• Title, Summary, Keyword: Pollution control

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Dynamics of Environmental Policy Development in Korea : How did the Policy Windows have been opened? (한국 환경정책의 발달동인 : 정책의 창문은 어떻게 열렸는가?)

  • Rhee, Jeong-Jeon;Jeong, Hoi-Seong
    • Journal of Environmental Policy
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.1-29
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    • 2003
  • This paper examines the dynamics of environmental policy development in Korea by reviewing some of the ways on how the policy windows have been opened. There are a lot of theoretical arguments about the major factors influencing policy development or changes. Many scholars have believed that severe pollution accidents or salient environmental episodes might have been the main motivation of environmental policy development. This line of argument seems valid, especially with the water pollution control policy in Korea. Water pollution control programs had rapidly expanded along with the series of water pollution accidents in the tap water sources from the late 1980s to mid-1990s. However, regarding other major env. issues, various other factors have played more important roles in the development of the relevant policies. In case of air pollution control policy international sport events such as, 1986 Asian Games, 1988 Summer Olympics, and 2002 World Cup Competition, have contributed for the development. The municipal solid waste management policy partly owed its development to the introduction of local autonomy system in the mid-1990s. Even the foreign currency crisis occurring in December 1997 helped the policy paradigm shift from rigid supply-oriented to soft demand-oriented approaches. After closely looking at the dynamics of environmental policy development in Korea, this paper tries to identify the logical background of the observed outcomes.

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Associations between Air Pollution and Asthma-related Hospital Admissions in Children in Seoul, Korea: A Case-crossover Study (환자교차 설계 방법을 적용한 소아천식 입원에 대한 도시 대기오염의 급성영향평가)

  • Lee, Jong-Tae
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.36 no.1
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    • pp.47-53
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    • 2003
  • Objectives : I used a case-crossover design to investigate the association between air pollution, and hospital admissions for asthmatic children under the age of 15 years in Seoul, Korea Methods : I estimated the changes in the levels of hospitalization risk from theinterquartile (IQR) increase in each pollutant concentrations, using conditional logistic regression analyses, with controls for weather information. Results : Using bidirectional control sampling, the results from a conditional logistic regression model, with controls for weather conditions, showed the estimated relative risk of hospitalization for asthma among children to be 1.04 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.01-1.08) for particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 10m (IQR=40.4ug/m3); 1.05 (95% CI, 1.00- 1.09) for nitrogen dioxide (IQR=14.6ppb): 1.02 (95% CI,0.97-1.06) for sulfur dioxide (IQR=4.4ppb): 1.03 (95% CI, 0.99-1.08) for ozone (IQR=21.7ppb): and 1.03 (95% CI, 0.99-1.08) for carbon monoxide f10R=1.0ppm). Conclusions : This empirical analysis indicates the bidirectional control sampling methods, by design, would successfully control the confounding factors due to the long-term time trends of air pollution. These findings also support the hypothesis that air pollution at levels below the current ambient air quality standards of Korea is harmful to sensitive subjects, such as asthmatic children.

A Study on Status and Analysis of Local Governments Light Pollution Control Ordinance (지방자치단체 빛공해 방지 조례의 현황 및 분석)

  • Ryu, Ji-Seon;Lee, Jin-Sook
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Illuminating and Electrical Installation Engineers
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    • v.29 no.10
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    • pp.7-16
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    • 2015
  • This study is intending to look into the status of the hitherto established local governments light pollution control ordinance, and to use the ordinance status as basic data of ordinance enactment related to light pollution in time of its establishment and revision in accordance with regional characteristics of each local government for the time to come. This study conducted this research in a total of 3-phase research methods. 1) This study inquired into the direction of the research plan through the theoretical consideration and analysis of the preceding researches after setting up research objectives according to research background and purpose. 2) Targeting 11 local governments which are enforcing the hitherto established ordinance, this study surveyed the status of the light pollution control ordinance. 3) This study carried out the contents analysis of the ordinance in the method of doing a comparative analysis of each provision of the ordinance according to local governments. It's hoped that on the basis of this research, local governments across the nation, which have not yet established the same ordinance, could minimize the damage to natural eco-system due to artificial lighting by promoting the urgent ordinance establishment suited for each region, and create human-oriented light environment by modifying various disorderly lighting environment.

