• Title, Summary, Keyword: Pollution control

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Quality Evaluation of Domestic and Foreign Extruded Pellets and Moist Pellet Based on Biochemical Analyses for Juvenile Olive Flounder, Parazichthys Olivaceus (시판용 넙치(치어)사료의 성분 비교분석을 통한 품질평가)

  • 최세민;한경민;왕소길;이승형;배승철
    • Journal of Aquaculture
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.144-150
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    • 2004
  • This experiment was conducted to evaluate the parameters such as nutrient requirements, POY, AnV, Totox, VBN, total plate count, dietary fatty acids and amino acids composition, that are not included in the registered standard composition items required by the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, of a moist pellet (MP), three domestic extruded pellets (DEP-1, DEP-2, DEP-3), and two foreign extruded pellets (FEP-1, FEP-2) that are utilized by domestic flounder farms at present. The crude protein was added in excess of the dietary protein requirement in 6 kinds of feeds. When considering the proper PH ratio, it is obvious that protein was added in excess, especially in MP and FEP-2. Crude fat was also added in excess, especially in FEP-1. MP contained a higher dietary phosphorus content than formulated feeds, surpassing the dietary phosphorus requirement and greatly increasing the possibility for causing water pollution. The oxidation of fatty acid and decomposition of protein in MP were higher than in formulated feeds, and may also cause problems on fish farms. Also, it is difficult to store and manage MP, Among the fatty acids, EPA and DHA contents in MP were higher than those in formulated feeds. It is necessary to conduct further studies of EPA and DHA contents in formulated feeds. Lysine content in MP and FEP-2 could meet the dietary lysine requirement of flounder, however, the possibility of insufficient lysine content in the other formulated feeds was high and we considered that extra supplementation was necessary. Therefore, it is necessary to set up quality control standards according to fish species and sizes while considering the specific character of aquatic formulated feeds to restore the confidence of feed companies and aquaculturists to these feeds. This may be an opportunity to make an earlier change from MP to formulated feeds.

Estimation of Total Allowable Pollutant Loads Using Eco-hydrodynamic Modeling for Water Quality Management on the Southern Coast of Korea (생태계 모델에 의한 총허용 오염부하량 산정을 통한 연안해역의 수질관리)

  • Lee, Dae-In;Kim, Jong-Kyu
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Marine Environment & Energy
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.29-43
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    • 2007
  • For effective management of water quality on the southern coast of korea, a three-dimensional eco-hydrodynamic model is used to predict water quality in summer and to estimate the reduction rate in pollutant loads that would be required to restore water quality. Under the current environmental conditions, in particular, pollutant loadings to the study area were very high, chemical oxygen demand (COD) exceeded seawater quality criteria to comply with current legislation, and water quality was in a eutrophic condition. Therefore, we estimated reduction rates of current pollutant loads by modeling. The model reproduced reasonably the flow field and water quality of the study area. If the terrestrial COD, inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus loads were reduced by 90%, the water quality criteria of Region A were still not satisfied. However, when the nutrient loads from polluted sediment and land were each reduced by 70% simultaneously, COD and $Chl-{\alpha}$ were restored. When we reduced the input COD and nutrient loads from the Nakdong River by 80%, $Chl-{\alpha}$ and COD of Region B decreased below $10\;{\mu}g\;1^{-1}$ and $2\;mg\;1^{-1}$, respectively. The water quality criteria of Region C were satisfied when we reduced the terrestrial COD and nutrient loads by 70%. Total allowable loadings of COD and inorganic nutrients in each region were determined by multiplying the reduction rates by current pollutant loads. Estimated high reduction rates, although difficult to achieve at the present time under the prevailing environmental conditions, suggest that water pollution is very severe in this study area, and pollutant loads must be reduced within total allowable loads by continuous and long-term management. To achieve the reduction in pollutant loads, sustainable countermeasures are necessary, including the expansion of sewage and wastewater facilities, polluted sediment control and limited land use.

