• Title, Summary, Keyword: Plasma inflammatory mediators

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Effect of Artemisia Capillaris Thunberg EtOH Ext. on Lowering Lipid, Anti-oxidation and Concentration of Plasma Inflammatory Mediators Using Rats Fed on High-oxidized Fat (인진호(茵蔯蒿) 추출물이 과산화지질 투여한 쥐의 지질강하, 항산화효과 및 염증매개물질의 생산에 미치는 영향)

  • Kong, In-Pyo;Lee, Eun;Cha, Yun-Yeop
    • Journal of Korean Medicine Rehabilitation
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.23-33
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    • 2011
  • Objectives : The present study investigated effects of Artemisia Capillaris Thunberg ethanol extract(EtOH ext). on lowering lipid, anti-oxidation and concentration of plasma inflammatory mediators using rat fed on high oxidized fat. Methods : We divided fat sprague-dawley rats fed on high oxidized into 4 groups. They were normal group, feed with 100 mg/kg Artemisia Capillaris Thunberg group, feed with 200 mg/kg Artemisia Capillaris Thunberg group and feed with 300 mg/kg Artemisia capilaris Thunberg group. They were administered for 4 weeks. We measured concentration of plasma free fatty acid(FFA), plasma triglyceride, plasma total cholesterol, and plasma low density lipoprotein-cholesterol(LDL-cholesterol), plasma high density lipoprotein-cholesterol(HDL-cholesterol), concentration of liver total cholesterol and liver triglyceride (TG), concentration of plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substance(TBARS) and liver thiobarbituric acid reactive substance(TBARS), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity, superoxide dismutase(SOD) activity and catalase(CAT) activity, plasma nitric oxide(NO), ceruloplasmin and ${\alpha}-glycoprotein$. Results : 1. The Artemisia Capillaris Thunberg EtOH ext. groups showed low concentration of plasma FFA, plasma triglyceride, plasma total cholesterol and plasma LDL-cholesterol compared to control group. However, concentration of plasma HDL-cholesterol was increased in the Artemisia Capillaris Thunberg EtOH ext. groups. 2. Concentration of liver total cholesterol and liver TG showed a significantly decrement in all Artemisia Capillaris Thunberg EtOH ext. groups than that of control group. 3. The Artemisia Capillaris Thunberg EtOH ext. groups showed lower values in concentration of plasma TBARS and liver TBARS than that of control group. The values of GSH-Px activity, SOD activity and CAT activity were increased in the Artemisia Capillaris Thunberg EtOH ext. groups. 4. The values of plasma NO, ceruloplasmin and ${\alpha}-glycoprotein$ were decreased in Artemisia Capillaris Thunberg EtOH ext. groups. Conclusions : Based on the results in this study, the Artemisia Capillaris Thunberg EtOH ext. showed a positive effect in lowering lipid, anti-oxidation and decrement of plasma inflammatory mediators.

Effects of Allium victorials Extract on Lowing Lipid, Anti-oxidation and Concentration of Inflammatory Mediators in Rats Fed High Oxidized Fat (산마늘추출물이 과산화지질급여 비만쥐의 지질강하, 항산화효과 및 염증매개물질의 생산에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Eun
    • Korean Journal of Plant Resources
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.227-233
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    • 2013
  • This study was carried out to effects of Allium victorials extract on lowering lipid, anti-oxidation and concentration of inflammatory mediators in rats fed high oxidized fat. Concentration of free fatty acid(FFA), triglyceride(TG), total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol in plasma decreased in the Allium victorials extract groups and plasma HDL-cholesterol concentration revealed a tendency to increase in Allium victorials extract groups. Concentration of total cholesterol and TG in liver showed a tendency to decrease in Allium victorials extract groups. Concentration of thiobarbituric acid(TBARS) in plasma and liver showed a lower values in Allium victorials extract groups than that of control group. Activities of glutathione peroxidase(GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase(SOD) and catalase(CAT) in liver showed a tendency to increase in Allium victorials extract groups. Concentration of nitrogen oxide(NO), ceruloplasmin and ${\alpha}1$-acid glycoprotein in plasma showed a lower values in Allium victorials extract groups than that of control group. These results indicate that the Allium victorials extract have an functional material for lowering lipid, anti-oxidation and anti-inflammatory effect.

