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Estimation of Genetic Parameters for Growth Traits in Yorkshire (요크셔종의 산육형질에 대한 유전모수 추정)

  • Song, Kwang-Lim;Kim, Byeong-Woo;Roh, Seung-Hee;Sun, Du-Won;Kim, Hyo-Sun;Lee, Deuk-Hwan;Jeon, Jin-Tae;Lee, Jung-Gyu
    • Journal of agriculture & life science
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    • v.44 no.3
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    • pp.41-52
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    • 2010
  • This study was conducted to estimate genetic parameters for growth traits using multivariate animal models in Yorkshire breed. For the study, 16,202 records for growth traits collected between the year 1999 and 2005 from Yorkshire pigs in K GGP were used. The effects of environmental factors such as sex, birth year, birth season, parity and birth weight group affected growth traits significantly (p<0.01). Birth weight tended to be positively correlated with average daily gain (ADG) and lean percent. But it seemed to affect age at 90 kg, average adjusted backfat thickness (BF), and eye muscle ares (EMA) negatively. For average pig suckling weight (ASW) and total weight at suckling (TWS), the higher birth weight is the better performance. But, in case of total number of born and number of suckling, the result was shown vice versa. Approximately 10~30% lower heritability estimates were obtained for growth traits by using the model that includes descriptions of common litter effects (CL) than by using the model that ignores those (NCL) for more accurate estimation of heritability. The estimates of heritabilities were 0.468, and 0.328 for ADG, 0.474 and 0.326 for age at 90 kg, 0.452, and 0.396 for BF, 0.240 and 0.200 for EMA and, 0.458, and 0.380 for lean percent in NCL and CL, respectively. Therefore, in order to estimate optimal genetic parameters, it could be inferred that the statistical model which considers litter effects must be applied.

Analysis of the Characteristics of Bulking Agents Used in Livestock Manure Composting (축산분뇨 퇴비화에 이용되는 수분조절제의 특성 분석)

  • Kim, Hyeon-Tae;Lee, Min-HO;qasim, Waqas;Lee, Yong-Jin;Kim, Won-Joong;Yoon, Yong-Cheol
    • Journal of agriculture & life science
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    • v.52 no.6
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    • pp.81-88
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    • 2018
  • This study analyzed the characteristics of 6 recyclable bulking agents which can replace sawdust and rice hulls that are commonly used in livestock manure composting. The content of all the hazardous chemicals found in the bulking agents used in this experiment was between 0.0 and 34.1 ppm, which was noticeably lesser than the maximum content levels of hazardous substances 5.0~900.0 ppm prescribed by the Rural Development Administration(RDA), which means that the bulking agents would be able to replace sawdusts and rice husks. The water content of the bulking agents ranged from a minimum of 12.4% to a maximum of 16.6% in the original state, which was much less than 60%, the optimal moisture content. These results indicate that they would be able to function fully as bulking agents. Their water absorption rate was in the range of minimum 31.9% ~ maximum 600.0%, which showed huge differences among the types of bulking agents. The most appropriate bulking agent in terms of water absorption rate was wood pellets. It was the highest in the wood briquette manufactured by A, which was followed by C and B in the order. The shear strength of the 5 types of bulking agents in the original state was 271.7 N on an average, the highest figure of all, except for the oak briquette whose shear strength could not be measured and the wood pellets in the absorption state. The shear strength in the dry and absorption states then followed, and were 78.0 N and 27.7 N on an average, respectively. The wood briquette of A recorded considerably lower shear strength than that of B and C. Overall, shear strength tended to increase according to lower water absorption rates. Since pine wood chips and oak cuts have relatively greater shear strength even in the absorbing state than the other materials, they will be able to endure some power in the case of stirring with pig droppings.

