• Title, Summary, Keyword: Pituitaries

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Ovarian Response and Profile of Plasma Sex Steroids in Goats Against Combined Administration of FSH and LH Isolated from the Pituitaries of Buffaloes

  • Taru Sharma, G.;Pande, J.K.;Sanwal, P.C.;Varshney, V.P.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.10 no.5
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    • pp.514-518
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    • 1997
  • This study was designed to record the ovarian response towards a combined administration of heterologous buffalo FSH (buFSH) and LH (buLH) in goats. The impact of such a treatment on ovarian structures and on the plasma profile of the ovarian sex steroids (estradiol $17-{\beta}$ and progesterone) was studied. The buFSH and buLH were isolated from the buffalo pituitaries involving a procedure of ethanolic extraction, acetone precipitation followed by metaphosphoric acid - ammonium sulphate fractionation. Both gonadotrophin samples prepared were found biologically active and potent. There was an increase in the total number of follicles in the treated group ($12.66{\pm}1.24$) vis-a-vis the control group ($8.50{\pm}2.06$). However, the percentage ($51.48{\pm}6.37$) of large follicles were found reduced ($23.74{\pm}5.93$) following the treatment. Again the number of corpora lutea were observed significantly higher ($2.33{\pm}0.47C.L.$) in the treated group than (1 C. L.) in the control group. The peak plasma estradiol- $17{\beta}$ levels achieved, were much higher ($17.16{\pm}9.52pg/ml$) in the treated group, than the peak ($7.22{\pm}1.67pg/ml$) achieved in the control group. Similar trend was observed with respect to the progesterone levels (higher in the treated group). This study thus indicated that, a combined administration of heterologous buffalo FSH and LH to goats speeded up development of larger follicles nearing the ovulation stage. This population of the follicles subsequently got reduced and lead to the formation of the increased number of the corpora lutea observed in this study.

Histological Changes of Pituitary Gland Associated with Ovarian Follicular Cyst in Korean Native Cattle (난포낭종(卵胞囊腫)에 나환(羅患)된 한우(韓牛) 뇌하수체(腦下垂體)의 조직학적변화(組織學的變化))

  • Kim, Yong-jun;Jo, Choong-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.347-359
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    • 1987
  • To investigate the changes of pituitary gland associated with ovarian cyst in Korean native cattle, pituitaries and ovaries were collected from 54 Korean native cattle at abbatoir. Pituitaries were stained with HerIant pituitary stain method and all the tissues were examined under light microscope. The results obtained were summarized as follows; 1. The delta cells and beta cells in the pars distalis were dull blue and violet in colors respeetively. Basophil size in the follicular phase and pregnant groups was larger than those of luteal phase and ovarian dysfunction groups. 2. The numbers of delta cells in the pars distalis of follicular cyst group were larger than those of remaining groups (p<0.01). 3. The distribution of delta cells in the acidophil zone was greater than that in the basophil zone of the follicular cyst and follicular phase groups. 4. The granulations of delta cells were more intensive in follicular cyst, follicular phase and pregnancy groups than in luteal phase and ovarian dysfunction groups (p<0.01). 5. The numbers of beta cells in follicular phase and ovarian dysfunction groups were larger than those in luteal phase and follicular cyst groups respectively (p<0.01). 6. In all groups, the distribution of beta cells was greater in basophilic zone than in acidophilic zone (p<0.01).

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Effect of Naloxone on the Estrogen-induced Prolactin Gene Expression and Secretion (Prolactin 유전자 발현과 분비에 미치는 naloxone의 영향)