Methodology of Application to Air Quality Model to Evaluate the Results of the Enforcement Plan in Seoul Metropolitan Area (수도권 지역의 대기환경관리 시행계획 추진결과 평가를 위한 대기질 모델링 적용 방법)

  • Yoo, Chul;Lee, Dae-Gyun;Lee, Yong-Mi;Lee, Mi-Hyang;Hong, Ji-Hyung;Lee, Seok-Jo
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.20 no.12
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    • pp.1647-1661
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    • 2011
  • The Government had devised legislation of Special Act and drew up guidelines for improving air quality in Seoul Metropolitan area. In 2007 local government of Seoul, Incheon and Gyeonggi conducted the results of application policy by reduced air pollutants emission for the first time. Although there was reduction of air pollutant emission in each local government, it was ineffective as expected using air pollution monitoring database. Therefore we worked out a way to prepare modeling input data using the results of enforcement plan. And we simulated surface $NO_2$ and PM10 before and after decrease in air pollutants emission and examine reduction effects of air pollution according to enforcement regulation except other influence, by using MM5-SMOKE-CMAQ system. Each local government calculated the amount of emission reduction under application policy, and we developed to prepare input data so as to apply to SMOKE system using emission reduction of enforcement plan. Distribution factor of emission reduction were classified into detailed source and fuel codes using code mapping method in order to allocate the decreased emission. The code mapping method also included a way to allocate spatial distribution by CAPSS distribution. According to predicted result using the reduction of NOx emission, $NO_2$ concentration was decreased from 19.1 ppb to 18.0 ppb in Seoul. In Gyeonggi and Incheon $NO^2$ concentrations were down to 0.65 ppb and 0.68 ppb after application of enforcement plan. PM10 concentration was reduced from 18.2 ${\mu}g/m^3$ to 17.5 ${\mu}g/m^3$ in Seoul. In Gyeonggi PM10 concentration was down to 0.51 ${\mu}g/m^3$ and in Incheon PM10 concentration was decreased about 0.47 ${\mu}g/m^3$ which was the lower concentration than any other cities.

Experimental Evaluation Method of Mass Transfer Coefficient on Biotrickling Filtration for Air Pollution Control (대기오염제어를 위한 생물살수여과법에서 물질전달계수 실험평가방법에 관한 연구)

  • Won, Yang-Soo;Jo, Wan-Keun
    • Korean Chemical Engineering Research
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    • v.53 no.4
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    • pp.482-488
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    • 2015
  • Biological treatment is promising alternative to conventional air pollution control method. Bioreactors for air pollution control have found most of their success in the treatment of dilute and high flow waste air streams containing volatile organic compounds and odor. The studies of mass transfer in biotrickling filters for air pollution control were of importance in order to control and optimize the purification process. The objectives of this study were to develop the experimental methodologies to evaluate the mass transfer coefficients of gas/liquid(trickling liquid), gas/solid(biomass) and liquid/solid in three phase biotrickling filtration. Also, this study characterized the influence factors on mass transfer such as dynamic holdup volume, gas/liquid flow rate ratio, biomass weight in reactor and recirculation rate of trickling medium for each phase of biotrickling filter.

Air Pollution Control In Industrialized Cities of the I.R. Iran

  • Ganjidoust, Hossein;Ayatl, Blta
    • Proceedings of the Korean Environmental Sciences Society Conference
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    • pp.15-18
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    • 2003
  • Recently, some researches related to air pollution problems in large cities of the Islamic Republic of Iran have been done. Famous institutes and research centers in countries like Japan, Sweden and Germany have been in cooperation with Iranian institutes in implementing the results. Due to quick increase in the population because of peoples' migration from countryside to cities, and rate of growth in the early years after the revolution, air pollution was an important problem in I.R.Iran. Therefore, air pollution control is one of the main issues in major cities of I.R. Iran. It is the purpose of this study to investigate the control mechanisms for air pollution problems in the major industrial cities. The necessary action plans that were taken in recent years in some of the cities, which were also suggested to be taken in the other ones, are the other purpose of this study. From the results of studies it was obtained in Iran, lots of researches are important to mention. Amongst the main activities that are done in recent years are: establishing of the meteorological research centers and atmosphere sciences; three applicator meteorological research centers and more than 40 new stations in the country; installation of newest computer systems in metrological information, using of wall map and continuous radio-traffic to announce traffic news; completing of subway construction in Tehran; forbidding of industrial activities in a definite distance away from Tehran and transferring them to suitable places; building of highways and freeways; improving of public transportation and gasifying them; developing of fuels quality and removing lead from them; and gasifying of the heating systems in houses and buildings.

