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Effects of Kwandongwhasan (款冬花散) extract and its Constituent herbs on the Contraction of Isolated Guinea Pig trachea Smooth Muscle (관동화산(款冬花散) 및 그 구성약물(構成藥物)이 기관지평활근(氣管支平滑筋)에 미치는 영향(影響))

  • Han, Dae-Gil
    • The Journal of Internal Korean Medicine
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.1-20
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    • 1992
  • The study was carried out to investigate the effect of Kwandongwhasan extract and its constituent herbs onthe contractile force of isolated guineapig trachealis muscle and to elucidate its mechanism. The results of this study were as follows; 1. Kwandongwhasan significantly inhibited the contractile response of isolated guinea pig trachealis muscle by histamine. 2. Kwandongwhasan significantly inhibited the contractile response of isolated guinea pig trachealis muscle by acetylcholine. 3. Kwandongwhasan significantly inhibited the contractile response of isolated guinea pig trachealis muscle by 5-hydrooxytryptamine. 4. Kwandongwhasan significantly inhibited the contractile response of isolated guinea pig trachealis muscle by prostaglandin $F2\;{\alpha}$ 5. Herba Ephedrae (麻黃), Semen Armeniacae(杏仁), Cortex Mormi(紫白皮), and Flos Farfarae (款冬花), extract significantly inhibited the contractile response of isolated guinea pig trachealis muscle by histamine, acetylcholine, 5-hydroxytryptamine and prostaglandin $F2\;{\alpha}$. 6. Radix Glycyrrhdzae(甘草) extract significantly inhibited the contractile response of isolated guinea pig trachealis muscle by prostaglandia $F2\;{\alpha}$. 7. Rhizoma Anemarrhenae(知母) extract significantly inhibited the contractile response of isolated guinea pig trachealis muscle by histamine. 8. Bulbus Fritillariae(貝母) and Tuber Pinelliae(半夏) extract did not inhibit the significantly inhibited the contractile response of isolated guinea pig trachealis muscle.

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Effects of Yunpaejaesueum extract on the contraction of isolated guinea pig trachea smooth muscle (윤폐제수음(潤肺除嗽飮)이 GUINEA PIG의 기관지(氣管支) 평활근(平滑筋)에 미치는 영향(影響))

  • Yoon, Ho-Seog
    • The Journal of Internal Korean Medicine
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.99-109
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    • 1992
  • In order to study the effects of Yunpaejaesueum known clinically for their effects of treatment for cough and asthma, the study was carried out to investigate the effect of Yunpaejaesueum extract on the contractile force of the isolated guinea pig trachea smooth muscle and elucidate its mechanism. The results were obtained as follows: 1. The isolated trachea smooth muscle of guinea pig was suspended in the organ bath with oxygenated Kreb's Henseleite bicarbonate buffer solution at $37^{\circ}C$, and the developed tension by the drug was recorded with isometric transducer(Nacro F-60). The resting tension was approximately 0.5g. 2. The isolated trachea smooth muscle of guinea pig was remakably relaxed by the administration of Yunpaejaesueum. 3. Yunpaejaesueum is significantly inhibited the contractile response of histimine 10-4 M in isolated guinea pig trachea smooth muscle. 4. Yunpaejaesueum is significantly inhibited the contractile response of acetylcholine 10-4 M in isolated guinea pig trachea smooth muscle. 5. Yunpaejaesueum is significantly inhibited the contractile response of 5-hydroxytryptamine 10-4 M in isolated guinea pig trachea smooth muscle. 6. Yunpaejaesueum is significantly inhibited the contractile response of prostaglandin F2a 10-7 M in isolated guinea pig trachea smooth muscle.

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A Study on Organic Resources for Pig Manure Treatment by Vermicomposting (지렁이에 의한 돈분 퇴비화용 유기성자원 연구)

  • Lee, J.S.;Choi, D.C.
    • Journal of Animal Environmental Science
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.289-296
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    • 2009
  • The effects of the processing mixture of pig manure and various organic wastes on the growth, cast production of earthworm, and conversion of organic matter to earthworm tissues by vermicomposting. The substances used in this experiments were sawdust, rice hull, coffee waste, brewery waste, litters, turfgrass cutting residues, rice bran, vegetable wastes and rice straw and were mixed with pig manure at a ratios of 50:50 (v/v), and pig manure 100% (control), respectively. The highest values of growth parameters, cast production and conversion efficiency of organic matter to earthworm tissues were obtained at the mixtures of pig manure with coffee waste, it may due to the favourable diet conditions to process with pig manure by vermicomposting. But, all of the earthworm died in the pig manure 100% (control) and pig manure with vegetable wastes treatments by vermicomposting was impossible in this experiment. The vermicast contained a higher values of total nitrogen, available phosphorus, exchangeable cations and cation exchange capacity than their parent materials with increased availability of nutrients and improved physicochemical properties.