Effects of the Low Plane of Nutrition on Carcass and Pork Quality of Finishing Pigs (저영양 비육돈 사양이 도체 및 돈육 품질에 미치는 영향)

  • Choi, Jung Seok;Yang, Bo-Seok;Kim, Myeong Hyeon;Lee, Kwang Ho;Jung, Hee Jun;Jin, Sang Keun;Song, Young-Min;Lee, Chul Young
    • ANNALS OF ANIMAL RESOURCE SCIENCES
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    • v.29 no.4
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    • pp.172-182
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    • 2018
  • The present study was undertaken to examine if the carcass and pork quality of finishing pigs reared on a low plane of nutrition (LPN) could be improved compared with that of the pigs finished on a high plane of nutrition (HPN). Sixty-eight crossbred (LYD) barrows and 68 LYD gilts weighing approximately 50 kg were fed a diet containing 3.54 Mcal DE/kg with 1.00% lysine (HPN) or 3.02 Mcal DE/kg with 0.68% lysine (LPN) in eight pens up to approximately 120 kg and slaughtered. The belly, loin, ham, and Boston butt were cut out from a total of 20 carcasses, after which physicochemical and sensory quality attributes of the belly and the representative muscle of each of the loin, ham, and Boston butt were evaluated. The ADG, gain:feed ratio, and backfat thickness were less for LPN than for HPN (p<0.05). The cooking loss, hardness, and chewiness values for the Boston butt were less for LPN vs. HPN. In sensory evaluation for fresh meat (muscle), the subjective quality scores were greater for LPN vs. HPN in color, marbling, and acceptability for the loin, the muscle:fat balance score for the belly tending to be greater for LPN (p<0.10). In addition, LPN was superior to HPN in the flavor and juiciness in sensory evaluation for cooked ham. In conclusion, the present results suggest that the carcass and pork quality of finishing pigs could be improved with reduced growth performance by using LPN.

Maternal Genetic Effects for Litter Size on Landrace and Yorkshire Purebred in A Nucleus Her (Landrace 및 Yorkshire 순종집단의 산자수에 대한 모체유전효과)

  • Lee, Deukhwan
    • ANNALS OF ANIMAL RESOURCE SCIENCES
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    • v.29 no.3
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    • pp.85-94
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    • 2018
  • This study was conducted to find out that how much does it effects as it considered not only animal additive genetic effect but also maternal genetic effect for improving litter traits of pigs. The data of 10,836 records on 2,636 sows in Landrace and 14,463 records on sows in Yorkshire were analyzed which had been measured from 1998 to July 2017 in a nucleus herd of pig population. The traits used on this analysis were total number of born with (TNB2) and without mummy (TNB1) and number of born alive (NBA). Two different multivariate animal mixed models were considered and compared of variance components estimated from these models. The one (Model 1) was set up with assumed to parity, return events and batch effects as fixed and service sire, permanent environment and animal additive genetic effects as random. The other (Model 2) was same with Model 1 except considering maternal additive genetic effects as random. (Co)variance for random effects and genetic parameters were estimated using restricted maximum likelihood method and breeding values as best linear unbiased prediction were estimated using preconditioned conjugate gradient algorithm on each model and breed. From these models, heritability estimates for NBA were about 0.10 and 0.11 on both models in Landrace and Yorkshire, respectively. Forthermore, it was estimated that there were little variations in the maternal genetic effects with roughly 1~2% of total variation. Result from comparing estimated breeding values for each trait between each model, ranking of genetic capability through total breeding values on model 1 and on model 2 showed highly correlated with more than 0.92. Consequently, for improving litter traits, selection based on breeding values by direct genetic effects without considering maternal genetic effects were reccommendable.

The Effects of Autologous Blood Pleurodesis in the Pneumothorax with Persistent Air Leak (지속성 기흉에서 자가혈액을 이용한 흉막유착술의 효과)