  • 김범수;김경진
    • The Korean Journal of Zoology
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    • v.34 no.3
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    • pp.426-431
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    • 1991
  • The present study examines the effect of naloxone, mu-opioid receptor antagonist, on prolactin (PRL) gene expression and secretion induced by estradiol (I) treahent in vivo. Adult rats were ovariectomized (OW) and implanted with Silastic capsules containing either vehicle (oil) or E. Three days later, NAL (2 mg/kg BW) or saline urere injected 30 min prior to sacrifice. To examine PRL secretion in vitro, the pituitaries were incubated in the superfusion system for 3 hrs. Superfusates were collected at 10 min intenrals on ice and subjected to PRL radioimmunoassay. Endogenous release of PRL in OU( + I rats was signifcantlv higher than that in OVX rats (mean $\pm$ SE; 24.5 $\pm$ 3.1 vs 14.5 $\pm$ 2.9 ns/10 min). A single injection of NAL clearly inhibited PRL release in Nitro from pituitaries derived from OW + I rats, but not from OW group. PRL myNA was determined by RNA-blot hybridisation assay with nicktranslated PRL CDNA. E stimulated PRL mRNA about 3 fold over that shown in OW group. Treahent of NAL suppressed the I-stimulated PRL myNA in OVX + I group, but not in OVX group. These data clearly showed that the NAL-induced inhibition of PRL secretion was well correlated with changes in PRL mRNA level and this inhibitory process appears to be mediated in I-dependent manner.

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Variations of Gonadotropin Subunits mRNA Levels at Different Stages of Ovarian Development in Masu Salmon, Oncorhynchus masou

  • Kim Dae-Jung;Han Chang-Hee;Aida Katsumi
    • Fisheries and aquatic sciences
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    • v.2 no.2
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    • pp.176-181
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    • 1999
  • The variations of gene expression and pituitary contents of GTH subunits during the ovarian development of masu salmon, Oncorhynchus masou, were investigated. The pituitary GTHs contents was measured by radioimmunoassays (RIAs) using purified GTH subunits and their antibodies. Pituitary contents of GTH $I\beta$ gradually increased from April through August, and reached the maximum in October. On the other hand, pituitary contents of GTH $II\beta$ remained low until August, but they rapidly increased in October. Total RNAs were prepared from pooled pituitaries and the GTH subunits mRNA in pituitaries was quantified by Northern blot hybridization using masu salmon cDNA probes for each GTH subunit. GTH $I\beta$ mRNA level increased with the progression of ovarian maturity. However, GTH $II\beta$ mRNA was detected only at a more advanced stage, and were extremly high at ovulation. A high levels for GTH a mRNA was detected only at ovulation stage. The synchronous increase in pituitary contents and mRNA levels suggested that ovarian maturity in masu salmon was regulated by both GTH I and GTH II.

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Studies on the Posterior Pituitary Hormones I. The Preparation and Assay of the Posterior Pituitary Hormones (뇌하수체 후엽홀몬에 관한 연구 (I) 후엽홀몬의 조제와 그 역가검정)

  • 김영은;이상섭;정재형
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.28-34
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    • 1962
  • Oxytocin and vasopressin were extracted from bovine posterior pituitaries and assayed, in many ways. On the assay of oxytocic active substance, it was found the depression method of blood pressure in a chicken was the easiest one among possible methods. The potency of oxytocin which was extracted with glacial acetic acid was 14.2 I.U./mg. On the assay of vasopressin for pressor activity. A full grown healthy male rat was used. Applying a simple artificial respiratory apparatus, the assay could be carried out successfully. The potency of vasopressin was 13.2 I.U/mg.

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Induced Spawning of the Israeli Strain of Common Carp, Cyprinus carpio by Water Temperature Control (수온조절에 의한 이스라엘잉어의 산난유발)

  • KIM In-Bae;KANG Seokjoong
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.15 no.4
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    • pp.329-332
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    • 1982
  • A Series of trials for the spawning induction of the Israeli strain of common carp were carried out at the fish culture research station of National Fisheries University of Pusan from 1978 to 1981. 1, During 3 years up to the first periods in 1980 carp pituitaries and/or commercial gonadotropic hormone was used to induce the brood fish to spawn without success. In the trials in the later periods in 1980 and in 1981, water temperature increase method was used with success in 40 females of 16 trials leaving a single failure with 2 females. 2. Brood fish had been kept in a small circular tank ($7\;m^2$) continuously supplied with cool well water enough to keep the water temperature in the tank relatively cool, ranging from 16.9 to $20.2^{\circ}C$, and the water in the spawning tank ($15\;m^2$) was 3.0 to $6.5^{\circ}C$ higher than in the brood fish holding tank. 3. It could be said that the spawning of Israeli strain of common carp in Korea hardly occur without water temperature increase even though treated with hormone.

