• Title/Summary/Keyword: Polymer electrolyte membrane

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MoS2/CNFs derived from Electrospinning and Heat treatment as the Efficient Electrocatalyst for Hydrogen Eovlution Reaction in Acidic Solution (전기 방사를 이용한 1D / 2D 하이브리드 구조 고활성 MoS2 / CNF 수소 발생 촉매의 합성 및 특성 분석)

  • Lee, Jeong Hun;Park, Yoo Sei;Jang, Myeong Je;Park, Sung Min;Lee, Kyu Hwan;Choi, Woo Sung;Choi, Sung Mook;Kim, Yang Do
    • Korean Journal of Metals and Materials
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    • v.56 no.12
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    • pp.885-892
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    • 2018
  • Molybdenum disulfide ($MoS_2$) based electrocatalysts have been proposed as substitutes for platinum group metal (PGM) based electrocatalyst to hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) in water electrolysis. Here, we studied $MoS_2/CNFs$ hybrid catalyst prepared by electrospinning method with heat treatment for polymer electrolyte membrane(PEM) water electrolysis to improve the HER activity. The physicochemical and electrochemical properties such as average diameter, crystalline properties, electrocatalitic activity for HER of synthesized $MoS_2/CNFs$ were investigated by the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Raman Spectroscopy (Raman) and Linear Sweep Voltammetry (LSV). The as spun ATTM/PVP nanofibers were prepared by sol-gel and electrospinning method. Subsequently, the $MoS_2/CNFs$ was dereived from reduction heat treatment of ATTM at the ATTM/PVP nanofibers and carbonization heat treatment. Synthesized $MoS_2/CNFs$ electrocatalyst had an average diameter of $179{\pm}30nm$. We confirmed that the $MoS_2$ layers in $MoS_2/CNF$ electrocatalyst consist of 3~4 layers from the Raman results. In addition, We confirmed that the $MoS_2$ layers in $MoS_2/CNF$ catalyst consist of 7.47% octahedral 1T phase $MoS_2$, 63.77% trigonal prismatic 2H phase $MoS_2$ with 28.75% $MoO_3$ through the XRD, Raman and XPS results. It was shown that $MoS_2/CNFs$ had the overpotential of 0.278 V at $10mA/cm^2$ and tafel slope of 74.8 mV/dec in 0.5 M sulfuric acid ($H_2SO_4$) electrolyte.

Property Changes of Anion Exchange Pore-filling Membranes According to Porous Substrates (지지체 종류에 따른 음이온 교환 함침막 특성 변화)

  • Jeon, Sang Hwan;Choi, Seon Hye;Lee, Byeol-Nim;Son, Tae Yang;Nam, Sang Yong;Moon, Sun Ju;Park, Sang Hyun;Kim, Ji Hoon;Lee, Young Moo;Park, Chi Hoon
    • Membrane Journal
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.344-349
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    • 2017
  • Alkaline fuel cells using polymer electrolyte membranes are expected to replace proton exchange membrane fuel cells, which have similar system configurations. In particular, in alkaline fuel cells, a low-cost non-platinium catalyst can be used. In this study, to fabricate high performance and high durability anion exchange membranes for alkaline fuel cell systems, two kinds of supports, polybenzoxazole and polyethylene supports, were impregnated with Fumion FAA ionomer, by which we tried to fabricate the support-impregnated membrane which has higher mechanical strength and higher ion conductivity than the Fumion series. Finally, the Pore-filling membranes were successfully fabricated and ionic conductivity and mechanical properties were different depending on the properties of the supports. In the pore-filling membranes with Fumion ionomer on the PE support, excellent mechanical properties were obtained, but ionic conductivity decreased. On the other hand, when the PBO support was impregnated with Fumion ionomer, high ionic conductivity was shown after impregnation due to high basicity of PBO, but the mechanical strength was relatively low as compared with Fumion-PE membrane. As a result, it was concluded that it is necessary to consider the characteristics of the support according to the operating conditions of the alkaline fuel cell during the preparation of the pore-filling membranes.

Synthesis of Porous $TiO_2$ Thin Films Using PVC-g-PSSA Graft Copolymer and Their Use in Dye-sensitized Solar Cells (PVC-g-PSSA 가지형 공중합체를 이용한 다공성 $TiO_2$ 박막의 합성 및 염료감응 태양전지 응용)

  • Byun, Su-Jin;Seo, Jin-Ah;Chi, Won-Seok;Shul, Yong-Gun;Kim, Jong-Hak
    • Membrane Journal
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.193-200
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    • 2011
  • An amphiphilic graft copolymer comprising a poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) backbone and poly (styrene sulfonic acid) (PSSA) side chains (PVC-g-PSSA) was synthesized via atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). Mesoporous titanium dioxide $(TiO_2)$ films with crystalline anatase phase were synthesized via a sol-gel process by templating PVC-g-PSSA graft copolymer. Titanium isopropoxide (TTIP), a $TiO_2$ precursor was selectively incorporated into the hydrophilic PSSA domains of the graft copolymer and grew to form mesoporous $TiO_2$ films, as confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The performances of dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) were systematically investigated by varying spin coating times and the amounts of P25 nanoparticies. The energy conversion efficiency reached up to 2.7% at 100 mW/$cm^2$ upon using quasi-solid-state polymer electrolyte.