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Comparative Analysis on Antioxidative Ability of Muscle between Laiwu Pig and Large White

  • Chen, Wei;Zhu, Hong-Lei;Shi, Yuan;Zhao, Meng-Meng;Wang, Hui;Zeng, Yong-Qing
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.25 no.8
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    • pp.1190-1196
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    • 2012
  • This study was conducted to evaluate effects of storage temperatures ($4^{\circ}C$ and $20^{\circ}C$) and pig breeds (Laiwu pig and Large White pig) on the main antioxidative enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase) activity and lipid oxidation in porcine Longissimus dorsi muscle. Activities of antioxidative enzymes (AOE) decreased slightly during storage, regardless of storage temperatures. Muscle antioxidative enzymes activities stored at $4^{\circ}C$ were higher than that stored at $20^{\circ}C$. Laiwu pig's enzymes activities were significantly (p<0.01) higher than Large White's. The level of malondialdehyde is a direct expression of the grade of lipid oxidation in meat. In our study, the malondialdehyde contents increased after 6 days storage. However, malondialdehyde contents of Laiwu pig were significantly (p<0.01) lower than Large White's. A lower content of malondialdehyde corresponds to a lower oxidation of lipids. These results indicated the muscle antioxidative ability of Laiwu pig was higher than Large White pig. It also implied that antioxidative enzymes were involved in the essentials and deciding mechanisms of meat quality by quenching oxygen free radicals and inhibiting lipid oxidation in muscle.

Development of Wearable Device for Monitoring Working Environment in Pig House (양돈장 작업환경 모니터링을 위한 웨어러블 장비개발)

  • Seo, Il-Hwan
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers
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    • v.62 no.1
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    • pp.71-81
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    • 2020
  • Enclosed pig house are creating an environment with high concentrations of gas and dust. Poor conditions in pig farms reduce pig weight and increase disease and accidents for livestock workers. In the pig house, the high concentration of harmful gas may cause asphyxiation accidents to workers and chronic respiratory disease by long-term exposure. As pig farm workers have been aging and feminized, the damage to the health of the harsh environment is getting serious, and real-time monitoring is needed to prevent the damage. However, most of the measuring devices related to humidity, harmful gas, and fine dust except temperature sensors are exposed to high concentrations of gas and dust inside pig house and are difficult to withstand for a long time. The purpose of this study is to develop an wearable based device to monitor the hazardous environment exposed to workers working in pig farms. Based on the field monitoring and previous researches, the measurement range and basic specifications of the equipment were selected, and wearable based device was designed in terms of utilization, economic efficiency, size and communication performance. Selected H2S and NH3 sensors showed the average error of 5.3% comparing to standard gas concentrations. The measured data can be used to manage the working environment according to the worker's location and to obtain basic data for work safety warning.

Analysis of Frozen-Thawed Sperm Characteristic in Alpha 1,3-Galactosyltransferase(GalT) Knock-out Cloned Miniature Pig (Alpha 1,3-Galactosyltransferase (GalT) Knock-out 복제 미니돼지 정액의 동결-융해 후 정액 성상 분석)

