• Title/Summary/Keyword: Pork belly meat

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A Study of Odorants and Volatiles Released from Pork Belly Meat When Treated by Different Cooking Methods (삼겹살 구이로부터 발생하는 유해물질의 특성 연구)

  • Kim, Bo-Won;Kim, Ki-Hyun;Kim, Yong-Hyun;Ahn, Jeong-Hyeon
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.30 no.3
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    • pp.211-222
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    • 2014
  • Pork belly meat is one of the most preferred food items for many Korean people. The odorants released from cooking of pork belly meat were measured by three kinds of cooking methods (Charcoal-grill (C), Electric Pan (E), and Gas burner-pan (G)). A total of 16 target compounds including carbonyl compounds, volatile organic compounds, and poly aromatic hydrocarbon were selected and analyzed for comparative purposes. Their emission concentrations were quantified using HPLC-UV, GC-MS, GC-TOF-MS, etc. The gas samples collected by Charcoal-grill cooking showed generally enhanced concentrations of most target compounds among all three kinds of cooking methods. In Charcoal-grill, concentration of benzene, formaldehyde and pyrene went up to 543, 516, and 402 ppb, respectively. It the results are compared in terms of the sum of odor intensity, the highest value (4.25) was also seen from Charcoal-grill. The results of this study confirm that the significantly reduced emission of harmful pollutants can be attained, it pork belly meat is cooked by the Gas or electric pan instead of Charcoal-grill.

Measurement of Nanoaerosol Size Distributions and PAHs Detection After Cooking (삼겹살과 고등어 조리시 발생하는 나노입자의 시간과 거리에 따른 크기분포와 PAH 검출)

  • Hahn, Jung Suk;Woo, Chang Gyu;Noh, Seung Ryul;Bae, Yong Jun;Sung, Hyangki;Choi, Man Soo
    • Particle and aerosol research
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    • v.7 no.3
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    • pp.71-77
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    • 2011
  • Pork belly meat and mackerel are popular meals in Korea. Although a lot of people enjoy cooking these food, there have been some reports that generated organic particles during cooking could be thereas on of lung cancer of nonsmoking housewives. In addition, some experiments show that carcinogens may be included in meat and fishes which we eat usually. For this reason, particle size and concentration in formation during cooking are necessary to figure out the relationship between particles and the diseases. Thus, we identify number concentrations and size distributions of generated nano aerosol in cooking with respect to time, hood operation, and distance between cooking and measurement locations. The maximum concentrations of nano aerosol(diameter sizes are between 10 to 700nm)are decreased after the cooking from $8{\times}10^6{\sharp}/cm^3$ to zeroth order in pork belly meat cooking, and from $3.5{\times}{\times}10^6{\sharp}/cm^3$ to zeroth order in mackerel cooking respectively. When it comes to hood operation during cooking, the detected concentrations of generated aerosols are decreased as in taking flow rate of the hood increases. In cooking pork belly meat, the reduced amount of concentration is about $3{\times}10^6{\sharp}/cm^3$ compared to no hood operation, when hood in taking flow rate is $610m^3/hr$ In mackerel cooking, reduced concentration is $6{\times}10^5{\sharp}/cm^3$ in the same condition. Also, Naphthalene and Fluorene, which are known as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), are detected in the generated aerosols during cooking.

A Study on the Source Profile Development for Fine Particles (PM2.5) Emitted from Meat Cooking (고기구이에서 배출되는 미세입자 (PM2.5)의 배출원 구성물질 성분비 개발에 관한 연구)

  • Kang, Byung-Wook;Jeon, Jun-Min;Lee, Hak Sung
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.18-25
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    • 2014
  • This study was performed to develop the source profiles for fine particles ($PM_{2.5}$) emitted from the meat cooking. The characterization of fine particles emitted from beef cooking showed comparably high level of carbon (75%) which mainly composed of OC (73%) and EC (2.3%). Also the level of $K^+$, $Cl^-$, K, Cl, and $Na^+$ has been diagnosed to be relatively high, mainly caused by the Korean spice with sodium component. The cooking of pork showed similar trend to the beef, resulting high level of OC, EC, $K^+$, $Cl^-$, K, Cl, and $Na^+$ as the major components of fine particles. The high proportions of metal's ingredient such as Zn and Pb have been spotted to be 0.463% and 0.386%, respectively. The higher ratio of OC has been collected for raw pork belly meat compared to seasoned meat in respond to presence of fat. The cooking of chicken and duck brought similar data that OC, $K^+$, K, $Cl^-$, Cl, EC, $NO_3{^-}$, and $SO{_4}^{2-}$ were main components of fine particles. The one notable feature is that Zn and Pb showed to be almost absent.

