• Title, Summary, Keyword: Plate anchor

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Uplift capacity of horizontal anchor plate embedded near to the cohesionless slope by limit analysis

  • Bhattacharya, Paramita;Sahoo, Sagarika
    • Geomechanics and Engineering
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.701-714
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    • 2017
  • The effect of nearby cohesionless sloping ground on the uplift capacity of horizontal strip plate anchor embedded in sand deposit with horizontal ground surface has been studied numerically. The numerical analysis has been carried out by using the lower bound theorem of limit analysis with finite elements and linear optimization. The results have been presented in the form of non-dimensional uplift capacity factor of anchor plate by changing its distance from the slope crest for different slope angles, embedment ratios and angles of soil internal friction. It has been found that the decrease in horizontal distance between the edge of the anchor plate and the slope crest causes a continuous decrease in uplift capacity of anchor plate. The optimum distance is that distance between slope crest and anchor plate below which uplift capacity of an anchor plate has been found to decrease with a decrease in normalized crest distance from the anchor plate in presence of nearby sloping ground. The normalized optimum distance between the slope crest and the anchor plate has been found to increase with an increase in slope angle, embedment ratio and soil internal friction angle.

Flexural behavior of steel storage rack base-plate upright connections with concentric anchor bolts

  • Zhao, Xianzhong;Huang, Zhaoqi;Wang, Yue;Sivakumaran, Ken S.
    • Steel and Composite Structures
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    • v.33 no.3
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    • pp.357-373
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    • 2019
  • Steel storage racks are slender structures whose overall behavior and the capacity depend largely on the flexural behavior of the base-plate to upright connections and on the behavior of beam-to-column connections. The base-plate upright connection assembly details, anchor bolt position in particular, associated with the high-rise steel storage racks differ from those of normal height steel storage racks. Since flexural behavior of high-rise rack base connection is hitherto unavailable, this investigation experimentally establishes the flexural behavior of base-plate upright connections of high-rise steel storage racks. This investigation used an enhanced test setup and considered nine groups of three identical tests to investigate the influence of factors such as axial load, base plate thickness, anchor bolt size, bracket length, and upright thickness. The test observations show that the base-plate assembly may significantly influence the overall behavior of such connections. A rigid plate analytical model and an elastic plate analytical model for the overall rotations stiffness of base-plate upright connections with concentric anchor bolts were constructed, and were found to give better predictions of the initial stiffness of such connections. Analytical model based parametric studies highlight and quantify the interplay of components and provide a means for efficient maximization of overall rotational stiffness of concentrically anchor bolted high-rise rack base-plate upright connections.

A review on uplift response of symmetrical anchor plates embedded in reinforced sand

  • Niroumand, Hamed;Kassim, Khairul Anuar
    • Geomechanics and Engineering
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    • v.5 no.3
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    • pp.187-194
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    • 2013
  • The most soil anchor works have been concerned with the uplift problem on embedded in non-reinforced soils under pullout test. Symmetrical anchor plates are a foundation system that can be resisting tensile load with the support of around soil in which symmetrical anchor plate is embedded. Engineers and authors proved that the uplift response can be improved by grouping the symmetrical anchor plates, increasing the unit weight, embedment ratio and the size of symmetrical anchor plates. Innovation of geosynthetics in the field of geotechnical engineering as reinforcement materials found to be possible solution in symmetrical anchor plate responses. Unfortunately the importance of reinforcement in submergence has received very little attention by researchers. In this paper, provision of tensile reinforcement under embedded conditions has been studied through uplift experiments on symmetrical anchor plates by few researchers. From the test results it has been showed that the provision of geogrid reinforcement system enhances the uplift response substantially under uplift test although other results are such as increase the ultimate uplift response of symmetrical anchor plate embedded using geosynthetic and Grid Fixed Reinforced (GFR) and symmetrical anchor plate improvement is very dependent on geosynthetic layer length and increases significantly until the amount of beyond that further increase in the layer length does not show a significant contribution in the anchor response.