  • Yoon, Su-Mi;Shin, Sung-Joon;Kim, Young-Chan;Shon, Jang-Won;Yang, Seok-Chul;Yoon, Ho-Joo;Shin, Dong-Ho;Chung, Won-Sang;Park, Sung-Soo
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.49 no.6
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    • pp.724-732
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    • 2000
  • Background : In patients with severe chronic lung diseases even a small pneumothorax can result in life-threatening respiratory distress. It is important to treat the attack by chest tube drainage until the lung expands. Pneumothorax with a persistent air leak that does not resolve under prolonged tube thoracostomy suction is usually treated by open operation to excise or oversew a bulla or cluster of blebs to stop the air leak. Pleurodesis by the instillation of chemical agents is used for the patient who has persistent air leak and is not good candidate for surgical treatment. When the primary trial of pleurodesis with common agent fails, it is uncertain which agent should be used f or stopping the air leak by pleurodesis. It is well known that inappropriate drainage of hemothorax results in severe pleural adhesion and thickening. Based on this idea, some reports described a successful treatment with autologous blood instillation for pneumothorax patients with or without residual pleural space. We tried pleurodesis with autologous bood for pneumothorax with persistent air leak and then we evaluated the efficacy and safety. Methods : Fifteen patients who had persistent air leak in the pneumothorax complicated from the severe chronic lung disease were enrolled. They were not good candidates for surgical treatment and doxycycline pleurodesis failed to stop up their air leaks. We used a mixture of autologous blood and 50% dextrose for pleurodesis. Effect and complications were assessed by clinical out∞me, chest radiography and pulmonary function tests. Results : The mean duration of air leak was 18.4${\pm}$6.16 days before ABP (autologous blood and dextrose pleurodesis) and $5.2{\pm}1.68$ days after ABP. The mean severity of pain was $2.3{\pm}0.70$ for DP(doxycycline pleurodesis) and $1.7{\pm}0.59$ for ABDP (p<0.05). There was no other complication except mild fever. Pleural adhesion grade was a mean of $0.6{\pm}0.63$. The mean dyspnea scale was $1.7{\pm}0.46$ before pneumothrax and $2.0{\pm}0.59$ after ABDP (p>0.05). The mean $FEV_1$ was $1.47{\pm}1.01$ before pneumothorax and $1.44{\pm}1.00$ after ABDP (p>0.05). Except in 1 patient, 14 patients had no recurrent pneumothorax. Conclusion : Autologous blood pleurodesis (ABP) was successful for treatment of persistent air leak in the pneumothorax. It was easy and inexpensive and involved less pain than doxycycline pleurodesis. It did not cause complications and severe pleural adhesion. We report that ABP can be considered as a useful treatment for persistent air leak in the pneumothorax complicated from the severe chronic lung disease.

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The Increased Expression of Gelatinolytic Proteases Due to Cigarette Smoking Exposure in the Lung of Guinea Pig (기니픽에서 흡연 노출에 의한 젤라틴 분해 단백 효소의 발현 양상에 관한 연구)

  • Kang, Min-Jong;Lee, Jae-Ho;Yoo, Chul-Gyu;Lee, Choon-Taek;Chung, Hee-Soon;Seo, Jeong-Wook;Kim, Young-Whan;Han, Sung-Koo;Shim, Young-Soo
