• Title, Summary, Keyword: Plasma inflammatory mediators

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Effect of Artemisia Capillaris Thunberg EtOH Ext. on Lowering Lipid, Anti-oxidation and Concentration of Plasma Inflammatory Mediators Using Rats Fed on High-oxidized Fat (인진호(茵蔯蒿) 추출물이 과산화지질 투여한 쥐의 지질강하, 항산화효과 및 염증매개물질의 생산에 미치는 영향)

  • Kong, In-Pyo;Lee, Eun;Cha, Yun-Yeop
    • Journal of Korean Medicine Rehabilitation
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.23-33
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    • 2011
  • Objectives : The present study investigated effects of Artemisia Capillaris Thunberg ethanol extract(EtOH ext). on lowering lipid, anti-oxidation and concentration of plasma inflammatory mediators using rat fed on high oxidized fat. Methods : We divided fat sprague-dawley rats fed on high oxidized into 4 groups. They were normal group, feed with 100 mg/kg Artemisia Capillaris Thunberg group, feed with 200 mg/kg Artemisia Capillaris Thunberg group and feed with 300 mg/kg Artemisia capilaris Thunberg group. They were administered for 4 weeks. We measured concentration of plasma free fatty acid(FFA), plasma triglyceride, plasma total cholesterol, and plasma low density lipoprotein-cholesterol(LDL-cholesterol), plasma high density lipoprotein-cholesterol(HDL-cholesterol), concentration of liver total cholesterol and liver triglyceride (TG), concentration of plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substance(TBARS) and liver thiobarbituric acid reactive substance(TBARS), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity, superoxide dismutase(SOD) activity and catalase(CAT) activity, plasma nitric oxide(NO), ceruloplasmin and ${\alpha}-glycoprotein$. Results : 1. The Artemisia Capillaris Thunberg EtOH ext. groups showed low concentration of plasma FFA, plasma triglyceride, plasma total cholesterol and plasma LDL-cholesterol compared to control group. However, concentration of plasma HDL-cholesterol was increased in the Artemisia Capillaris Thunberg EtOH ext. groups. 2. Concentration of liver total cholesterol and liver TG showed a significantly decrement in all Artemisia Capillaris Thunberg EtOH ext. groups than that of control group. 3. The Artemisia Capillaris Thunberg EtOH ext. groups showed lower values in concentration of plasma TBARS and liver TBARS than that of control group. The values of GSH-Px activity, SOD activity and CAT activity were increased in the Artemisia Capillaris Thunberg EtOH ext. groups. 4. The values of plasma NO, ceruloplasmin and ${\alpha}-glycoprotein$ were decreased in Artemisia Capillaris Thunberg EtOH ext. groups. Conclusions : Based on the results in this study, the Artemisia Capillaris Thunberg EtOH ext. showed a positive effect in lowering lipid, anti-oxidation and decrement of plasma inflammatory mediators.

Effects of Allium victorials Extract on Lowing Lipid, Anti-oxidation and Concentration of Inflammatory Mediators in Rats Fed High Oxidized Fat (산마늘추출물이 과산화지질급여 비만쥐의 지질강하, 항산화효과 및 염증매개물질의 생산에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Eun
    • Korean Journal of Plant Resources
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.227-233
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    • 2013
  • This study was carried out to effects of Allium victorials extract on lowering lipid, anti-oxidation and concentration of inflammatory mediators in rats fed high oxidized fat. Concentration of free fatty acid(FFA), triglyceride(TG), total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol in plasma decreased in the Allium victorials extract groups and plasma HDL-cholesterol concentration revealed a tendency to increase in Allium victorials extract groups. Concentration of total cholesterol and TG in liver showed a tendency to decrease in Allium victorials extract groups. Concentration of thiobarbituric acid(TBARS) in plasma and liver showed a lower values in Allium victorials extract groups than that of control group. Activities of glutathione peroxidase(GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase(SOD) and catalase(CAT) in liver showed a tendency to increase in Allium victorials extract groups. Concentration of nitrogen oxide(NO), ceruloplasmin and ${\alpha}1$-acid glycoprotein in plasma showed a lower values in Allium victorials extract groups than that of control group. These results indicate that the Allium victorials extract have an functional material for lowering lipid, anti-oxidation and anti-inflammatory effect.