Improvement in uplift capacity of horizontal circular anchor plate in undrained clay by granular column

  • Bhattacharya, Paramita;Roy, Anamitra
    • Geomechanics and Engineering
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    • v.10 no.5
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    • pp.617-633
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    • 2016
  • A numerical study has been conducted to examine the improvement achieved in the ultimate pullout capacity of horizontal circular anchor plates embedded in undrained clay, by constructing granular columns of varying diameter over the anchor plates. The analysis has been carried out by using lower bound theorem of limit analysis and finite elements in combination with linear programming. The improvement in uplifting capacity of anchor plate is expressed in terms of an efficiency factor (${\xi}$). The efficiency factor (${\xi}$) has been defined as the ratio of ultimate vertical pullout capacity of anchor plate having diameter D embedded in soft clay reinforced by granular column to the vertical pullout capacity of the anchor plate with same diameter D embedded in soft clay only. The variation of efficiency factor (${\xi}$) for different embedment ratios and different diameter of granular column has been studied considering a wide range of softness of clay and different value of soil internal friction angle (${\phi}$) of the granular material. It is observed that ${\xi}$ increases with an increase in diameter of the granular column ($D_t$) and increase in friction angle of granular material. Also, the effectiveness of the usage of granular column increases with decrease in cohesion of the clay.

Pullout capacity of shallow inclined anchor in anisotropic and nonhomogeneous undrained clay

  • Bhattacharya, Paramita
    • Geomechanics and Engineering
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    • v.13 no.5
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    • pp.825-844
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    • 2017
  • This study aimed to find out the pullout capacity of inclined strip anchor plate embedded in anisotropic and nonhomogeneous fully saturated cohesive soil in undrained condition. The ultimate pullout load has been found out by using numerical lower bound finite element analysis with linear programming. The undrained pullout capacity of anchor plate of width B is determined for different embedment ratios (H/B) varying from 3 to 7 and various inclination of anchor plates ranging from $0^{\circ}$ to $90^{\circ}$ with an interval of $15^{\circ}$. In case of anisotropic fully saturated clay the variation of cohesion with direction has been considered by varying the ratio of the cohesion along vertical direction ($c_v$) to the cohesion along horizontal direction ($c_h$). In case of nonhomogeneous clay the cohesion of the undrained clay has been considered to be increased with depth below ground surface keeping $c_v/c_h=1$. The results are presented in terms of pullout capacity factor ($F_{c0}=p_u/c_H$) where $p_u$ is the ultimate pullout stress along the anchor plate at failure and $c_H$ is the cohesion in horizontal direction at the level of the middle point of the anchor plate. It is observed that the pullout capacity factor increases with an increase in anisotropic cohesion ratio ($c_v/c_h$) whereas the pullout capacity factor decreases with an increase in undrained cohesion of the soil with depth.

Uplift response of multi-plate helical anchors in cohesive soil

  • Demir, Ahmet;Ok, Bahadir
    • Geomechanics and Engineering
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    • v.8 no.4
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    • pp.615-630
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    • 2015
  • The use of helical anchors has been extensively beyond their traditional use in the electrical power industry in recent years. They are commonly used in more traditional civil engineering infrastructure applications so that the advantages of rapid installation and immediate loading capability. The majority of the research has been directed toward the tensile uplift behaviour of single anchors (only one plate) by far. However, anchors commonly have more than one plate. Moreover, no thorough numerical and experimental analyses have been performed to determine the ultimate pullout loads of multi-plate anchors. The understanding of behavior of these anchors is unsatisfactory and the existing design methods have shown to be largely inappropriate and inadequate for a framework adopted by engineers. So, a better understanding of helical anchor behavior will lead to increased confidence in design, a wider acceptance as a foundation alternative, and more economic and safer designs. The main aim of this research is to use numerical modeling techniques to better understand multi-plate helical anchor foundation behavior in soft clay soils. Experimental and numerical investigations into the uplift capacity of helical anchor in soft clay have been conducted in this study. A total of 6 laboratory tests were carried out using helical anchor plate with a diameter of 0.05 m. The results of physical and computational studies investigating the uplift response of helical anchors in soft clay show that maximum resistances depend on anchor embedment ratio and anchor spacing ratio S/D. Agreement between uplift capacities from laboratory tests and finite element modelling using PLAXIS is excellent for anchors up to embedment ratios of 6.