Anti-inflammatory effects of a methanol extract from Pulsatilla koreana in lipopolysaccharide-exposed rats

  • Lee, Sang-Hyun;Lee, Eun;Ko, Young-Tag
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.45 no.6
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    • pp.371-376
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    • 2012
  • To investigate the therapeutic effect of a Korean herbal medicine Pulsatilla koreana as an anti-septic agent, anti-inflammatory effects of the herbal medicine were determined in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-exposed rats. Treatment with a methanol extract from Pulsatilla koreana significantly inhibited LPS-induced inflammatory responses. Results from ELISA analysis showed that Pulsatilla koreana decreased the plasma and hepatic levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-$1{\beta}$, IL-6, TNF-${\alpha}$ while increased the level of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in LPS-exposed rats. Pulsatilla koreana also decreased the plasma levels of other inflammatory mediators such as $NO_3{^-}/NO_2{^-}$, ICAM-1, $PGE_2$, and CINC-1 in LPS-exposed rats. Although no significant effects were observed in the phagocytic activities, the distribution of lymphocyte population was significantly shifted by the treatment with Pulsatilla koreana. All together, Pulsatilla koreana exerts anti-inflammatory activities in the immune-challenged animals implicating that this Korean herbal medicine is therapeutically useful for the treatment of inflammatory diseases like sepsis.

Anti-inflammatory, anti-ulcer and hypoglycaemic activities of ethanolic and crude alkaloid extracts of Madhuca indica (Koenig) Gmelin seed cake

  • M, Seshagiri;RD, Gaikwad;KS, Jyothi;S, Ramchandra;S, Paramjyothi
    • Advances in Traditional Medicine
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.141-149
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    • 2007
  • Madhuca indica has been used ethnomedically in Indian folks. In the present study we have investigated anti-inflammatory, anti-ulcer and hypoglycaemic effect of ethanolic extract (EE) and crude alkaloid extract of Madhuca indica seed cake on albino rats. The study showed that the EE had a significant, dose dependent anti-edematogenic, anti-ulcerogenic and hypoglycaemic activity, whereas the crude alkaloid extract exhibited a significant only. Both the extracts possess dose dependent inhibitory activity on carrageenan-induced edema, inhibiting prostaglandins or mediators involved in prostaglandin synthesis, the second phase of inflammation. The EE was significantly effective in protecting pylorus-ligation-induced gastric ulcers at a higher dose level. The active principle of EE seems to be a selective inhibitor of the COX II (prostaglandin synthesis) without important effect on COX I since, EE exhibited both anti-edematogenic and anti-ulcerogenic effect. The EE was effective in reducing the plasma glucose level in normal albino rats in a dose dependent manner, producing hypoglycaemic effect by stimulating the release of insulin from the ${\beta}-cells$ and/or increasing the uptake of glucose from the plasma.

The Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Pulsatilla koreana Methanol Extract in Lipopolysaccharid-Exposed RAW 264.7 Cells (Lipopolysaccharide를 처리한 RAW 264.7 세포에서 백두옹 메탄올 추출물의 항염증 효과)

  • Lee, Gui Sun;Kim, Doo Hee;Park, Joong Hyun;Choi, Hee Seung;Heo, Seong Kyu;Cha, Yun Yeop
    • Journal of Korean Medicine for Obesity Research
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.1-9
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    • 2017
  • Objectives: This study was performed to identify the anti-inflammatory effect of Pulsatilla koreana (PK) methanol extract on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced inflammatory. Methods: There were five groups. They were control group, LPS-exposed PK methanol extract group ($0{\mu}g/ml$, $10{\mu}g/ml$, $30{\mu}g/ml$, $100{\mu}g/ml$). To measure out cytotoxicity of PK, we performed the MTT assay. To evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of PK, we examined the inflammatory mediators, such as nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin $[IL]-1{\beta}$, IL-6, tumor necrosis $factor-{\alpha}$ [$TNF-{\alpha}$], IL-10). Results: 1. The extract of PK (${\sim}100{\mu}g/ml$) itself did not have any cytotoxic effect in RAW 264.7 cells. 2. The concentration of plasma NO and PGE2 in PK methanol extract group showed a lower values than those of control group. 3. The concentration of plasma $IL-1{\beta}$, plasma IL-6, and plasma $TNF-{\alpha}$ in PK methanol extract group showed a lower values than those of control group. 4. The concentration of Plasma IL-10 in PK methanol extract groups showed higher than control group; however, these values showed no significantly different. Conclusions: According to this study, the extract of PK could be used as a protective agent against inflammation.