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Effect of Cover Crop Hairy Vetch on Prevention of Soil Erosion and Reduction of Nitrogen Fertilization in Sloped Upland (경사지 밭토양 유실억제 및 질소비료절감에 대한 피복작물 헤어리벳치의 효과)

  • Seo, Jong-Ho;Park, Jong-Yeol;Song, Duk-Young
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.38 no.3
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    • pp.134-141
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    • 2005
  • Cultivation of winter cover crops and its soil utilization for summer main crops in slope upland is very important at the respects of diminution of soil erosion and non-point pollution source. The effects of cover crop, hairy vetch as no-tillage or conventional tillage on prevention of soil erosion and reduction of chemical nitrogen fertilization were investigated in the slope upland with whiter clover living mulch (partial tillage) in Suwon for three years and with rye (conventional tillage) in Hongcheon for two years, respectively. In Suwon, amounts of soil lost by rainfall runoff decreased as much as 90% by hairy vetch-no tillage (HV-NT), white clover-partial tillage (WF-PT) together with the decrease of rainfall runoff compared to winter fallow with conventional tillage (WF-CT). In addition, amounts of weed also decreased as much as 80-90% by HV-NT and WF-PT. Corn yield decreased much at the plot of WF-PT mainly due to competition for soil water and nutrients between clover and corn at the early corn growth stage. On the contrary, corn yield increased by HV-NT compared to WF-CT regardless of weed control. In Hongcheon, amounts of soil eroded during winter season before corn seeding were reduced as much as 95% by cultivation of hairy vetch and rye compared to winter fallow. Amount of soil eroded during waxy corn growing season was reduced as much as 98% by HV-NT compared to WF-CT. Also, soil incorporation of hairy vetch and rye as green manure with conventional tillage at corn seeding time could reduce soil erosion as much as 70% compared to no soil cover with conventional tillage. Ear yields of waxy corn were increased 10% higher at hairy vetch green manure (HV-CT) without nitrogen fertilizer, 20% higher at HV-NT with standard nitrogen fertilizer, respectively than WF-CT. But ear yields of waxy corn were decreased by rye green manure (R-CT) and HV-NT at the condition of no nitrogen fertilizer. It was concluded that hairy vetch was better as winter cover crop to reduce both soil erosion and chemical nitrogen fertilizer simultaneously in slope upland than other cover crops.

Environmental and Ecological Consequences of Submarine Groundwater Discharge in the Coastal Areas of the Korea Peninsula (한반도 연안 해역에서 해저 지하수 유출의 환경 생태학적 중요성)

  • KIM GUEBUEM;HWANG DONG-WOON;RYU JAE-WOONG;LEE YONG-WOO
    • The Sea
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    • v.10 no.4
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    • pp.204-212
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    • 2005
  • Recognition has emerged that nutrient inputs from the submarine discharge of fresh, brackish, and marine groundwaters into the coastal ocean are comparable to the inputs via river discharge. The coastal areas of the Korea peninsula and adjacent seas exhibit particular importance in the role of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD), in terms of the magnitude of SGD and associated continental material fluxes. For example, in the southern sea of Korea, SGD transports excess nutrients into the coastal regions and thus appears to influence ecosystem changes such as the outbreak of red tides. Around volcanic island, Jeju, which is composed of high permeability rocks, the amount of SGD is higher by orders of magnitude relative to the eastern coast of North America where extensive SGD studies have been conducted. In particular, nutrient discharge through SGD exerts a significant control on coastal ecosystem changes and results in benthic eutrophication in semi-enclosed Bang-du bay, Jeju. In the entire area of the Yellow Sea, tile submarine discharge of brackish groundwater and associated nutrients are found to rival the river discharges into the Yellow Sea, including those through Yangtze River, Han River, etc. In the eastern coast of the Korea peninsula, SGD is significantly higher during summer than winter due to high hydraulic gradients and due to wide distribution of high permeability sandy zones, faults, and fractures. On the other hand, in the estuarine water, downstream construction of the dam in the Nakdong River, SGD was highest when the river discharge was lowest (but water level of the dam was highest). This suggests that even though there is no visible freshwater discharge into this estuary, the discharge of chemical species is significant through SGD. On the basis of the results obtained from the coastal areas of the Korea peninsula, SGD is considered to be an important pathway of continental contaminants influencing tidal-flat ecosystems, red tides, and coral ecology. Thus, future costal management should pay great attention to the impact of SGD on coastal pollution and eutrophication.