  • Woo, Jea-Seok;Lee, Yong-Seung;Yoo, Han-Jun;Hwang, Seong-Soo;Oh, Keon-Bong;Cheong, Hee-Tae;Yang, Boo-Keun;Park, Soo-Bong;Park, Choon-Keun
    • Reproductive and Developmental Biology
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    • v.35 no.3
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    • pp.385-390
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    • 2011
  • The purpose of this study was undertaken to evaluate of cryopreservation efficiency in ${\alpha}$ 1,3-galactosyltransferase knock-out(GalT KO) cloned miniature pig sperm. To compare ability of frozen-thawed sperm characteristics, three different pig strains (GalT KO) cloned miniature pig, PWG miniature pig and Duroc were used. The ejaculated semen from the three pig species was diluted with same volume extender and added to LEY solution for freezing. The diluted semen was placed in 0.5 ml straws, and freezing was initiated by exposing the straws to liquid nitrogen ($LN_2$) vapours for 10 min before placing them into $LN_2$ for cryopreservation. After thawing, the sperm ability were assessed for viability (SYBR-14/PI staining), abnormality (Rose Bengal staining), and acrosome status (intactness, intensity and capacitation) (chlorotetracycline, CTC staining). The viability of frozen-thawed GalT KO pig sperm had no significant difference as compared with Duroc and PWG miniature pig sperm. However, The CTC pattern of frozen-thawed GalT KO cloned miniature pig spermatozoa showed significantly lower rates in F pattern and AR pattern (p<0.05) and significantly higher rates in B pattern than Duroc and PWG miniature pig (p<0.05). The abnormality of GalT KO cloned miniature pig sperm was significantly lower as compared to Duroc and PWG miniature pig sperm (p<0.05). In conclusion, GalT KO cloned miniature pig semen can be cryopreserved successfully and used for artificial insemination reasonably.

Production of Transgenic Pigs with an Introduced Missense Mutation of the Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptor Type IB Gene Related to Prolificacy

  • Zhao, Xueyan;Yang, Qiang;Zhao, Kewei;Jiang, Chao;Ren, Dongren;Xu, Pan;He, Xiaofang;Liao, Rongrong;Jiang, Kai;Ma, Junwu;Xiao, Shijun;Ren, Jun;Xing, Yuyun
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.29 no.7
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    • pp.925-937
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    • 2016
  • In the last few decades, transgenic animal technology has witnessed an increasingly wide application in animal breeding. Reproductive traits are economically important to the pig industry. It has been shown that the bone morphogenetic protein receptor type IB (BMPR1B) A746G polymorphism is responsible for the fertility in sheep. However, this causal mutation exits exclusively in sheep and goat. In this study, we attempted to create transgenic pigs by introducing this mutation with the aim to improve reproductive traits in pigs. We successfully constructed a vector containing porcine BMPR1B coding sequence (CDS) with the mutant G allele of A746G mutation. In total, we obtained 24 cloned male piglets using handmade cloning (HMC) technique, and 12 individuals survived till maturation. A set of polymerase chain reactions indicated that 11 of 12 matured boars were transgene-positive individuals, and that the transgenic vector was most likely disrupted during cloning. Of 11 positive pigs, one (No. 11) lost a part of the terminator region but had the intact promoter and the CDS regions. cDNA sequencing showed that the introduced allele (746G) was expressed in multiple tissues of transgene-positive offspring of No.11. Western blot analysis revealed that BMPR1B protein expression in multiple tissues of transgene-positive $F_1$ piglets was 0.5 to 2-fold higher than that in the transgene-negative siblings. The No. 11 boar showed normal litter size performance as normal pigs from the same breed. Transgene-positive $F_1$ boars produced by No. 11 had higher semen volume, sperm concentration and total sperm per ejaculate than the negative siblings, although the differences did not reached statistical significance. Transgene-positive $F_1$ sows had similar litter size performance to the negative siblings, and more data are needed to adequately assess the litter size performance. In conclusion, we obtained 24 cloned transgenic pigs with the modified porcine BMPR1B CDS using HMC. cDNA sequencing and western blot indicated that the exogenous BMPR1B CDS was successfully expressed in host pigs. The transgenic pigs showed normal litter size performance. However, no significant differences in litter size were found between transgene-positive and negative sows. Our study provides new insight into producing cloned transgenic livestock related to reproductive traits.

Eco-friendly Leather Dyeing Using Biomass Wastes(II) : Improving the Dyeability of Pig Leather to Onion Skin Colorant by Pre-treatment (생물자원 폐기물을 활용한 친환경 가죽염색(II): 전처리에 의한 돈피의 양파껍질 색소에 대한 염색성 향상)