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.50 no.4
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    • pp.426-436
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    • 2001
  • Background : Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(COPD) is one of the major contributors to morbidity and mortality among the adult population. Cigarette smoking(CS) is undoubtedly the single most important factor in the pathogenesis of COPD. However, its mechanism is unclear. The current hypothesis regarding the pathogenesis of COPD postulates that an imbalance between proteases and antiproteases leads to the destructive changes in the lung parenchyma. This study had two aims. First, to evaluate the effect of CS exposure on histologic changes of the lung parenchyme, and second, to evaluate the effect of CS exposure on the expression of the gelatinolytic enzymes in BAL fluid cells in guinea pigs. Methods : Two groups of five guinea pigs were exposed to the whole smoke of 20 commercial cigarettes per day, 5 hours/day, 5 days/week, for 6weeks, and 12 weeks, respectively, using a smoking apparatus. Five age-matched guinea pigs exposed to room air were used as controls. Five or more sections were microscopically extamined(${\times}400$) and the number of cellular infiltration of the alveolar wall was measured in order to evaluate the effect of CS exposure on the histologic changes of lung parenchyme. The statistical significance was analyzed by a linear regression method. To evaluate the expression of the gelatinolytic enzymes in intraalveolar cells, BAL fluid was obtained and the intraalveolar cells were separated by centrifugation (500 g for 10 min at $4^{\circ}C$). Two sets of culture plates were loaded with $1{\times}10^6$ intraalveolar cells. One plate, contained O.1mM EDTA, a inhibitor of matrix metalloproteases(MMPs), and the other plate had no EDTA. Both plates were incubated for 48 hours at $37^{\circ}C$. After incubation, gelatinolytic protease expression in the supernatants was analyzed by gelatin zymography. Results : At the end of CS exposure, the level of blood carboxy Hb had increased significantly(4.1g/dl in control group, 24g/dl immediately after CS exposure, 18g/dl 30 min after CS exposure, 15g/dl 1 hour after CS exposure). Alveolar inflammatory cells were identified in the CS exposed guinea pigs. The number of alveolar cellular cells observed in a microscopic field ($400{\times}$) was $121.4{\pm}7.2$, $158.0{\pm}20.2$, $196.8{\pm}32.8$, in the control, the 6 weeks, and the 12 weeks group, respectively. The increased extent of inflammatory cellular infiltration of the lung parenchema showed a statistically significant linear relationship with the duration of CS exposure(p=0.001, $r^2=0.675$). Several types of gelatinolytic enzymes in the intraalveolar cells of CS exposed guinea pigs were expressed, of which some were inhibited by EDT A. However, the gelatinolytic enzymes were not expressed in the control groups. Conclusion : CS exposure increases inflammatory cellular infiltration of the alveolar wall and the expression of gelatinolytic proteases in guinea pigs. EDTA inhibits some of the gelatinolytic proteases. These findings suggest a possibility that CS exposure may increase MMP expression in the lungs of guinea pigs.