Development of Surface Coating Technology fey Metallic Bipolar Plate in PEMFC : I. Study on Surface and Corrosion Properties (PEMFCB금속분리판 코팅 기술 개발 : I. 표면 및 부식 특성 평가)

  • Chung, Kyeong-Woo;Kim, Se-Yung;Yang, Yoo-Chang;Ahn, Seung-Gyun;Jeon, Yoo-Taek;Na, Sang-Mook
    • 한국신재생에너지학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.348-351
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    • 2006
  • Bipolar plate, which forms about 50% of the stack cost, is an important core part with polymer electrolyte membrane in PEMFC. Bipolar plates have been commonly fabricated from graphite meterial having high electrical conductivity and corrosion resistance. Lately, many researchers have concentrated their efforts on the development of metallic bipolar plate and stainless steel has been considered as a potential material for metallic bipolar plate because of its high strength, chemical stability, low gas permeability and applicability to mass production. However, it has been reported that its inadequate corrosion behavior under PEMFC environment lead to a deterioration of membrane by dissolved metal ions and an increase in contact resistance by the growth of passive film therefore, its corrosion resistance as well as contact resistance must be improved for bipolar plate application. In this work, several types of coating were applied to 316L and their electrical conductivity and corrosion resistance were evaluated In the simulated PEMFC environment. Application of coating gave rise to low interfacial contact resistances below $19m{\Omega}cm^2$ under the compress force of $150N/cm^2$. It also made the corrosion potential to shift in the posit ive direct ion by 0.3V or above and decreased the corrosion current from ca. $9{\mu}A/cm^2$ to ca. $0.5{\mu}A/cm^2$ in the mixed solution of $0.1N\;N_2SO_4$ and 2ppm HF A coat ing layer under potentiostatic control of 0.6V and $0.75V_{SCE}$ for 500 hours or longer showed some instabilities, however, no significant change in coat Ing layer were observed from Impedance data. In addition, the corrosion current maintained less than $1{\mu}A/cm^2$ for most of time for potentiostatic tests. It indicates that high electrical conductivity and corrosion resistance can be obtained by application of coatings in the present work.

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Effect of Au content on the electro-catalytic activity of Pt catalyst for Pt-Au/C composite catalyst (Pt-Au/C 복합촉매에 있어서 Au 혼합비가 Pt 촉매의 활성에 미치는 영향)

  • Jo, Jin-Nyeong;Song, Jae-Chang;Song, Mink-Young;Song, Hyun-Min;Lee, Hong-Ki;Yu, Yeon-Tae
    • 한국신재생에너지학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.143.1-143.1
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    • 2010
  • 고분자 전해질막 연료전지(Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell; PEMFC)는 수소를 이용하여 전기를 발생시키는 친환경적이고 이상적인 발전장치로 고효율과 높은 전류밀도를 가지며 그 응용분야가 다양하다. 저온에서 작동하는 PEM fuel cell은 전극에서 효과적인 산화환원반응을 위해 그 촉매로 활성이 우수한 Pt(Platinum)을 사용하고 있으나, Pt의 높은 가격은 연료전지의 상용화에 걸림돌이 되고 있다. 본 연구에서는 연료전지의 Pt/C 촉매 층에서 Pt의 분산성을 높여 Pt의 담지량을 줄이고 작동 중 발생하는 Pt의 응집 현상을 방지하여 Pt의 수명을 연장시킬 목적으로, Au(gold) 나노입자를 첨가한 Pt-Au/C 복합나노촉매를 제조하였다. 본 발표에서는 합성된 Pt-Au/C 복합촉매 중 Au 첨가량이 Pt 촉매의 활성에 미치는 영향을 조사하기 위하여, 복합촉매 중에 금속(Pt+Au)의 총 함량이 30 wt.%와 40 wt.% 인 Pt-Au/C 촉매에 대하여 각각 Au 첨가량을 변화시켜, cyclic voltammetry 법에 의해 Au 첨가 효과를 조사한 결과에 대하여 보고하고자 한다. Au 나노입자를 제조하기 위한 출발 물질로는 $HAuCl_4{\cdot}4H_2O$를 이용하였고 trisodium citrate와 $NaBH_4$를 환원제로 하여, 입경이 5~8 nm 인 Au 콜로이드를 제조하였다. Pt-Au/C 복합나노촉매를 제조하기 위하여 먼저 Au/C 복합분체가 제조되었다. 0.03g의 carbon이 첨가된 carbon 현탁액에 합성된 Au 콜로이드 수용액을 첨가한 후 24시간 동안 교반하여 Au/C 복합분체를 제조하였다. 이 Au/C 복합분체에 $H_2PtCl_6{\cdot}6H_2O$ 수용액을 현탁하고 methanol 을 환원제로 사용해 Pt를 환원 석출시켜 Pt-Au/C 복합촉매를 제조하였다. Pt-Au/C 복합 나노촉매에서 Pt와 Au를 다양한 비율(3:1, 2.5:1.5, 2:2)로 합성하였으며 Pt-Au/C 복합촉매 중 금속(Pt+Au) 촉매의 총 함량은 30 wt.%와 40 wt.%로 각각 제조되었다. Au 나노입자 콜로이드의 분산성은 UV-visible spectrum의 흡광도에 의해 관찰되었고, Pt-Au/C 복합 나노촉매의 형상 및 분산성 분석은 transmission electron microscopy(TEM)에 의해 이루어졌다. 또한, 촉매의 전기화학적 특성평가는 cyclic voltammetry(CV)에 의해 조사되었다.