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Molecular Cloning and Alternative Splicing of Growth Hormone Transcripts in Greenling, Hexagrammos otakii (쥐노래미 (Hexagrammos otakii) 성장호르몬 cDNA유전자의 염기서열 변이 및 발현 특성)

  • Nam Yoon Kwon;Kim Dong Soo
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.35 no.6
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    • pp.676-681
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    • 2002
  • Different types of transcripts encoding growth hormone (GH) were identified from cDNA libraries constructed with pituitaries of a marine fish species, greenling (Hexagrammos otakii). GH-homologous cDNA clones were isolated using the high-density filter hybridization and the expressed sequence tag techniques. Of 39 full-length positive cDNA clones, 31 clones ($79\%$) displayed an identical sequence, however, remaining 8 clones exhibited several polymorphisms in their sequences including (1) the length and sequence variability in the 5' upstream region, (2) insertional sequences in open reading frame, and (3) deletion and/or single nucleotide polymorphism in the untranslated 3' region. Based on RT-PCT and RNA dot blot analyses, these transcripts were proven to be expressed in a pituitary-specific manner.

Direct Action of Genistein on the Hypothalamic Neuronal Circuits in Female Rats

  • Lee, Woo-Cheol;Lee, Sung-Ho
    • Development and Reproduction
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.35-41
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    • 2010
  • Mammalian reproduction is regulated by a feedback circuit of the key reproductive hormones such as GnRH, gonadotropin and sex steroids on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. In particular, the onset of female puberty is triggered by gain of a pulsatile pattern and increment of GnRH secretion from hypothalamus. Previous studies including our own clearly demonstrated that genistein (GS), a phytoestrogenic isoflavone, altered the timing of puberty onset in female rats. However, the brain-specific actions of GS in female rats has not been explored yet. The present study was performed to examine the changes in the activities of GnRH neurons and their neural circuits by GS in female rats. Concerning the drug delivery route, intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection technique was employed to eliminate the unwanted actions on the extrabrain tissues which can be occurred if the testing drug is systemically administered. Adult female rats (PND 100, 210-230 g BW) were anaesthetized, treated with single dose of GS ($3.4{\mu}g$/animal), and sacrificed at 3 hrs post-injection. To determine the transcriptional changes of reproductive hormone-related genes in hypothalamus, total RNAs were extracted and applied to the semi-quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). ICV infusion of GS significantly raised the transcriptional activities of enhanced at puberty1 (EAP-1, p<0.05), glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD67, p<0.01) which are known to modulate GnRH secretion in the hypothalamus. However, GS infusion could not change the mRNA level of nitric oxide synthase 2 (NOS-2). GS administration significantly increased the mRNA levels of KiSS-1 (p<0.001), GPR54 (p<0.001), and GnRH (p<0.01) in the hypothalami, but decreased the mRNA levels of LH-$\beta$ (p<0.01) and FSH-$\beta$ (p<0.05) in the pituitaries. Taken together, the present study indicated that the acute exposure to GS could directly activate the hypothalamic GnRH modulating system, suggesting the GS's disrupting effects such as the early onset of puberty in immature female rats might be derived from premature activation of key reproduction related genes in hypothalamus-pituitary neuroendocrine circuit.

Regulation of $LH{\beta}$ subunit mRNA by Ovarian Steroid in Ovariectomized Rats (난소제거된 흰쥐에서 난소호르몬에 의한 $LH{\beta}$ subunit의 유전자 발현조절)