Anti-inflammatory effects of a methanol extract from Pulsatilla koreana in lipopolysaccharide-exposed rats

  • Lee, Sang-Hyun;Lee, Eun;Ko, Young-Tag
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.45 no.6
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    • pp.371-376
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    • 2012
  • To investigate the therapeutic effect of a Korean herbal medicine Pulsatilla koreana as an anti-septic agent, anti-inflammatory effects of the herbal medicine were determined in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-exposed rats. Treatment with a methanol extract from Pulsatilla koreana significantly inhibited LPS-induced inflammatory responses. Results from ELISA analysis showed that Pulsatilla koreana decreased the plasma and hepatic levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-$1{\beta}$, IL-6, TNF-${\alpha}$ while increased the level of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in LPS-exposed rats. Pulsatilla koreana also decreased the plasma levels of other inflammatory mediators such as $NO_3{^-}/NO_2{^-}$, ICAM-1, $PGE_2$, and CINC-1 in LPS-exposed rats. Although no significant effects were observed in the phagocytic activities, the distribution of lymphocyte population was significantly shifted by the treatment with Pulsatilla koreana. All together, Pulsatilla koreana exerts anti-inflammatory activities in the immune-challenged animals implicating that this Korean herbal medicine is therapeutically useful for the treatment of inflammatory diseases like sepsis.

Anti-inflammatory, anti-ulcer and hypoglycaemic activities of ethanolic and crude alkaloid extracts of Madhuca indica (Koenig) Gmelin seed cake

  • M, Seshagiri;RD, Gaikwad;KS, Jyothi;S, Ramchandra;S, Paramjyothi
    • Oriental Pharmacy and Experimental Medicine
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.141-149
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    • 2007
  • Madhuca indica has been used ethnomedically in Indian folks. In the present study we have investigated anti-inflammatory, anti-ulcer and hypoglycaemic effect of ethanolic extract (EE) and crude alkaloid extract of Madhuca indica seed cake on albino rats. The study showed that the EE had a significant, dose dependent anti-edematogenic, anti-ulcerogenic and hypoglycaemic activity, whereas the crude alkaloid extract exhibited a significant only. Both the extracts possess dose dependent inhibitory activity on carrageenan-induced edema, inhibiting prostaglandins or mediators involved in prostaglandin synthesis, the second phase of inflammation. The EE was significantly effective in protecting pylorus-ligation-induced gastric ulcers at a higher dose level. The active principle of EE seems to be a selective inhibitor of the COX II (prostaglandin synthesis) without important effect on COX I since, EE exhibited both anti-edematogenic and anti-ulcerogenic effect. The EE was effective in reducing the plasma glucose level in normal albino rats in a dose dependent manner, producing hypoglycaemic effect by stimulating the release of insulin from the ${\beta}-cells$ and/or increasing the uptake of glucose from the plasma.

The Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Pulsatilla koreana Methanol Extract in Lipopolysaccharid-Exposed RAW 264.7 Cells (Lipopolysaccharide를 처리한 RAW 264.7 세포에서 백두옹 메탄올 추출물의 항염증 효과)

  • Lee, Gui Sun;Kim, Doo Hee;Park, Joong Hyun;Choi, Hee Seung;Heo, Seong Kyu;Cha, Yun Yeop
    • Journal of Korean Medicine for Obesity Research
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.1-9
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    • 2017
  • Objectives: This study was performed to identify the anti-inflammatory effect of Pulsatilla koreana (PK) methanol extract on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced inflammatory. Methods: There were five groups. They were control group, LPS-exposed PK methanol extract group ($0{\mu}g/ml$, $10{\mu}g/ml$, $30{\mu}g/ml$, $100{\mu}g/ml$). To measure out cytotoxicity of PK, we performed the MTT assay. To evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of PK, we examined the inflammatory mediators, such as nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin $[IL]-1{\beta}$, IL-6, tumor necrosis $factor-{\alpha}$ [$TNF-{\alpha}$], IL-10). Results: 1. The extract of PK (${\sim}100{\mu}g/ml$) itself did not have any cytotoxic effect in RAW 264.7 cells. 2. The concentration of plasma NO and PGE2 in PK methanol extract group showed a lower values than those of control group. 3. The concentration of plasma $IL-1{\beta}$, plasma IL-6, and plasma $TNF-{\alpha}$ in PK methanol extract group showed a lower values than those of control group. 4. The concentration of Plasma IL-10 in PK methanol extract groups showed higher than control group; however, these values showed no significantly different. Conclusions: According to this study, the extract of PK could be used as a protective agent against inflammation.