The Role of Yoga Intervention in the Treatment of Allergic Rhinitis: A Narrative Review and Proposed Model

  • Chauhan, Ripudaman Singh;Rajesh, S.K
    • CELLMED
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    • v.10 no.3
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    • pp.25.1-25.7
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    • 2020
  • Allergic Rhinitis (AR) is an IgE (immunoglobin-E) mediated inflammatory condition of upper respiratory tract; main clinical features involve runny nose, sneezing, nasal obstruction, itching and watery eyes. AR is a global problem and has large variations in incidences, currently affects up to 20% - 40% of the population worldwide. It may not be a life-threatening disease per se but indisposition from the condition can be severe and has the potential to adversely affect the daily functioning of life. Classical yoga literature indicates that, components of yoga have been used to treat numerous inflammatory conditions including upper respiratory tract. A few yoga intervention studies reported improvement in lung capacity, Nasal air flow and symptoms of allergic rhinitis. This review examined various anti-inflammatory pathways mediated through Yoga that include downregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and upregulation of anti-inflammatory cytokines. The hypothalaminic-pitutary-adrenal (HPA) axis and vagal efferent stimulation has been reported to mediate anti-inflammatory effect. A significant reduction is also reported in other inflammatory biomarkers like- TNF-alpha, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), plasma CRP and Cortisol level. Neti, a yogic nasal cleansing technique, reported beneficial effect on AR by direct physical cleansing of thick mucus, allergens, and inflammatory mediator from nasal mucosa resulting in improved ciliary beat frequency. We do not find any study showing effect of yoga on neurogenic inflammation. In summary, Integrated Yoga Therapy may have beneficial effect in reducing symptoms and improving quality of life for patients with allergic rhinitis. Yoga may reduce inflammation through mediating neuro-endocrino-immunological network. Future studies are needed to explore the mechanism how yoga might modulate immune inflammation cascade and neurogenic inflammation at the cellular level in relevance to allergic rhinitis; the effects of kriyas (yogic cleansing techniques) also need to be evaluated in early and late phase of AR. So the proposed model could guide future research.

Upregulation of FcγRIIB by resveratrol via NF-κB activation reduces B-cell numbers and ameliorates lupus

  • Jhou, Jyun-Pei;Chen, Se-Jie;Huang, Ho-Yin;Lin, Wan-Wan;Huang, Duen-Yi;Tzeng, Shiang-Jong
    • Experimental and Molecular Medicine
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    • v.49 no.9
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    • pp.3.1-3.13
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    • 2017
  • Resveratrol, an anti-inflammatory agent, can inhibit pro-inflammatory mediators by activating Sirt1, which is a class III histone deacetylase. However, whether resveratrol can regulate inhibitory or anti-inflammatory molecules has been less studied. $Fc{\gamma}RIIB$, a receptor for IgG, is an essential inhibitory receptor of B cells for blocking B-cell receptor-mediated activation and for directly inducing apoptosis of B cells. Because mice deficient in either Sirt1 or $Fc{\gamma}RIIB$ develop lupus-like diseases, we investigated whether resveratrol can alleviate lupus through $Fc{\gamma}RIIB$. We found that resveratrol enhanced the expression of $Fc{\gamma}RIIB$ in B cells, resulting in a marked depletion of plasma cells in the spleen and notably in the bone marrow, thereby decreasing serum autoantibody titers in MRL/lpr mice. The upregulation of $Fc{\gamma}RIIB$ by resveratrol involved an increase of Sirt1 protein and deacetylation of p65 $NF-{\kappa}B$ (K310). Moreover, increased binding of phosphor-p65 $NF-{\kappa}B$ (S536) but decreased association of acetylated p65 $NF-{\kappa}B$ (K310) and phosphor-p65 $NF-{\kappa}B$ (S468) to the - 480 promoter region of Fcgr2b gene was responsible for the resveratrol-mediated enhancement of $Fc{\gamma}RIIB$ gene transcription. Consequently, B cells, especially plasma cells, were considerably reduced in MRL/lpr mice, leading to improvement of nephritis and prolonged survival. Taken together, we provide evidence that pharmacological upregulation of $Fc{\gamma}RIIB$ expression in B cells via resveratrol can selectively reduce B cells, decrease serum autoantibodies and ameliorate lupus nephritis. Our findings lead us to propose $Fc{\gamma}RIIB$ as a new target for therapeutic exploitation, particularly for lupus patients whose $Fc{\gamma}RIIB$ expression levels in B cells are downregulated.

Poncirin alleviates the symptoms of dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitic mice (Poncirin의 dextran sulfate sodium 유도 마우스 궤양성 대장염 증세 감소 효과)