Quality Comparison of Pork Loin and Belly from Three-way Crossbred Pigs during Postmortem Storage

  • Lim, Dong-Gyun;Jo, Cheorun;Cha, Ju-Su;Seo, Kang-Seok;Nam, Ki-Chang
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.34 no.2
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    • pp.185-191
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    • 2014
  • This study was performed to determine the meat quality characteristics of pork loin and belly from 3 different three-way crossbred pigs: Yorkshire ${\times}$ Landrace ${\times}$ Duroc (YLD), Yorkshire ${\times}$ Chester White ${\times}$ Yorkshire (YCY), and Yorkshire ${\times}$ Berkshire ${\times}$ Duroc (YBD). Each of the twenty crossed pigs were randomly selected with their live weights at the range of 110-120 kg. After being slaughtered and cooled at $0^{\circ}C$ for 24 h in a chilling room, the parts of loin and belly on the left side of the cooled carcasses were cut and prepared for analysis. The intramuscular fat contents of the loins from YLD were higher than those of the other crossbreds (p<0.05), and the YCY bellies had the highest moisture contents (p<0.05). Water holding capacity (WHC) of the loins from YCY were higher than the other crossbreds (p<0.05). Shear force values of the YBD loins were higher than the others (p<0.05). The TBARS values of YCY loins were significantly lower than the others at 0 d, but the difference disappeared after 14 d of storage. Sensory scores of YLD were ranked higher than the YCY or YBD in both the loins and bellies (p<0.05). The relatively high sensory values of YLD crossbred pork could be explained by the better WHC, the low shear forces, and the higher fat contents. The results indicated that the meat qualities could be altered by three-way crossbreeding.

Physicochemical Traits, Fatty Acid and Free Amino Acid Compositions of Two-way Crossbred Pork Belly

  • Lim, Dong-Gyun;Kim, Kyung-Tai;Lee, Kyung-Haeng;Seo, Kang-Seok;Nam, Ki-Chang
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.33 no.2
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    • pp.189-197
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    • 2013
  • This study was conducted to determine the meat quality characteristics of pork belly from 3 different two-way crossbreeds of Yorkshire${\times}$Landrace (YL), Yorkshire${\times}$Berkshire (YB), and Yorkshire${\times}$Chester White (YC), which were domesticated for Korean consumers. Twenty pigs from each crossbreed (total n=60) were randomly selected when they reached the 110-120 kg range of market weight, slaughtered, and cooled at $0^{\circ}C$ for 24 h. The pork bellies on the left side of the cooled carcasses were then sampled and analyzed. The pH of pork bellies was the lowest in YC among the crossbreds. There was no significant difference in fat content by crossbred, but YB bellies had the lowest moisture content (p<0.05). The cooking loss of YB bellies was lower than those of others (p<0.05). The TBARS values in YB was significantly higher than those of the others at 14 d. YL bellies had a higher percentage of stearic acid, oleic acid, and MUFA than the other breeds, while YB and YC had a higher percentage of myristic acid, linoleic acid, linolenic acid, and n-6 fatty acids than the YB (p<0.05). PUFA content and P/S were significantly higher in YC compared with YL. Except for arginine, the concentrations of most free amino acids were higher in YB bellies than in others, (p<0.05). Sensory evaluation scores of bellies were higher for YC than for other breeds (p<0.05).

Effect of Cooking Methods with Various Heating Apparatus on the Quality Characteristics of Pork (가열기구에 따른 조리방법이 돼지고기의 품질특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Jeon, Ki-Hong;Kwon, Ki-Hyun;Kim, Eun-Mi;Kim, Young-Boong;Choi, Yun-Sang;Sohn, Dong-In;Choi, Jin-Young
    • Culinary science and hospitality research
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.1-14
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    • 2015
  • Pork belly(PB) and pork shoulder(PS) parts were tested to find out chemical and physical characteristics and sensory evaluation with various cooking methods such as pan heating, boiling, grilling, steaming, charcoal heating, pan heating and double-layer pan filled with phase change material (PCM) cooking. The moisture contents of steamed PB and PS had higher results of 60.2% and 67.2% than other treatments. The highest results of crude fat contents in PB treatments was charcoal roasting as 33.2% (p<0.05) while grilling resulted the highest at 16.0% in the PS (p<0.05). In the crude protein contents, boiling treatment resulted the lowest at 15.4% while steaming was the highest at 18.9% in PB. Also, crude protein content of grilling treatment was 25.2%, a result significantly higher than in other cooking methods in PS. Heating loss, which has a close relationship with water holding capacity, showed the highest result in the charcoal treatment at 40.18% and 39.68% each in the both of PS and PS. In the result of shear force, the lowest result was oven treatment at $2.76kg/cm^2$ in PB (p<0.05) and double-layer pan heating at $3.67kg/cm^2$ in PS (p<0.05). L value in the color test of boiling treatment showed the highest result of 65.16 and 59.72 in the PB and PS respectively (p<0.05), however it scored the lowest of 2.32 in b value in PB (p<0.05). In the 9 point-scale sensory evaluation, grilling treatment showed the highest result of 7.56 in the overall palatability of PB (p<0.05). However, PS in the pan heating which scored 7.22 was the best result while having the lowest score of 5.88 in the boiling treatment (p<0.05).