Poncirin alleviates the symptoms of dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitic mice (Poncirin의 dextran sulfate sodium 유도 마우스 궤양성 대장염 증세 감소 효과)

  • Kim, Jong-Bin;Cho, Woong;Han, Ar-Reum;Seo, Eun-kyung;Lee, Kyung-Tae
    • Korean Journal of Pharmacognosy
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    • v.39 no.2
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    • pp.104-109
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    • 2008
  • We previously reported that anti-inflammatory properties of poncirin, isolated from fruit of Poncirus trifoliata, might be the result from the inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), tumor necrosis $factor-{\acute{a}}$ ($TNF-{\alpha}$) and interlukin-6 (IL-6) expression via the down-regulation of $NF{-\kappa}B$ binding activity. In this study, we investigated whether poncirin has an inhibitory effect on the production of pro-inflammatory mediators ex vivo and whether poncirin could relieve the symptoms of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in mice model of inflammatory bowel disease. Poncirin significantly inhibited the productions of NO, IL-6 and $TNF-{\alpha}$ in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mouse peritoneal macrophage. In addition, poncirin-treated mice when compared to control mice not receiving treatment recovered better from the weight loss caused by DSS-induced colitis. Changes in disease activity index (DAI) of poncirin-treated mice were also more favorable than for control mice and were comparable with mice treated with a typical anti-inflammatory-drug, 5-aminosalichylic acid (5-ASA). In addition, suppression of plasma NO and IL-6 productions of poncirin-treated mice was also observed in DSS-induced colitis. These results suggest that poncirin has potentially useful anti-inflammatory effects mediated by suppression of inflammatory mediator productions.

Efficacies of the Modified Ultrafiltration and Peritoneal Dialysis in Removing Inflammatory Mediators After Pediatric Cardiac Surgery (소아 개심술 후 변형 초여과법과 복막투석의 염증 매개체 (inflammatory mediator)의 감소에 대한 효과)

  • 성시찬;정민호
    • The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
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    • v.34 no.10
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    • pp.745-753
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    • 2001
  • capillary leak syndrome and organ dysfunction in infants. Removing harmful cytokines and complement anaphylatoxins after cardiopulmonary bypass may attenuate this response. This study was conducted to see if the modified ultrafiltration and postoperative peritoneal dialysis can reduce plasma inflammatory mediators in pediatric cardiac surgery. Material and Method: 30 infants (age 1.1 to 12.6 months) who underwent closures of ventricular septal defect using cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) were enrolled in this study. These patients were divided into three groups; 10 patients selected randomly underwent modified ultrafiltration (Group U), 10 with small body weights ($\leq$5 kg) received postoperative peritoneal dialysis (Group P), and 10 patients did not undergo modified ultrafiltration nor receivcd peritoneal dialysis (Group C). Serum samples were obtained before and after CPB, and after peritoneal dialysis. Effluents sample were also obtained after modified ultrafiltration or peritoneal dialysis. C3a and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were measured by radioimmunoassay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay respectively. Result: There was no differences in CPB time, aortic cross-clamping title, and lowest temperature during CPB. The effluents of peritoneal dialysis contained significant amount of C3a and IL-6, but there was no definitive decrease of serum concentration of C3a and IL-6. The effluents of modified ultrafiltration had some amount of C3a and negligible IL-6, and there was no decrease of serum concentration of these (actors. Conclusion: The effluents of peritoneal dialysis contained significant amount of proinflammatory cytokine, IL-6 and complement, C3a. However this study failed to elucidate the decrease in serum levels of these factors. The modified ultrafiltration also was not able to reduce the serum levels of C3a or IL-6 in our study as well.

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Ameliorative effects of atractylodin on intestinal inflammation and co-occurring dysmotility in both constipation and diarrhea prominent rats

  • Yu, Changchun;Xiong, Yongjian;Chen, Dapeng;Li, Yanli;Xu, Bin;Lin, Yuan;Tang, Zeyao;Jiang, Chunling;Wang, Li
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.1-9
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    • 2017
  • Intestinal disorders often co-occur with inflammation and dysmotility. However, drugs which simultaneously improve intestinal inflammation and co-occurring dysmotility are rarely reported. Atractylodin, a widely used herbal medicine, is used to treat digestive disorders. The present study was designed to characterize the effects of atractylodin on amelioration of both jejunal inflammation and the co-occurring dysmotility in both constipation-prominent (CP) and diarrhea-prominent (DP) rats. The results indicated that atractylodin reduced proinflammatory cytokines TNF-${\alpha}$, IL-$1{\beta}$, and IL-6 in the plasma and inhibited the expression of inflammatory mediators iNOS and NF-kappa B in jejunal segments in both CP and DP rats. The results indicated that atractylodin exerted stimulatory effects and inhibitory effects on the contractility of jejunal segments isolated from CP and DP rats respectively, showing a contractile-state-dependent regulation. Atractylodin-induced contractile-state-dependent regulation was also observed by using rat jejunal segments in low and high contractile states respectively (5 pairs of low/high contractile states). Atractylodin up-regulated the decreased phosphorylation of 20 kDa myosin light chain, protein contents of myosin light chain kinase (MLCK), and MLCK mRNA expression in jejunal segments of CP rats and down-regulated those increased parameters in DP rats. Taken together, atractylodin alleviated rat jejunal inflammation and exerted contractile-state-dependent regulation on the contractility of jejunal segments isolated from CP and DP rats respectively, suggesting the potential clinical implication for ameliorating intestinal inflammation and co-occurring dysmotility.