  • Kim, Jong-Bin;Cho, Woong;Han, Ar-Reum;Seo, Eun-kyung;Lee, Kyung-Tae
    • Korean Journal of Pharmacognosy
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    • v.39 no.2
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    • pp.104-109
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    • 2008
  • We previously reported that anti-inflammatory properties of poncirin, isolated from fruit of Poncirus trifoliata, might be the result from the inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), tumor necrosis $factor-{\acute{a}}$ ($TNF-{\alpha}$) and interlukin-6 (IL-6) expression via the down-regulation of $NF{-\kappa}B$ binding activity. In this study, we investigated whether poncirin has an inhibitory effect on the production of pro-inflammatory mediators ex vivo and whether poncirin could relieve the symptoms of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in mice model of inflammatory bowel disease. Poncirin significantly inhibited the productions of NO, IL-6 and $TNF-{\alpha}$ in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mouse peritoneal macrophage. In addition, poncirin-treated mice when compared to control mice not receiving treatment recovered better from the weight loss caused by DSS-induced colitis. Changes in disease activity index (DAI) of poncirin-treated mice were also more favorable than for control mice and were comparable with mice treated with a typical anti-inflammatory-drug, 5-aminosalichylic acid (5-ASA). In addition, suppression of plasma NO and IL-6 productions of poncirin-treated mice was also observed in DSS-induced colitis. These results suggest that poncirin has potentially useful anti-inflammatory effects mediated by suppression of inflammatory mediator productions.

Efficacies of the Modified Ultrafiltration and Peritoneal Dialysis in Removing Inflammatory Mediators After Pediatric Cardiac Surgery (소아 개심술 후 변형 초여과법과 복막투석의 염증 매개체 (inflammatory mediator)의 감소에 대한 효과)

  • 성시찬;정민호
    • The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
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    • v.34 no.10
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    • pp.745-753
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    • 2001
  • capillary leak syndrome and organ dysfunction in infants. Removing harmful cytokines and complement anaphylatoxins after cardiopulmonary bypass may attenuate this response. This study was conducted to see if the modified ultrafiltration and postoperative peritoneal dialysis can reduce plasma inflammatory mediators in pediatric cardiac surgery. Material and Method: 30 infants (age 1.1 to 12.6 months) who underwent closures of ventricular septal defect using cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) were enrolled in this study. These patients were divided into three groups; 10 patients selected randomly underwent modified ultrafiltration (Group U), 10 with small body weights ($\leq$5 kg) received postoperative peritoneal dialysis (Group P), and 10 patients did not undergo modified ultrafiltration nor receivcd peritoneal dialysis (Group C). Serum samples were obtained before and after CPB, and after peritoneal dialysis. Effluents sample were also obtained after modified ultrafiltration or peritoneal dialysis. C3a and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were measured by radioimmunoassay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay respectively. Result: There was no differences in CPB time, aortic cross-clamping title, and lowest temperature during CPB. The effluents of peritoneal dialysis contained significant amount of C3a and IL-6, but there was no definitive decrease of serum concentration of C3a and IL-6. The effluents of modified ultrafiltration had some amount of C3a and negligible IL-6, and there was no decrease of serum concentration of these (actors. Conclusion: The effluents of peritoneal dialysis contained significant amount of proinflammatory cytokine, IL-6 and complement, C3a. However this study failed to elucidate the decrease in serum levels of these factors. The modified ultrafiltration also was not able to reduce the serum levels of C3a or IL-6 in our study as well.

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Ameliorative effects of atractylodin on intestinal inflammation and co-occurring dysmotility in both constipation and diarrhea prominent rats

  • Yu, Changchun;Xiong, Yongjian;Chen, Dapeng;Li, Yanli;Xu, Bin;Lin, Yuan;Tang, Zeyao;Jiang, Chunling;Wang, Li
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.1-9
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    • 2017
  • Intestinal disorders often co-occur with inflammation and dysmotility. However, drugs which simultaneously improve intestinal inflammation and co-occurring dysmotility are rarely reported. Atractylodin, a widely used herbal medicine, is used to treat digestive disorders. The present study was designed to characterize the effects of atractylodin on amelioration of both jejunal inflammation and the co-occurring dysmotility in both constipation-prominent (CP) and diarrhea-prominent (DP) rats. The results indicated that atractylodin reduced proinflammatory cytokines TNF-${\alpha}$, IL-$1{\beta}$, and IL-6 in the plasma and inhibited the expression of inflammatory mediators iNOS and NF-kappa B in jejunal segments in both CP and DP rats. The results indicated that atractylodin exerted stimulatory effects and inhibitory effects on the contractility of jejunal segments isolated from CP and DP rats respectively, showing a contractile-state-dependent regulation. Atractylodin-induced contractile-state-dependent regulation was also observed by using rat jejunal segments in low and high contractile states respectively (5 pairs of low/high contractile states). Atractylodin up-regulated the decreased phosphorylation of 20 kDa myosin light chain, protein contents of myosin light chain kinase (MLCK), and MLCK mRNA expression in jejunal segments of CP rats and down-regulated those increased parameters in DP rats. Taken together, atractylodin alleviated rat jejunal inflammation and exerted contractile-state-dependent regulation on the contractility of jejunal segments isolated from CP and DP rats respectively, suggesting the potential clinical implication for ameliorating intestinal inflammation and co-occurring dysmotility.