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Effect of xylazine hydrochloride on histamine release (Xylazine이 histamine 유리에 미치는 영향)

  • 김영환;박준형
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Service
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.53-73
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    • 2002
  • It has been reported that degranulation of mast cells in rats, rabbits and dog was observed after dosing xylazine hydrochloride(Xh) which has been widely used as sedative, analgesic and muscular relaxant. Therefore, this experiment was conducted to examine the relations between Xh and histamine release and to identify the action of ${\alpha}$-adrenoceptors which exists on the suface of mast cells. 1. The content of histamine within serum was measured with HPLC by performing the O-phthalaldehyde(OPA) fluorescent derivation. The pretreatment method had a little modification from the conventional method. The pretreament was carried out in the following method. 0.2$m\ell$ of serum and 1$m\ell$ of butanol were added to mixed together and then the liquid was centrifugally separated at 4$^{\circ}C$ and 2,000 rpm for 3 minutes. 0.4$m\ell$ of 0.1N HCl and 1.6$m\ell$ of heptane were added to 0.8$m\ell$ of supernatant taken from the liquid, and they were mixed together. This mixture was also centrifugally separated at 4$^{\circ}C$ and 2,000 rpm for 5 minutes. The supernatant was thrown away and the OPA fluorescent derivation was carried out with 0.2$m\ell$ of the lower liquid then, 5 minutes after mixing 400${\mu}\ell$ of 0.1N HCl, 120${\mu}\ell$ of 1N NaOH and 40${\mu}\ell$ of 0.1% OPA in the 0.2$m\ell$ of the lower liquid,120${\mu}\ell$ of 3.57N H$_3$PO$_4$ was added to the mixed liquid, and the liquid, was mixed again and syringe-filtered. Then, the measurement was done with HPLC in the 30 : 70(ν/ν) ratio of 0.004M KH$_2$PO$_4$: CH$_3$CN, flow rate of 1.0$m\ell$/min., and a wavelength of λex= 350nm and λem=444nm at the column temperature of 27$^{\circ}C$, using the fluorescence detector. 2. The content of histamine in each laboratory animal appeared to be higher in such an order as rabbit, rat, guinea pig, dog, Korean indigenous goat, swine, Korean indigenous cattle, Holstein, and mouse, of which the individual mean values${\pm}$standard deviation were 2.0668 ${\pm}$ 0.6049. 0.4999 ${\pm}$ 0.2278, 0.4241 ${\pm}$ 0.1974, 0.1054 ${\pm}$ 0.0556, 0.1028 ${\pm}$ 0.0276, 0.0972 ${\pm}$ 0.0513, 0.0872 ${\pm}$ 0.0373, 0.0717 ${\pm}$ 0.0379, and 0.0706 ${\pm}$ 0.0366, respectively. 3. The content of histamine was measured at the moments of 15-, 30-, 60-, 120-minutes after inoamuscular injection of 20mg/100kg Xh into two to 4 years old Holstein weighing 600∼700kg. The result showed that there was a significant increase at the times of 30- and 90-minutes after injection(p<0.05). 4. Intramuscular injection of 3mg/10kg Xh was given to crossbred pug dogs weighing 2.5∼4.3kg. The content of histamine was measured at the times of 30-, 60-, 90- and 120-minutes after injection. The result revealed that there was a significant increase at the times of 60-and 90-minutes after injection(p<0.05). 5. Intramuscular injection of 10mg/$m\ell$∼25mg/$m\ell$ Xh in concentration of 0.1$m\ell$ was applied to Korean indigenous goat over 5 months old. Then, the content of histamine was measured at the times of 15-, 30-, 60- and 90-minutes after injection. A significant increase was shown at the times of 30- and 60-minutes after injection(p<0.05). 6. The content of histamine was measured at the moments of 30- and 60-minutes after intramuscular injection of 0.1-0.2$m\ell$ Xh (20mg/$m\ell$) into male rabbits weighting 2.5-4kg. A significant increase was found at the moment of 60 minutes after injection(p<0.001). 7. After administering Xh to the mast cell taken from the abdominal cavity of mouse, the content of histamine was measured. The result showed that the higher the concentration, the more significantly the content of histamine was increased(p<0.05). 8. Compound 48/80 was administered in concentration of 5$\mu\textrm{g}$/$m\ell$ and 10$\mu\textrm{g}$/$m\ell$ to the mast cell picked from the abdominal cavity of mouse. The result showed that there was a significant increase in the content of histamine in case of the concentration of 10$\mu\textrm{g}$/$m\ell$(p<0.05). It was found to be about 10,000 to 500,000 times stronger than the Xh. 9. After premedication of 1mg/kg of yohimbine hydrochloride as ${\alpha}$$_2$-adrenergic antagonist to rabbits, the Xh was administered to them. The result was that the value of histamine within serum was decreased significantly(p<0.001). 10. After premeditation of 1mg/kg of prazosin hydrochloride as ${\alpha}$$_1$-adrenergic antagonist to rabbits, the Xh was administered to them. It was found that the value of histamine within serum was decreased significantly(p<0.005). 11, Prazosin hydrochloride and yohimbine hydrochloride as ${\alpha}$$_1$-adrenergic antagonist, respectively, and ${\alpha}$$_2$-adrenergic antagonist were administerd. In this case, the value of histamine within serum was decreased significantly(p<0.0001). As the results, when the Xh is administered to various kinds of animals, the amount of histamine release within serum is increased. In view of the results so far achieved, it is concluded that Xh acted on both a$_1$-adrenoreceptor and ${\alpha}$$_2$-adrenoreceptor induces the degranulation of mast cell.

The Diagnostic Yield and Complications of Percutaneous Needle Aspiration Biopsy for the Intrathoracic Lesions (경피적 폐생검의 진단성적 및 합병증)