The Effects in Metabolism and Adipose Tissue Inflammation Induced by the Massa Medicata Fermentata on Obese Type 2 Diabetes Mouse Model (신국(神麯) 투여가 비만형 제 2형 당뇨병 동물모델의 대사인자와 지방조직 염증반응에 미치는 영향)

  • Paik, Sun-Ho;Han, Su-Ryun;Kwon, Oh-Jun;Ahn, Young-Min;Ahn, Se-Young;Lee, Byung-Cheol
    • The Journal of Korean Medicine
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    • v.33 no.3
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    • pp.33-45
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    • 2012
  • Objectives: Recent data have revealed that the plasma concentration of inflammatory mediators is increased in the insulin-resistant states of obesity and type 2 diabetes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the antidiabetic and anti-obesity effect of Massa Medicata Fermentata on obese type 2 diabetes mice. Methods: In order to examine the effects of Massa Medicata Fermentata, obese type 2 diabetes mice induced by Surwit's high fat, high sucrose diet. Mice were divided into 4 groups of ND (normal diet), HFD (high fat and high sucrose diet), Met (high fat and high sucrose diet with metformin) and MMF (high fat and high sucrose diet with Massa Medicata Fermentata) and investigated over 8 weeks. Diabetic and obese clinical markers, including body weight, glucose level, lipid level, leptin concentration, epididymal fat pad and liver weights and adipose tissue macrophage (ATM) were determined. Results: Compared with the HFD group, body weight, fructosamine, triglyceride, epididymal fat pad weight and ATM were significantly reduced in the MMF group. Conclusions: From the above results, the intake of Massa Medicata Fermentata may be effective in anti-hyperglycemia and anti-obesity by the attenuation of glucose and lipid levels and also inflammation state. Massa Medicata Fermentata may be beneficial for controlling diabetes mellitus type 2 in humans.

New evidence on mechanisms of action of spa therapy in rheumatic diseases

  • Tenti, Sara;Fioravanti, Antonella;Guidelli, Giacomo Maria;Pascarelli, Nicola Antonio;Cheleschi, Sara
    • CELLMED
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.3.1-3.8
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    • 2014
  • Spa represents a treatment widely used in many rheumatic diseases (RD). The mechanisms by which immersion in mineral or thermal water ameliorates RD are not fully understood. The net benefit is probably the result of a combination of factors, among which the mechanical, thermal and chemical effects are most prominent. Buoyancy, immersion, resistance and temperature play important roles. According to the gate theory, pain relief may be due to the pressure and temperature of the water on skin; heat may reduce muscle spasm and increase the pain threshold. Mud-bath therapy increases plasma ${\beta}$-endorphin levels and secretion of corticotrophin, cortisol, growth hormone and prolactin. It has recently been demonstrated that thermal mud-bath therapy induces a reduction in circulating levels of prostaglandin E2, leukotriene B4, interleukin-$1{\beta}$ and tumour necrosis factor-${\alpha}$, important mediators of inflammation and pain. Furthermore, balneotherapy has been found to cause an increase in insulin-like growth factor-1, which stimulates cartilage metabolism, and transforming growth factor-${\beta}$. Beneficial anti-inflammatory and anti-degenerative effects of mineral water were confirmed in chondrocytes cultures, too. Various studies in vitro and in humans have highlighted the positive action of mud-packs and thermal baths, especially sulphurous ones, on the oxidant/antioxidant system. Overall, thermal stress has an immunosuppressive effect. Many other non-specific factors may also contribute to the beneficial effects observed after spa therapy in some RD, including effects on cardiovascular risk factors (e.g. adipokines) and changes in the environment, pleasant surroundings and the absence of work duties.