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A Study on the Regional Cooperation for the Prevention of Marine Pollution in the Yellow Sea (황해에 있어서의 해양오염방지를 위한 지역적 협력에 관한 연구)

  • 이윤철;최성규
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Navigation
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.41-52
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    • 1992
  • It is, as everyone knows, very important for human beings to protect and conserve marine environment. We has believed the ocean is so wide and deep that it cannot be polluted. But it has begun to doubt the capacity of self-purification of the ocean due to pollution arising from marine casualities. It has proved that semi-enclosed sea is likely to be polluted and cannot be restored easily once pollution occurs. Therefore, first of all it is important to take preventive measures for prevention of marine pollution in the semi-enclosed sea like the Yellow Sea. Many of regional conventions for prevention of marine pollution have come into existence. this dissertation was set out for the fact that the Yellow Sea is semi-enclosed sea which is vulnerable to marine pollution. It is desirable not to deal with marine preservation of the Yellow Sea by a single exclusively but to deal with it by cooperation of all coastal states under the present circumstances. I proposed a program of regional cooperation to protect and conserve the Yellow Sea. This program must be progressed with gradual arrangements. First, they must establist a basic cooperation committee to work basic affairs on the protection of marine environment within the Yellow Sea. The Committee Mainly play parts of study and research concerned with pollution of the Yellow Sea in the non-governmental side and consist of legal and scientific experts. Second, they must establish the control Committee to prevent marine pollution of the Yellow Sea substantially. There is a reason that regional cooperation cannot be directly concluded with the regional tready. Because there is a problem of Recognition of States left. In principle, a subject of tready must be a state in the International Law. But they have not made Recognition of State which is demanded by International Law between North and South Koreas. Therefore, the Control committee must play a substantial part of prevention from pollution instead of the treaty. Finally, we concluded tentatively named $\ulcorner$Convention on Regional Cooperation for Protection of Marine Environment of the Yellow Sea from Pollution$\lrcorner$ if the matter is settled which is related to Recognition of States in the International Law.

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Development of Free Running Model Ship for Evaluation of the Performance of Anti-Rolling Devices (자세제어장비 성능시험을 위한 자유항주 모형선 개발)

  • Yoon Hyeon-Kyu;Lee Gyeong-Joong;Son Nam-Sun;Yang Young-Hoon
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Navigation and Port Research Conference
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    • pp.33-39
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    • 2004
  • A ship runs with various modes of motion due to waves. Among the modes, roll mainly influences on the safety of cargos and crew's fatigue. Therefore a ship equipped with anti-rolling devices are on an increasing trend. In this research, we developed a free running model ship to evaluate the performances of fin stabilizer and moving weight stabilizer. Also those performance tests were carried out through the proposed test procedure.

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Estimation of Optimum Tug Capacity for VLCC and Its Application to VLCC Terminal in Gwang-Yang Harbor

  • Gong, In-Young;Lee, Chang-Min;Yang, Chan-Su;Lee, Han-Jin
    • Journal of Navigation and Port Research
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    • v.28 no.7
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    • pp.609-617
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    • 2004
  • The total tug capacity needed for berthing/unberthing operations of a ship may vary depending on the ship's type, size, loading conditions, and environmental circumstances. Traditionally, total tug capacity is determined based on the local guidelines of port authorities or on the rule of thumb. However, the social demands for the enhancement of ship safety at harbor and the economical demands for the cost-effectiveness of tug usage makes it necessary for port authorities to develop more reasonable and detailed guidelines on tug usage which takes various conditions into account. In this paper, the method to estimate the optimum tug capacity of VLCC is suggested by considering various ship conditions such as its size, loading conditions, and environmental circumstances including wind, wave, tidal currents, and geographical characteristics of a terminal. This method is applied to the VLCC terminal located in Gwang-Yang harbor of Korea and the results are compared with the local guidelines of the harbor, which shows that there may be a room for the amendment of local guidelines on tug usage.

Algicidal Activity of a Dibenzofuran-Degrader Rhodococcus sp.

  • Wang, Meng-Hui;Peng, Peng;Liu, Yu-Mei;Jia, Rui-Bao;Li, Li
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.260-266
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    • 2013
  • Rhodococcus sp. strain p52, a previously isolated dibenzofuran degrader, could effectively inhibit the growth of cyanobacteria, including species of Microcystis, Anabaena, and Nodularia. When strain p52 was inoculated at the concentration of $7.7{\times}10^7$ CFU/ml, 93.5% of exponentially growing Microcystis aeruginosa ($7.3{\times}10^6$ cells/ml initially) was inhibited after 4 day. The threshold concentration for its algicidal activity against M. aeruginosa was $7.7{\times}10^6$ CFU/ml. Strain p52 exerted algicidal effect by synthesizing extracellular substances, which were identified as trans-3-indoleacrylic acid, DL-pipecolic acid, and L-pyroglutamic acid. The effective concentrations of trans-3-indoleacrylic acid and DL-pipecolic acid against M. aeruginosa were tested to be 0.5 mg/l and 5 mg/l, respectively.