  • Jang, Seung Hun;Kim, Cheal Hyeon;Koh, Won Jung;Yoo, Chul-Gyu;Kim, Young Whan;Han, Sung Koo;Shim, Young-Soo
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.43 no.6
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    • pp.916-924
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    • 1996
  • Bacground : Percutaneous needle aspiration biopsy (PCNA) is one of the most frequently used diagnostic methcxJs for intrathoracic lesions. Previous studies have reponed wide range of diagnostic yield from 28 to 98%. However, diagnostic yield has been increased by accumulation of experience, improvement of needle and the image guiding systems. We analysed the results of PCNA performed for one year to evaluate the diagnostic yield, the rate and severity of complications and factors affecting the diagnostic yield. Method : 287 PCNAs undergone in 236 patients from January, 1994 to December, 1994 were analysed retrospectively. The intrathoracic lesions was targeted and aspirated with 21 - 23 G Chiba needle under fluoroscopic guiding system. Occasionally, 19 - 20 G Biopsy gun was used for core tissue specimen. The specimen was requested for microbiologic, cytologic and histopathologic examination in the case of obtained core tissue. Diagnostic yields and complication rate of benign and malignant lesions were ca1culaled based on patients' chans. The comparison for the diagnostic yields according to size and shape of the lesions was analysed with chi square test (p<0.05). Results : There are 19.9% of consolidative lesion and 80.1% of nodular or mass lesion, and the lesion is located at the right upper lobe in 26.3% of cases, the right middle lobe in 6.4%, the right lower lobe 21.2%, the left upper lobe in 16.8%, the left lower lobe in 10.6%, and mediastinum in 1.3%. The lesion distributed over 2 lobes is as many as 17.4% of cases. There are 74 patients with benign lesions, 142 patients with malignant lesions in final diagnosis and confirmative diagnosis was not made in 22 patients despite of all available diagnostic methods. 2 patients have lung cancer and pulmonary tuberculosis concomittantly. Experience with 236 patients showed that PCNA can diagnose benign lesions in 62.2% (42 patients) of patients with such lesions and malignant lesions in 82.4% (117 patients) of patients. For the patients in whom the first PCNA failed to make diagnosis, the procedure was repeated and the cumulative diagnostic yield was increased as 44.6%, 60.8%, 62.2% in benign lesions and as 73.4%, 81.7%, 82.4% in malignant lesions through serial PCNA. Thoracotomy was performed in 9 patients with benign lesions and in 43 patients with malignant lesions. PCNA and thoracotomy showed the same pathologic result in 44.4% (4 patients) of benign lesions and 58.1% (25 patients) of malignant lesions. Thoracotomy confirmed 4 patients with malignat lesions against benign result of PCNA and 2 patients with benign lesions against malignant result of PCNA. There are 1.0% (3 cases) of hemoptysis, 19.2% (55 cases) of blood tinged sputum, 12.5% (36 cases) of pneumothorax and 1.0% (3 cases) of fever through 287 times of PCNA. Hemoptysis and blood tinged sputum didn't need therapy. 8 cases of pneumothorax needed insertion of classical chest tube or pig-tail catheter. Fever subsided within 48 hours in all cases. There was no difference between size and shape of lesion with diagnostic yield. Conclusion: PCNA shows relatively high diagnostic yield and mild degree complications but the accuracy of histologic diagnosis has to be improved.

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Effects of On-farm Management System on the Carcass Quality of Market Pigs (양돈장 관리시스템이 출하돈의 도체품질에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, D.H.;Seo, J.T.
    • Journal of Animal Environmental Science
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.37-50
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    • 2009
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of on-farm management systems(including the farm size, stocking density of growing-finishing phase, proportion of finisher diet and type of growing-finishing building) and pre-slaughter handling(including the transportation time and loading time) on carcass grade, the incidence of PSE pork, the meat quality score for intra-muscle fat, inter-muscle fat, subcutaneous fat and score for elasticity of market pigs. For this study, 248,787 pigs of 53 different farms were used to establish the pork quality assurance program and to meet the comsumer's need. The results are summarized as follows. 1. The farm size had significant influence on carcass grade, in which showing the higher grade by increasing the farm size. However, the incidence of PSE pork were not significantly differences among the farm size. The meat quality score for intra-muscle fat, inter-muscle fat, subcutaneous fat and score for elasticity of market pigs were not significant influenced by farm size. 2. The stocking density of growing-finishing phase was statistically significant for carcass grade, in which showing the higher grade in mid density group. However, the incidence of PSE pork was higher in high density group. The meat quality score for intra-muscle fat, inter-muscle fat and elasticity of market pigs were greater in mid density groups, but not influenced by stocking density for subcutaneous fat score. 3. The carcass grade and the incidence of PSE pork were not significantly influenced by transportation time. However, transportation time significantly affected the meat quality score, the meat quality score for intra-muscle fat, inter-muscle fat, subcutaneous fat and elasticity of the carcasses were superior in more than 1 hour transportation groups. 4. At any time loading, the carcass grade and PSE incidence were not significantly differences. However, the meat quality score for intra-muscle fat, inter-muscle fat and elasticity of market pigs were superior in before 10 AM groups, but not influenced by loading time for subcutaneous fat score. 5. The proportion of finisher diet had not significant influence on carcass grade, but PSE incidence affected by proportion of finisher diet, 21 percent or more group was higher PSE incidence. The meat quality score for intra-muscle fat and inter-muscle fat of the carcasses were superior in 21 percent or more fed finisher diet groups, but elasticity score of carcass had not influenced by the proportion of finisher diet. 6. The type of growing-finishing building was affected the carcass grade and PSE incidence of the market pigs, carcass grade and PSE incidence were superior in enclosed mechanical ventilation building groups. The meat quality score for intra-muscle fat and inter-muscle fat of the carcasses were not significantly differences by the type of finishing building, but the score of subcutaneous fat and elasticity of carcass were superior in opened natural ventilation building groups. In conclusion, the results of this study suggest that we have more precise on-farm management practice and the knowledge related to pre-slaughter handling skills to reduce the stress and improve the status of welfare of market pigs.