  • Yeo, Youngmi;Shin, Younsook
    • Textile Coloration and Finishing
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.294-303
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    • 2018
  • In this study, eco-friendly natural dyeing for pig leather was explored by using onion skin which is food waste. Sodium caseinate was used as a pre-treatment agent to improve dyeability of pig leather and its effect on dye uptake was investigated according to treatment concentration. Dye uptake of the pre-treated pig leather was increased by about two times compared to untreated one at 0.2% pre-treatment concentration. Onion skin colorant imparted YR color on pig leather. After mordanting, the color of pretreated/dyed pig leather was varied from brick-red to khaki shades. However, mordanting did not improved dye uptake of the pre-treated/dyed pig leather significantly. The color-fastnesses of un-mordanted samples to light, dry cleaning, rubbing were grades 3-4, 5, and 4, respectively, which is good enough to meet all Korean Standard for Fastness of leather products. After mordanting, the light fastness of pig leather was improved to 4, 4-5 grade. The efficacy of sodium caseinate as a pre-treatment agent for pig leather was verified by improved dye uptake and good colorfastness. And, the natural dyeing of pig leather using food waste would be a significant sustainable way in terms of eco-friendliness and reuse of biomass to reduce environmental pollution.

Verification of the Theoretical Model for Analyzing Dynamic Behavior of the PIG from Actual Pigging

  • Kim, Dong-Kyu;Cho, Sung-Ho;Park, Seoung-Soo;Park, Yong-Woo;Yoo, Hui-Ryong;Nguyen, Tan-Tien;Kim, Sang-Bong
    • Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology
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    • v.17 no.9
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    • pp.1349-1357
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    • 2003
  • This paper deals with verification of the theoretical model for dynamic behavior of Pipeline Inspection Gauge (PIG) traveling through high pressure natural gas pipeline. The dynamic behavior of the PIG depends on the differential pressure across its body. This differential pressure is generated by injected gas flow behind the tail of the PIG and expelled gas flow in front of its nose. To analyze the dynamic behavior characteristics such as gas flow in pipeline, and the PIG position and velocity, not only the mathematical models are derived, but also the theoretical models must be certified by actual pigging experiment. But there is not any found results of research on the experimental certification for dynamic behavior of the PIG. The reason is why the fabrication of the PIG as well as, a field application are very difficult. In this research, the effectiveness of the introduced solution using the method of characteristics (MOC) was certified through field application. In-line inspection tool, 30" geometry PIG, was fabricated and actual pigging was carried out at the pipeline segment in Korea Gas Corporation (KOGAS) high pressure system, Incheon LT (LNG Terminal) -Namdong GS (Governor Station) line. Pigging is fulfilled successfully. Comparison of simulation results with experimental results show that the derived mathematical models and the proposed computational schemes are effective for predicting the position and velocity of the PIG with a given operational conditions of pipeline.

Effects of GooSunSan(九仙散) Extract on the Contraction of Isolated guinea pig's various kinds smooth muscles (구선산(九仙散)이 GUINEA PIG의 각종(各種) 평활근(平滑筋)에 미치는 영향(影響))

  • Lyu, Dong-Soo;Han, Sang-Whan
    • The Journal of Internal Korean Medicine
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.74-88
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    • 1991
  • In order to study the effects of Goosunsan known clinically for their effects of treatment for cough and asthmas the study was carried out to investigate the effect of Goosunsan extract on the contractile force of the isolated guinea pig's vaviovs kinds smooth muscles and elucidate its mechanism The result were obtained as follows: 1. The isolated trachea & ileum smooth muscles of guinea pig was suspended in the organ bath with oxygenated kreb's Henselsite bicarbonate buffer solution at $37^{\circ}C$, and the developed tension by the drug was recorded with Isometric transducer (nacro F-60). The resting tension was approximately 0.5g. 2. The isolated trachea & ileum smooth muscles of guinea pig was remakably relaxed by the administration of Goosunsan. 3. The contractile response of the trachea smooth muscle of the isolated guinea pig to histamine 10-4 M was remakably by Goosunsan extract. 4. The contractile response of the ileum smooth muscle of the isolated guinea pig to histamine 10-4 M was remakably by Goosunsan extract. 5. The contractile response of the trachea smooth muscle of the isolated guinea pig to acetylcholine 10-4 M was remakably by Goosunsan extract. 6. The contractile response of the ileum smooth muscle of the isolated guinea pig to acetylcholine 10-4 M was remakably by Goosunsan. 7. The contractile response of the trachea smooth muscle of the isolated guinea pig to 5-hydroxytryptamine 10-4 M was remakably by Goosunsan. 8. The contractile response of the ileum smooth muscle of the isolated guinea pig to 5-hydroxytryptamine 10-4 M was remakably by Goosunsan.

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