• Title, Summary, Keyword: Pollution control

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A Study on the Legal Nature of the Duty to Arrange Spill Clean-up Equipment and the Issue on the Justification of Its Privatization (방제선 등 배치의무의 법적 성질 및 민간개방의 정당성에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Jung Won
    • Ocean policy research
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    • v.33 no.2
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    • pp.83-119
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    • 2018
  • Under the Korean Marine Environment Management Act (hereunder, the KMEMA), the duty to arrange spill clean-up equipments, including spill clean-up vessels, required by the article 67 of the KMEMA is in essence the provision of public goods since it is a precautionary or preventive measure for the efficient performance of oil spill cleaning up. Also the obligation to control marine pollution and the duty to arrange of anti-pollution measures imposed on polluters is the obligation imposed by the public law in accordance with "the Polluter-Pays Principle". Therefore, the execution of such obligations shall be accompanied by the minimum legal and institutional arrangements. On the other hand, judging whether to form the roles of the public and private sectors in providing public goods is basically a matter of policy decision. However, even if the private sector is allowed to participate in the provision of public goods, it is imperative that a minimum requirement be provided to secure the public interest. Although major countries allows polluters to conclude a preliminary contract with a civil anti-pollution management company, these civilian institutions are in principle constituted by the owners of oil storage facilities. Additionally it is worth noting that it operates as a non-profit organization. In particular, if the practitioner performs pollution control for commercial purposes, their profitability may depend on the size of the pollution, the period spent on pollution control, the size of the equipment and manpower mobilized in the pollution control, and so on. Considering the above problems, caution should be taken to allow marine environmental management companies to be un-limitedly entrusted with the responsibility of arranging measures such as pollution control. In order to allow the marine environmental management contractor to be entrusted for the assignment of duty to protect the marine environment, the marine environment management business should be expanded so that the marine pollutant management capacity satisfies the statutory control capacity. For this purpose, it is necessary to manage and supervise the maintenance and improvement of the control capability of the marine environment management business. It is also necessary to discuss the introduction of the grading system for the control ability of the civil control companies alike in major countries.

Air Pollution by Automobiles and Ways of Reduction (자동차가 대기오염에 미치는 영향과 저감방안)

  • 김대식
    • Journal of the Korean Professional Engineers Association
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    • v.34 no.4
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    • pp.69-73
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    • 2001
  • Due to the rapid increase of automobiles and daily driving distances, air pollution by automobiles is still dominant problem of large city in spite of strict emission refutation and development of reduction technologies. Among the air pollution resources of automobile , industry. electricity generation and heating. automobile keeps 51% of total nationwide air pollution in 1998 and this proportion Is increasing in large cities from 65% to 85%. To reduce these air pollution. catalytic converter and electronic engine control, exhaust gas re-circulation and evaporative emission control system have continuously developed and applied to automobiles since 1987. Also strong emission standards and emission durability warranty have enforced and monitored annually by sampling several vehicle models. But technologies and regulations are incomplete, driver should participate in reducing air pollution for himself by planning driving, avoiding unnecessary idle and air conditioning, keeping periodic maintenance and using mass transportation.

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A Study on the Air pollution Information transmission method using TPEG (TPEG을 이용한 대기오염 정보 전송 방안 연구)

  • Lee, SangWoon
    • Journal of Digital Contents Society
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.521-528
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    • 2013
  • Recently the increasing numbers of cars and traffic jamming makes air pollution condition more severely. Especially high-density population area, in most big cities like Bejing and Seoul, can lead to lung illness and other diseases. In this study to decrease this kind of air pollution condition, a method of air pollution information transmission is proposed. For the transmission of air pollution and traffic control data, international standard technology, the TPEG is applied.

Impact of the Exclusive Median Bus Lane System on Air Pollution Concentrations in Seoul, Korea (서울시 중앙버스전용차로 도입의 부가적인 대기오염 영향성 평가)