Scheduling Non-drainage Irrigation in Coir Substrate Hydroponics with Different Percentages of Chips and Dust for Tomato Cultivation using a Frequency Domain Reflectometry Sensor (토마토 수경재배에서 FDR(Frequency Domain Reflectometry) 센서를 활용한 무배액 시스템에 적합한 코이어 배지의 Chip과 Dust 비율 구명)

  • Choi, Eun-Young;Choi, Ki-Young;Lee, Yong-Beom
    • Protected Horticulture and Plant Factory
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.248-255
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    • 2013
  • This study examined an automated irrigation technique by a frequency domain reflectometry (FDR) sensor for scheduling irrigation for tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. 'Starbuck F1') cultivation aimed at avoiding effluent from an open hydroponic system with coir substrate containing different ratios of chip-to-dust (v/v) content. Specifically, the objectives were to undertake preliminary measurements of irrigation volumes, leachate volume, volumetric water content and electrical conductivity (EC) in the substrate, plant growth, fruit yield, and water use efficiency resulting from variation in chip content as an initial experiment. Commercial coir substrates containing different percentages of chips and dust (0 and 100%, 30 and 70%, 50 and 50%, or 70 and 30%), two-story coir substrates with different percentages of chips in the lower layer and dust in the upper layer (15 and 85%, 25 and 75%, or 35 and 65%), or rockwool slabs were used. The results showed that a negligible or no leachate was found for all treatments when plants were grown under a technique for scheduling non-drainage irrigation using a frequency domain reflectometry (FDR) sensor. Daily irrigation volume was affected by chip content in both commercial and two-story slabs. The highest plant growth, marketable fruit weight, and water-use efficiency were observed in the plants grown in the commercial coir slab containing 0% chips and 100% dust, indicating that the FDR sensor-auto-mated irrigation may be more useful for tomato cultivation in coir substrate containing 0% chips and 100% dust using water efficiently and minimizing or avoiding leachate and thus increasing yield and reducing pollution. Detailed experiment is necessary to closely focus on determining appropriate irrigation volume at each of irrigation as well as duration of each individual irrigation cycle depending on different physical properties of substrates using an automated irrigation system operated by the FDR sensor.

Marine Algal Flora and Community Structure of Igidea Area in Busan, Korea (부산 이기대 지역의 해조상 및 군집구조)

  • Shin, Bong-Kyun;Kwon, Chun-Jung;Lee, Suk-Mo;Choi, Chang-Geun
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Marine Environment & Safety
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.121-129
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    • 2014
  • Marine algal flora and community structure were seasonally investigated at four sites in the vicinity of the Igidae on the southern east coast of Korea from May 2010 to February 2011. A total of 66 species including 9 of Chlorophyta, 14 of Phaeophyta, 43 of Rhodophyta were found during the survey period. Among these species, 16 species were found throughout the year. Seasonal mean biomass in wet weight was 123.6 (spring), 2,061.6 (summer), 412.0 (autumn), 678.9 (winter) $g{\cdot}m^{-2}$. Maximum biomass was recorded in summer($2,061.6g{\cdot}m^{-2}$), and minimum was recorded in spring($123.6g{\cdot}m^{-2}$). Spatial maximum and minimum species number were recorded at station 3 and 4(50 species) and at station 1(47 species). At station 1, 2 directly exposure on Yongho and Daeyeon cheon (stream) run off, and discharge from Nambu sewage treatment plants near coastal area, species diversity was relatively low and dominant species were similar throughout four seasons. The R/P, C/P and (R+C)/P value reflecting flora characteristics were 3.07, 0.64 and 3.71, respectively. The flora investigated could be classified into six functional groups such as coarsely branch form 39.39 %, sheet form 30.30 %, thick leather form 13.64 %, filamentous form 12.12 %, crustose form 3.03% and jointed calcareous form 1.52 % during survey period. The number of marine algae species in Igidea were 96 species at 1996 to 1997 and 66 species at 2010 to 2011, respectively. The change of seaweed species is due to the pollution loaded from sewage treatment plant and stream. We thus recommend that the positive maintenance control method like sewage treatment, for the protection of seaweed bed should be proceeded to near coastal area.