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Isothermal Vapor-Liquid Equilibria at 333.15 K and Excess Molar Volumes and Refractive Indices at 303.15 K for the Mixtures of Propyl vinyl ether + Ethanol + Benzene (Propyl vinyl ether+Ethanol+Benzene 혼합계의 333.15 K에서의 등온 기액평형과 303.15 K에서의 과잉물성 및 굴절율편차)

  • Hwang, In-Chan;Park, So-Jin
    • Korean Chemical Engineering Research
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    • v.49 no.1
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    • pp.56-61
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    • 2011
  • Alkyl vinyl ethers such as methyl vinyl ether, propyl vinyl ether, isopropyl vinyl ether, butyl vinyl ether and isobutyl vinyl ether are usually used as industrial solvents and chemical intermediates in the chemical or pharmaceutical industry. Recently, they are popularly used as raw materials for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells and as cellulose dyeing assistants. However, very few investigations about process design and operation data were reported for alkyl vinyl ether compounds and there are no data for propyl vinyl ether(PVE) systems as far as we know. In this work, the isothermal VLE data are reported at 333.15 K for the ternary systems of {PVE + ethanol + benzene} by using headspace gas chromatography(HSGC) and these VLE data were correlated using Wilson, NRTL and UNIQUAC equations. The excess volumes($V^E$) and deviations in molar refractivity(${\Delta}R$) data are also reported for the sub binary systems {PVE + ethanol}, {ethanol + benzene} and {PVE + benzene} at 303.15 K. These data were correlated with Redlich-Kister equation. In addition, isoclines of $V^E$ and DR for ternary system {PVE + ethanol + benzene} were also calculated from Radojkovi equation.

A Study on the Performance Recovery of $H_2S$ Poisoned PEMFC ($H_2S$ 피독 고분자 전해질막 연료전지의 연료극 성능 회복 연구)

  • Lee, Soo;Jin, Seok-Hwan
    • Journal of the Korean Applied Science and Technology
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.102-107
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    • 2012
  • The recovery of a Pt anode in a PEMFC through 30 ppm $H_2S/H_2$ exposure was evaluated by using a cyclic voltametry(CV) scan. First, the PEMFC unit cell performanc loss was measured three times under an anode feeding with 30 ppm $H_2S/H_2$ for 1hr at $0.5A/cm^2$ of current density. The initial cell performance was $1.16A/cm^2$ at 0.6 V without $H_2S$ poisoning. After first poisoning step for 1hr the cell performance was decrease to $0.77A/cm^2$, and the further poisoning steps decreased up 0.57 V. Finally, the recovery of the cell performance of $H_2S$ poisoned PEMFC was achieved up to 90.3% by applying CV scan. Moreover, we also found out that another possible approach for over 80% recovery of the cell performance of $H_2S$ poisoned anode Pt catalyst layer was to just inject fresh hydrogen into the anode feeding stream.