  • Baik, Yeon-Ju;Kim, Da-Wool;Kwon, Hye-Young;Kim, Youngkook;Kim, Sun-Young
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.34 no.4
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    • pp.542-553
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    • 2018
  • Since many previous studies reported the health effect of air pollution and indicated traffic as a major pollution source, significant policy efforts have been made to control traffic to reduce air pollution. However, there have been few studies that evaluated such policy implementation. In Seoul, Korea, the exclusive median bus lane system was implemented in 2004, and the metropolitan government applied air pollution reduction policies such as conversion of diesel buses to compressed natural gas buses and installation of emission control devices. This paper aimed to investigate the impact of the exclusive median bus lane system on air pollution reduction. Using hourly concentrations of particulate matter ($PM_{10}$) and nitrogen dioxide ($NO_2$) measured at 131 regulatory monitoring sites in Seoul and Gyeonggi-do for 2001-2014, we calculated annual and daily average concentrations at each site. We assessed the impact of the policy using differences-in-differences analysis by annual and daily average models after adjusting for geographic and/or meteorological variables. This method divides population into treatment and control groups with and without policy application, and compares the difference between the two time periods before and after the policy implementation in the treatment group with the difference in the control group. We classified all monitoring sites into treatment and control groups using two definitions: 1) Seoul vs. Gyeonggi-do; 2) within vs. outside 300 meters from the median bus lane. Pre- and post-policy periods were defined as 2001-2005 and 2006-2014, and 2004 and 2014 in the annual and daily models, respectively. The decrease in $PM_{10}$ concentrations between the two periods across monitoring sites in the treatment group was larger by $1.73-5.88{\mu}g/m^3$ than in the control group. $NO_2$ also showed the decrease without statistical significance. Our findings suggest that an efficient public transport policy combined with pollution abatement policies can contribute to reduction in air pollution.

Bacterial Community Shift during the Startup of a Full-Scale Oxidation Ditch Treating Sewage

  • Chen, Yajun;Ye, Lin;Zhao, Fuzheng;Xiao, Lin;Cheng, Shupei;Zhang, Xu-Xiang
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.27 no.1
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    • pp.141-148
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    • 2017
  • The oxidation ditch (OD) is one of the most widely used processes for treating municipal wastewater. However, the microbial communities in the OD systems have not been well characterized, and little information about the shift of bacterial community during the startup process of the OD systems is available. In this study, we investigated the bacterial community changes during the startup period (over 100 days) of a full-scale OD. The results showed that the bacterial community dramatically changed during the startup period. Similar to the activated sludge samples in other studies, Proteobacteria (accounting for 26.3%-48.4%) was the most dominant bacterial phylum in the OD system, but its relative abundance declined nearly 40% during the startup process. It was also found that Planctomycetes proliferated greatly (from 4.79% to 13.5%) and finally replaced Bacteroidetes as the second abundant phylum in the OD system. Specifically, some bacteria affiliated with genus Flavobacterium exhibited remarkable decreasing trends, whereas bacterial species belonging to the OD1 candidate division and Saprospiraceae family were found to increase during the startup process. Despite of the bacterial community shift, the organic matter, nitrogen, and phosphorus in the effluent were always in low concentrations, suggesting the functional redundancy of the bacterial community. Moreover, by comparing with the bacterial community in other municipal wastewater treatment bioreactors, some potentially novel bacterial species were found to be present in the OD system. Collectively, this study improved our understandings of the bacterial community structure and microbial ecology during the startup of a full-scale wastewater treatment bioreactor.

Determination and Variation of Core Bacterial Community in a Two-Stage Full-Scale Anaerobic Reactor Treating High-Strength Pharmaceutical Wastewater

  • Ma, Haijun;Ye, Lin;Hu, Haidong;Zhang, Lulu;Ding, Lili;Ren, Hongqiang
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.27 no.10
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    • pp.1808-1819
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    • 2017
  • Knowledge on the functional characteristics and temporal variation of anaerobic bacterial populations is important for better understanding of the microbial process of two-stage anaerobic reactors. However, owing to the high diversity of anaerobic bacteria, close attention should be prioritized to the frequently abundant bacteria that were defined as core bacteria and putatively functionally important. In this study, using MiSeq sequencing technology, the core bacterial community of 98 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) was determined in a two-stage upflow blanket filter reactor treating pharmaceutical wastewater. The core bacterial community accounted for 61.66% of the total sequences and accurately predicted the sample location in the principal coordinates analysis scatter plot as the total bacterial OTUs did. The core bacterial community in the first-stage (FS) and second-stage (SS) reactors were generally distinct, in that the FS core bacterial community was indicated to be more related to a higher-level fermentation process, and the SS core bacterial community contained more microbes in syntrophic cooperation with methanogens. Moreover, the different responses of the FS and SS core bacterial communities to the temperature shock and influent disturbance caused by solid contamination were fully investigated. Co-occurring analysis at the Order level implied that Bacteroidales, Selenomonadales, Anaerolineales, Syneristales, and Thermotogales might play key roles in anaerobic digestion due to their high abundance and tight correlation with other microbes. These findings advance our knowledge about the core bacterial community and its temporal variability for future comparative research and improvement of the two-stage anaerobic system operation.