Rotational behavior of exposed column bases with different base plate thickness

  • Cui, Yao;Wang, Fengzhi;Li, Hao;Yamada, Satoshi
    • Steel and Composite Structures
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    • v.32 no.4
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    • pp.497-507
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    • 2019
  • Exposed column base connections are used in low- to mid-rise steel moment resisting frames. This paper is to investigate the effect of the base plate thickness on the exposed column base connection strength, stiffness, and energy dissipation. Five specimens with different base plate thickness were numerically modelled using ABAQUS software. The numerical model is able to reproduce the key characteristics of the experimental response. Based on the numerical analysis, the critical base plate thickness to identify the base plate and anchor rod yield mechanism is proposed. For the connection with base plate yield mechanism, the resisting moment is carried by the flexural bending of the base plate. Yield lines in the base plate on the tension side and compression side are illustrated, respectively. This type of connection exhibits a relatively large energy dissipation. For the connection with anchor rod yield mechanism, the moment is resisted through a combination of bearing stresses of concrete foundation on the compression side and tensile forces in the anchor rods on the tension side. This type of connection exhibits self-centering behavior and shows higher initial stiffness and bending strength. In addition, the methods to predict the moment resistance of the connection with different yield mechanisms are presented. And the evaluated moment resistances agree well with the values obtained from the FEM model.

Anchor plate design for mechanical anchorage of large diameter reinforcement in nuclear containment buildings (원전 구조물용 대구경 철근의 기계적 정착을 위한 정착판 설계)

  • 이성호;천성철;오보환;박형철;나환선;김상구
    • Proceedings of the Korea Concrete Institute Conference
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    • pp.136-139
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    • 2003
  • The re-bar work in the construction of nuclear power plants is difficult, due to the large diameter and the congestion of reinforcements. The mechanical anchorage offers a potential solution for this problem. However, the requirements or the standards for the shape of anchor plate of mechanical anchor has not been clearly established up to now. In this paper, the required performance of the mechanical anchorage for large diameter reinforcements in nuclear power plants are proposed, and the anchor plates are designed through nonlinear finite element analysis. The diameters of anchor plate are determined to be $\sqrt{5}$ times of reinforcement diameter for longitudinal reinforcements and $\sqrt{10}$ for shear reinforcements. The thickness of anchor plates is optimized as 0.3-0.35 times of reinforcement diameter for longitudinal reinforcements and 0.5~0.56 times for shear reinforcements.

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A Study on Effect of Anchor Plate on Concrete Breakout Capacity and Elasticity-Based Analysis Model of Anchor Plate (앵커플레이트가 콘크리트 파괴 강도에 미치는 영향 및 탄성기반 해석 모델에 대한 연구)

  • Shin, Ji-Uk;You, Young-Chan;Choi, Ki-Seon;Kim, Ho-Ryong;Kim, Jun-Hee
    • Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute
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    • v.25 no.4
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    • pp.381-388
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    • 2013
  • This study presents that effect of anchor plate on concrete breakout strength was evaluated. The addition of the anchor plate is to improve the concrete breakout capacity for a single anchor system in a thin-walled concrete panel (Insulated concrete sandwich wall panel). In this study, an elasticity-based simplified model was developed and used to predict effect on the anchor plate. Flexural stresses of the plate with respect to the concrete breakout strength obtained from CCD (Capacity Concrete Design) approach were compared with the test results. Through the test results, while the concrete breakout strength was improved due to increment of the width and thickness of the anchor plate, improvement of the strength was steadily declined. In addition, the It was observed that the analytical and experimental flexure of the anchor plate was comparatively in good agreement using the simplified elastic analysis model.

A Study on the Flexural Behavior of Steel Plate Reinforced RC Beam by Anchor Conjugation (앵커 접합 방법에 따른 강판 보강 RC보의 휨 거동에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Ho
    • Journal of the Korean Association for Spatial Structures
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    • v.10 no.4
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    • pp.103-111
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    • 2010
  • Most of apartments, buildings and venues today were built without consideration of earthquake when there was no mandate for an earthquake-resistant design. To reinforce such construction, a compressive method of steel plate is widely used. In spite of continuous researches on the compressive method of steel plate, it has not been systematically evaluated for the effects of various factors affecting the structural behavior of beam and its effect on intensity and failure. Therefore, this study aims to determine the flexural behavior of beam due to Anchor conjugation through the materials obtained by making load test for the Anchor conjugated steel plate while the anchor is set as variable.

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