Effects of Calcination Temperature on Characteristics of Electrospun TiO2 Catalyst Supports for PEMFCs (열처리 온도가 전기방사방법을 이용하여 제조한 PEMFC용 TiO2 담체의 물리적 특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Kwon, Chorong;Yoo, Sungjong;Jang, Jonghyun;Kim, Hyoungjuhn;Kim, Jihyun;Cho, Eunae
    • Transactions of the Korean hydrogen and new energy society
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.223-229
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    • 2013
  • Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) is a power generation system to convert chemical energy of fuels and oxidants to electricity directly by electrochemical reactions. As a catalyst support for PEMFCs, carbon black has been generally used due to its large surface area and high electrical conductivity. However, under certain circumstances (start up/shut down, fuel starvation, ice formation etc.), carbon supports are subjected to serve corrosion in the presence of water. Therefore, it would be desirable to switch carbon supports to corrosion-resistive support materials such as metal oxide. $TiO_2$ has been attractive as a support with its stability in fuel cell operation atmosphere, low cost, commercial availability, and the ease to control size and structure. However, low electrical conductivity of $TiO_2$ still inhibits its application to catalyst support for PEMFCs. In this paper, to explore feasibility of $TiO_2$ as a catalyst support for PEMFCs, $TiO_2$ nanofibers were synthesized by electrospinning and calcinated at 600, 700, 800 and $900^{\circ}C$. Effects of calcination temperature on crystal structure and electrical conductivity of electrospun $TiO_2$ nanofibers were examined. Electrical conductivity of $TiO_2$ nanofibers increased significantly with increasing calcination temperature from $600^{\circ}C$ to $700^{\circ}C$ and then increased gradually with increasing the calcination temperature from $700^{\circ}C$ to $900^{\circ}C$. It was revealed that the remarkable increase in electrical conductivity could be attributed to phase transition of $TiO_2$ nanofibers from anatase to rutile at the temperature range from $600^{\circ}C$ to $700^{\circ}C$.

Preparation of CuO-CeO2 mixed oxide catalyst by sol-gel method and its application to preferential oxidation of CO (졸-겔법에 의한 CuO-CeO2 복합 산화물 촉매의 제조 및 CO의 선택적 산화반응에 응용)

  • Hwang, Jae-Young;Hahm, Hyun-Sik
    • Journal of the Korean Applied Science and Technology
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    • v.34 no.4
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    • pp.883-891
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    • 2017
  • For the preferential oxidation of CO contained in the fuel of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC), CuO-$CeO_2$ mixed oxide catalysts were prepared by the sol-gel and co-precipitation methods to replace noble metal catalysts. In the catalyst preparation by the sol-gel method, Cu/Ce ratio and hydrolysis ratio were changed. The catalytic activity of the prepared catalysts was compared with the catalytic activity of the noble metal catalyst($Pt/{\gamma}-Al_2O_3$). Among the catalysts prepared with different Cu/Ce ratios, the catalyst whose Cu/Ce ratio was 4:16 showed the highest CO conversion (90%) and selectivity (60%) at $150^{\circ}C$. As the hydrolysis ratio was increased in the catalyst preparation, surface area increased, and catalytic activity also increased. The highest CO conversions with the CuO-$CeO_2$ mixed oxide catalyst prepared by the co-precipitation method and the noble metal catalyst (1wt% $Pt/{\gamma}-Al_2O_3$) were 82 and 81% at $150^{\circ}C$, respectively, whereas the highest CO conversion with the CuO-$CeO_2$ mixed oxide catalyst prepared by the sol-gel method was 90% at the same temperature. This indicates that the catalyst prepared by the sol-gel method shows higher catalytic activity than the catalysts prepared by the co-precipitation method and the noble metal catalyst. From the CO-TPD experiment, it was found that the catalyst having CO desorption peak at a lower temperature ($140^{\circ}C$) revealed higher catalytic activity.

A Study on Numerical Analysis for Internal PEMFC Cooling of Power Pack for UPS (UPS 파워 팩 내부 연료전지의 냉각특성에 대한 수치 해석)

  • Song, Jun-Seok;Kim, Byeong-Heon
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.527-535
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    • 2017
  • Heat management is one of the most critical issues in Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFCs) installed inside the fuel cell power pack of a fuel cell battery hybrid UPS. If the heat generated by the chemical reaction in the fuel cell is not rapidly removed, the durability and performance of the fuel cell may be affected, which may shorten its lifetime. Therefore, the objective of this study is to select and propose a proper cooling method for the fuel cells used in the fuel cell power pack of a UPS. In order to find the most appropriate cooling method, the various design factors affecting the cooling performance were studied. The numerical analysis was performed by a commercial program, i.e., COMSOL Multiphysics. Firstly, the surface temperature of the 1 kW class fuel cell stack with the cooling fans placed at the top was compared with the one with the cooling fans placed at the bottom. Various rotation speeds of the cooling fan, viz. 2,500, 3,000, 3,500, and 4,000 RPM, were tested to determine the proper cooling fan speed. In addition, the influence of the inhaled air flow rate was investigated by changing the porous area of the grille, which is the entrance of the air flowing from the outside to the inside of the power pack. As a result, it was found that for the operating conditions of the 1 kW class PEMFC to be acceptable, the cooling fan was required to have a minimum rotating speed of 3500 RPM to maintain the fuel cell surface temperature within an acceptable range. The results of this study can be effectively applied to the development of thermal management technology for the fuel cells inside the fuel cell power pack of a UPS.