Status, Trend and Strategy on Municipal Wastewater Management in China

  • Wang, Baozhen;Wang, Lin;Liu, Shuo;Wang, Li;Wang, Zheng
    • Journal of Wetlands Research
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.47-60
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    • 2007
  • The rapid development of economy in China at the expense of consuming huge amount of energy and resources, water resource in particular, which has resulted in the production and discharge of increasing amount of wastewater to the water environment. In order to effectively control the increasing water pollution trend, the State Council has stipulated that all the cities with population over 500,000 should reach wastewater treatment rate of 60% by 2005, and all the cities should reach the rate of 60% by 2010, of which Capital Beijing and all the province capital cities and important tourism cities should reach 70% then. By the end of 2005, of the 661 cities in China, 393 have built and operated municipal wastewater treatments with a total number of 790 sets, total treatment capacity of $80.91{\times}106m^3/d$ and total treatment rate of > 48%. Other 73 cities have started the construction of municipal wastewater treatment plants, and other 168 cities have started to prepare, planning and design of wastewater treatment plants. Most of municipal wastewater treatment plants in big cities in China operate normally and perform well with good quality of effluent in terms of wastewater treatment train, but the sewage sludge treatment is usually poor with big problems. It has been found that the small scale WWTPs using activated sludge process in the towns are usually operated and maintained abnormally because of lack of fund, skilled operators and energy. It is therefore suggested that the small scale MWWTPs in small cities and towns adopt appropriate technologies, of which the most available ones are multi-stage ponds, constructed wetlands and the combination of them for further purification and reuse of treated wastewater.

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Understanding and Improvement of the K-BREF (Korea BAT reference documents) for the Corrugated Cardboard Manufacturing Industry (골판지원지 제조업 최적가용기법 기준서의 이해와 개선사항)

  • Seo, Kyungae;Kim, Eunseok;Kim, Gahee;Khan, Jongbeom;Hong, Sukyoung;Kang, Philgoo
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.29 no.5
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    • pp.559-573
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    • 2020
  • The purpose of this study analyzed the overview of corrugated cardboasrd manufacturing industry and then provide direction for improvement. The BREF (BAT reference document) is an important reference for licensees and officer, including the best available techniques for the industry and achievable environmental performance, technical characteristics, and economic information. In the corrugated cardboard manufacturing process, wastewater pollutants are generated throughout the production process, and water is used in the dissociation and aging process. Atmospheric emissions are mostly generated by steam production from boilers and incinerators for the dry process. SO2, NOx, CO2, CO, HCl, dust, VOC, and odor were common. In the EU-BREF (European union BAT reference documents) BAT for wastewater have taken up a relatively large proportion. Items of water pollutants in wastewater were common in COD, BOD, N, P, SS, and however EU-BREF had different pollutants such as AOX and salt compared to K-BREF. In order to improve the quality of the K-BREF, it is necessary to devise basic data research method and data acqusitiom method. Consideration should be given to additional environmental management techniques that reflect the emissions characteristics of the corrugated cardboard manufacturing process. In addition, further research is needed to develop methodologies for selecting BATs considering environmental and economic feasibility.

BAT-AEL Calculation in Waste Incineration Facility (폐기물 소각시설 최적가용기법 연계배출수준 (BAT-AEL) 설정)

  • Shin, Sujeong;Park, Jae-Hong;Lee, DaeGyun;Kim, Dai-Gon;Bae, YeonJoung
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.34 no.1
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    • pp.144-155
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    • 2018
  • As the public interest in environmental issues increased, the "Act On The Integrated Control Of Pollutant-Discharging Facility" was enacted. Through the integrated environmental pollution prevention act in which 19 industries with large environmental impacts are sequentially applied, pollutants can be managed in a medium-integrated manner and integrated permission of the business unit is possible and BAT can be applied to enable a scientific and proactive environmental management system. In addition, if the facility with BAT works normally, the pollutant emission is offered with the range of lower limit to upper limit. This study analyzed the overview of Best Available Techniques-Associated Emission Levels (BAT-AEL), and its setting procedure and method, and then suggested the BAT-AEL of a waste incineration facility. In comparative analysis on Emission Limit Values (ELVs) of EU, this study tries to propose improvement matters and development directions if the relevant standard is revised.

Understanding and Improvement of Best Available Techniques for Electricity and Steam Production Facility (전기 및 증기 생산시설 최적가용기법 (BAT) 기준서의 이해와 개선방향)

  • Shin, Sujeong;Park, Jae-Hong;Lee, DaeGyun;Kim, Dai-Gon
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.34 no.2
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    • pp.281-293
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    • 2018
  • As the public interest in environmental issues increased, the "Act On The Integrated Control Of Pollutant-Discharging Facility" was enacted. Through the integrated environmental pollution prevention act in which 19 industries with large environmental impacts are sequentially applied, pollutants can be managed in a medium-integrated manner and integrated permission of the business unit is possible and BAT can be applied to enable a scientific and proactive environmental management system. This study analyzed the overview of BAT reference documents(BREF), BAT setting procedure and method, and then suggested the development direction BAT and BAT-AEL monitoring method of a Electricity and Steam production facility.