Distribution Characteristics of the Concentration of Ambient PM-10 and PM-2.5 in Daegu Area (대구지역 대기 중 PM-10과 PM-2.5의 농도분포 특성)

  • Do, Hwa-Seok;Choi, Su-Jin;Park, Min-Sook;Lim, Jong-Ki;Kwon, Jong-Dae;Kim, Eun-Kyung;Song, Hee-Bong
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.36 no.1
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    • pp.20-28
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    • 2014
  • The three air quality monitoring sites, analysed simultaneously PM-10 and PM-2.5, ie. Ihyeondong in industrial area, Manchondong in residential area, Pyeongnidong in streetside, among 13 air quality monitoring sites in Daegu area, were investigated the concentration distribution characteristics of PM-2.5 and PM-10 in the last 2 years (2011~2012). PM-10 concentrations exceeded annual average reference value ($50{\mu}g/m^3$) in Ihyeondong ($52.5{\mu}g/m^3$) and Pyeongnidong ($60.9{\mu}g/m^3$) but satisfied in Manchondong ($44.9{\mu}g/m^3$). All PM-2.5 concentrations exceeded EPA annual standard value of the United States ($15{\mu}g/m^3$) in three points, but also exceeded new control annual standard value ($25{\mu}g/m^3$) coming into effect in 2015. Seasonal concentration of PM-10 appeared the order of spring > winter > fall > summer, and in the case of PM-2.5, the order was winter > spring > fall > summer. Monthly concentrations of PM-10 and PM-2.5 were highest in February and lowest in September. Diurnal concentrations of PM-10 and PM-2.5 increased from 7:00 AM, and recorded the highest concentration between 10:00 AM and 11:00 AM. And after 6:00 PM it lowered continuously and tended to show fixed concentrations from evening until early morning. In addition, the concentration of fine particles during the week was higher than the weekend. The fluctuation in industrial area was larger than the residential area. At the PM-2.5/PM-10 ratio, summer was generally high, spring was the lowest. And, when yellow sand occurred, it was 0.32 to 0.42. It was very low compared to 0.54 to 0.64 during non-yellow sand times. This paper for the state and the characteristics of Daegu' fine particles (PM-10, PM-2.5) will be valuable to future researches of fine particles and air pollution management.

Study on Radioactive Material Management Plan and Environmental Analysis of Water (II) Study of Management System in Water Environment of Japan (물 환경의 방사성 물질 관리 방안과 분석법에 관한 연구 (II) 일본의 물 환경 방사성물질 관리 체계에 대한 고찰)

  • Han, Seong-Gyu;Kim, Jung-Min
    • Journal of radiological science and technology
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    • v.38 no.3
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    • pp.305-313
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    • 2015
  • After Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster in 2011, study and maintenance of monitoring systems have been made at home and abroad. As concerns about radioactive contamination of water have increased in Korea, update of maintenance of managing radioactive materials in water is being made mainly by Ministry of Environment. In this study, we analysed current state of monitoring system modification in Japan, the country directly involved and neighboring country. According to the result, Japan modified the legislations first. Then Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) provides theoretical background of radiological monitoring. And Ministry of the Environment actually watches state of water pollution in public waters and underground water. Finally related agencies like local government are monitoring current state of radioactive contamination in water environment. By region, local monitoring stations share the investigation of the whole country. Also, additional monitoring is running around nuclear facilities. After Fukushima disaster, monitoring for area near Fukushima is added. Among the reference levels, management target value of drinking water and tap water is 10 Bq/kg, and those of public water and underground water are 1 Bq/L. Measuring intervals varied from every hour to once a year, regularly or irregularly depending on the investigation. The main measuring items are air dose rate, gross ${\alpha}$, gross ${\beta}$, ${\gamma}$ radionuclide, Cs-134, Cs-137, Sr-89, Sr-90, I-131, and so on. In comparison, regulations about general public water in Korea need to be modified, while those about area near nuclear facility and drinking water are organized well. In future, therefore, domestic system would be expected to be modified with making reference to the guidelines like WHO's one. As good case of applying international guideline to domestic environment, Japanese system could be a reference when general standard of radioactivity in public water is made in Korea.