  • Kim, Chang-Mee;Park, Deok-Bae;Ryu, Kyung-Za
    • The Korean Journal of Pharmacology
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.225-235
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    • 1993
  • Pituitary LH release has been known to be regulated by the hypothalamic gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) and the gonadal steroid hormones. In addition, neurotransmitters and neuropeptides are actively involved in the control of LH secretion. The alteration in LH release might reflect changes in biosynthesis and/or posttranslational processing of LH. However, little is known about the mechanism by which biosynthesis of LH subunits is regulated, especially at the level of transcription. In order to investigate if ovarian steroid hormones regulate the LH subunit gene expression, ${\alpha}\;and\;LH{\beta}$ steady state mRNA levels were determined in anterior pituitaries of ovariectomized rats. Serum LH concentrations and pituitary LH concentrations were increased markedly with time after ovariectomy. ${\alpha}\;and\;LH{\beta}$ subunit mRNA levels after ovariectomy were increased in a parallel manner with serum LH concentrations and pituitary LH contents, the rise in $LH{\beta}$ subunit mRNA levels being more prominent than the rise in ${\alpha}\;subunit$ mRNA. ${\alpha}\;and\;LH{\beta}$ subunit mRNA levels in ovariectomized rats were negatively regulated by the continuous treatment of ovarian steriod hormones for $1{\sim}4\;days$ and $LH{\beta}\;subunit$ mRNA seemed to be more sensitive to negative feedback of estradiol than progesterone. Treatment of estrogen antagonist, LY117018 or progesterone antagonist, RU486 significantly restroed LH subunit mRNA levels as well as LH release which were suppressed by estradiol or progesterone treatment. These results suggest that ovarian steroids negatively regulate the LH synthesis at the pretranslational level by modulating the steady state levels of ${\alpha}\;and\;LH{\beta}\;subunit$ mRNA and $LH{\beta}\;subunit$ mRNA seemed to be more sensitive to negative feedback action of estradiol than progesterone.

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Effect of 6-Hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) on the Expression of Hypothalamus-Pituitary Axis Hormone Genes in Male Rats (수컷 흰쥐의 시상하부-뇌하수체 축 호르몬 유전자 발현에 미치는 6-Hydroxydopamine(6-OHDA)의 영향)

  • Heo, Hyun-Jin;Ahn, Ryun-Sup;Lee, Sung-Ho
    • Development and Reproduction
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.257-264
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    • 2009
  • A neurotoxin, 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) has been widely used to create animal model for Parkinson's disease (PD) due to its specific toxicity against dopaminergic (DA) neurons. Since DA signals modulate a broad spectrum of CNS physiology, one can expect profound alterations in neuroendocrine activities of both PD patients and 6-OHDA treated animals. Limited applications of 6-OHDA injection model, however, have been made on the studies of hypothalamuspituitary neuroendocrine circuits. The present study was performed to examine whether blockade of brain catecholamine (CA) biosynthesis with 6-OHDA can make any alteration in the transcriptional activities of hypothalamus-pituitary hormone genes in adult male rats. Three-month-old male rats (SD strain) were received 6-OHDA ($200{\mu}g$ in $10{\mu}\ell$ of saline/animal) by intracerebroventricular (icv) injection, and sacrificed after two weeks. To determine the mRNA levels of hypothalamuspituitary hormone genes, total RNAs were extracted and applied to the semi-quantitative RT-PCRs. The mRNA levels of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting enzyme for the catecholamine biosynthesis, were significantly lower than those from the control group (control:6-OHDA=1:0.72${\pm}$0.02AU, p<0.001), confirming the efficacy of 6-OHDA injection. The mRNA levels of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) in the hypothalami from 6-OHDA group were significantly lower than those from the control group (GnRH, control:6-OHDA=1:0.39${\pm}$0.03AU, p<0.001; CRH, control:6-OHDA=1:0.76${\pm}$0.07AU, p<0.01). There were significant decreases in the mRNA levels of common alpha subunit of glycoprotein homones (Cg$\alpha$), LH beta subunit (LH-$\beta$), and FSH beta subunit (FSH-$\beta$) in pituitaries from 6-OHDA group compared to control values (Cg$\alpha$, control:6-OHDA=1:0.81${\pm}$0.02AU, p<0.001; LH-$\beta$, control:6-OHDA=1:0.68${\pm}$0.04AU, p<0.001; FSH-$\beta$, control:6-OHDA=1:0.84${\pm}$0.05AU, p<0.001). Similarly, the level of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) transcripts from 6-OHDA group was significantly lower than that from the control group (control: 6-OHDA=1:0.86${\pm}$0.04AU, p<0.01). The present study demonstrated that centrally injected DA neurotoxin could downregulate the transcriptional activities of the two hypothalamus-pituitary neuroendocrine circuits, i.e., GnRH-gonadotropins and CRH-ACTH systems. These results suggested that hypothalamic CA input might affect on the activities of gonad and adrenal through modulation of hypothalamus-pituitary function, providing plausible explanation for frequent occurrence of sexual dysfunction and poor stress-response in PD patients.

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