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Effects of Fermented Diets Including Liquid By-products on Nutrient Digestibility and Nitrogen Balance in Growing Pigs (착즙부산물을 이용한 발효사료가 육성돈의 영양소 소화율 및 질소균형에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Je-Hyun;Jung, Hyun-Jung;Kim, Dong-Woon;Lee, Sung-Dae;Kim, Sang-Ho;Kim, In-Cheul;Kim, In-Ho;Ohh, Sang-Jip;Cho, Sung-Back
    • Journal of Animal Environmental Science
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.81-92
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    • 2010
  • This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of fermented diets including liquid by-products on nutrient digestibility and nitrogen balance in growing pigs. Treatments were 1) CON (basal diet), 2) F (fermented diet with basal diet), 3) KF (fermented diet with basal diet including 30% kale pomace), 4) AF (fermented diet with basal diet including 30% angelica keiskei pomace), 5) CF (fermented diet with basal diet including 30% carrot pomace) and 6) OF (fermented diet with basal diet including 30% grape pomace). A total of 24 pigs (41.74kg average initial body weight, Landrace $\times$ Yorkshire $\times$ Duroc), were assigned to 6 treatments, 4 replicates and 1 pig per metabolic cage in a randomized complete block (RCB) design. Pigs were housed in $0.5\times1.3m$ metabolic cage in a 17d digestibility trial. During the entire experimental period, Digestibility of dry matter (p<0.05) of treatment CON, F and CF were higher than other treatments. In crude protein digestibility, treatment F was higher than treatment AF and GF (p<0.05). Treatment GF showed the lowest digestibility of crude fiber among all treatments (p<0.05). In ether extract digestibility, treatment AF and CF showed higher than other treatments (p<0.05) except KF treatment. CF treatment showed the best digestibility of ash among all treatments (p<0.05). Whereas, For Ca and P digestibility, CF and OF treatments were improved than other treatments (p<0.05). Energy digestibility (p<0.05) of CON, F and CF treatments were higher than KF, AF and GF treatments. In total essential amino acid digestibility, F treatment was improved than AF, CF and GF treatments (p<0.05). In total non-essential amino acid digestibility, F treatment was higher than CON, AF and GF treatments (p<0.05). In total amino acid digestibility, F treatment was higher than AF and CF treatments (p<0.05) and GF treatment showed the lowest digestibility (p<0.05). In fecal nitrogen excretion ratio, GF treatment was greatest among all treatments (p<0.05) and F treatment was decreased than other treatments (p<0.05). In urinary nitrogen excretion ratio, CON and GF treatments showed the lowest among all treatments (p<0.05). In nitrogen retention ratio, CON treatment showed the high and KF treatment showed the lost among all treatments (p<0.05). Therefore, this experiment suggested that fermented diet could improve nutrient and amino acid digestibilities of growing pigs.