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Modeling of Sequential Dissipation of TNT in Phytoremediation

  • 성기준;장윤영;이인숙;배범한
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Soil and Groundwater Environment Conference
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    • pp.314-317
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    • 2003
  • Plants may enhance the remediation of munitions at contaminated soils using various natural processes. A computer model can be used as a valuable tool for assisting phytoremediation by predicting the transport and fate of target contaminants at remediation sites. For this research, modeling of phytoremediation and bioremediation of soil contaminated with 2, 4, 6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) was studied. Indian mallow (Abutilion avicennae) was grown in columns packed with 126mg TNT/kg contaminated soils for 50 days and a simulation model was developed to simulate the transport and fate of TNT and its breakdown products interacting with plant roots in a partially saturated soil. The column test showed the substantially enhanced reduction of TNT and greater soil microbial activity in Indian mallow planted soil compared to unplanted soil. The model successfully simulated the fate of TNT and by-products in phytoremediation. The results suggested that plants could provide favorable environments for reduction of TNT.

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A Comparison of Electrical Stimulation for Electrodic and EDTA-Enhanced Phytoremediation of Lead using Indian Mustard (Brassica juncea)

  • Lim, Jae-Min;Jin, Biao;Butcher, David J.
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.33 no.8
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    • pp.2737-2740
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    • 2012
  • The use of plants to remove toxic metals from soil (phytoremediation) is emerging as a cost-effective alternative to conventional methods for the removal of heavy metals from contaminated soil. Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) was used as the plant to accumulate high tissue concentrations of lead when grown in contaminated soil. For this study, the application of an electric field combined effectively with EDTA-enhanced phytoremediation. A stimulation of direct and alternating electric potential was compared and EDTA-enhanced phytoremediation of lead using Indian mustard has been performed. The effects of experimental parameters such as operating voltage with different concentration of EDTA, the number of graphite electrodes, and cultivation period on the removal of toxic metal were studied. Shoot lead accumulations in Indian mustard increased as the concentration of EDTA and dc electric potential was increased. Two to four folds was increased when EDTA plus a dc electric potential was applied, compared to an ac electric potential. The maximum lead accumulation in the shoots was achieved by applying EDTA plus dc electric potential with 6 graphite electrodes.

Exploring the Potential of Bacteria-Assisted Phytoremediation of Arsenic-Contaminated Soils

  • Shagol, Charlotte C.;Chauhan, Puneet S.;Kim, Ki-Yoon;Lee, Sun-Mi;Chung, Jong-Bae;Park, Kee-Woong;Sa, Tong-Min
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.44 no.1
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    • pp.58-66
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    • 2011
  • Arsenic pollution is a serious global concern which affects all life forms. Being a toxic metalloid, the continued search for appropriate technologies for its remediation is needed. Phytoremediation, the use of green plants, is not only a low cost but also an environmentally friendly approach for metal uptake and stabilization. However, its application is limited by slow plant growth which is further aggravated by the phytotoxic effect of the pollutant. Attempts to address these constraints were done by exploiting plant-microbe interactions which offers more advantages for phytoremediation. Several bacterial mechanisms that can increase the efficiency of phytoremediation of As are nitrogen fixation, phosphate solubilization, siderophore production, ACC deaminase activity and growth regulator production. Many have been reported for other metals, but few for arsenic. This mini-review attempts to present what has been done so far in exploring plants and their rhizosphere microbiota and some genetic manipulations to increase the efficiency of arsenic soil phytoremediation.