Analysing the effect of impervious cover management techniques on the reduction of runoff and pollutant loads (불투수면 저감기법의 유출량 및 오염부하량 저감 효과 분석)

  • Park, Hyung Seok;Choi, Hwan Gyu;Chung, Se Woong
    • Journal of Environmental Impact Assessment
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.16-34
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    • 2015
  • Impervious covers(IC) are artificial structures, such as driveways, sidewalks, building's roofs, and parking lots, through which water cannot infiltrate into the soil. IC is an environmental concern because the pavement materials seal the soil surface, decreasing rainwater infiltration and natural groundwater recharge, and consequently disturb the hydrological cycle in a watershed. Increase of IC in a watershed can cause more frequent flooding, higher flood peaks, groundwater drawdown, dry river, and decline of water quality and ecosystem health. There has been an increased public interest in the institutional adoption of LID(Low Impact Development) and GI(Green Infrastructure) techniques to address the adverse impact of IC. The objectives of this study were to construct the modeling site for a samll urban watershed with the Storm Water Management Model(SWMM), and to evaluate the effect of various LID techniques on the control of rainfall runoff processes and non-point pollutant load. The model was calibrated and validated using the field data collected during two flood events on July 17 and August 11, 2009, respectively, and applied to a complex area, where is consist of apartments, school, roads, park, etc. The LID techniques applied to the impervious area were decentralized rainwater management measures such as pervious cover and green roof. The results showed that the increase of perviousness land cover through LID applications decreases the runoff volume and pollutants loading during flood events. In particular, applications of pervious pavement for parking lots and sidewalk, green roof, and their combinations reduced the total volume of runoff by 15~61 % and non-point pollutant loads by TSS 22~72 %, BOD 23~71 %, COD 22~71 %, TN 15~79 %, TP 9~64 % in the study site.

Development of Domestic Rainwater Treatment System and its Application in the Field (소규모 빗물처리시설 개발 및 현장 적용성 평가 연구)

  • Pak, Gijung;Park, Minseung;Kim, Hwansuk;Lim, Yoonsoo;Kim, Sungpyo
    • Journal of Wetlands Research
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.24-31
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    • 2016
  • The increase of impervious area in cities caused the unbalanced water cycle system and the accumulated various contaminants, which make troubles as introducing into watershed. In Korea, most of rainfall in a year precipitate in a summer season. This indicate that non-point source pollution control should be more important in summer and careful rainfall reuse strategy is necessary. Accordingly, the aim of this study is to monitor the characteristics of rainfall contaminants harvested in roofs and to develop the rainfall treatment system which are designed to fit well in a typical domestic household including rain garden. The rain garden consists of peatmoss, gravel and san to specially treat the initial rainfall contaminants. For this purpose, lab scale experiments with synthetic rainfall had been conducted to optimize the removal efficiency of TN, TP and CODcr. After lab scale experiments, field scale rainfall treatment system installed as a pilot scale in a field. This system has been monitored during June to July in 2015 in four time rainfall events as investigating the function of time, rainfall, and pollutant concentrations. As results, high loading of pollutants were introduced to the rainfall treatment system and its removal efficiency is increased as increase of pollutant concentrations. Since it is common that the mega-size of rainfall treatment system is not attractive in urban area, small scale rainfall treatment system is promising to treat the non-point source contaminants from cities. In addition, this small scale rainfall treatment system could have a potential to water resue system in islands, which usually suffer the shortage of water.